• List of Articles philosophy

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        1 - Farabi and a Philosophical Reading of al-Huruf
        Ghasem  Purhassan
        The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important ph More
        The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of Farabi, and most of the studies conducted on this book emphasize that it is merely a commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. That is why Farabi’s innovations have been disregarded there. This book is of great importance not only because of its focus on linguistic principles but also because of its discussing the relationships between language and philosophy, religion and philosophy, and everyday language and philosophical language. Here, the writer also reveals the nature of the 200-year conflicts between kalam, philosophy, syntax, and logic in the world of Islam. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze two fundamental principles and evaluate the related views. Therefore, the writer initially attends to the general and philosophical status and writing style of al-Huruf and explains the related ideas. This book is, first and foremost, a reaction to the enemies of philosophy and rationalist trends in understanding religion. Farabi begins the book with linguistic discussions and, then, in the light of his introduction, spells out the intricacies of logical and epistemological theories, and finally clarifies the nature of ontological thoughts. In this book, he discusses how ignoring fundamental linguistic principles could harm ontological and epistemological discussions. He also illustrates how linguistic studies could demystify philosophical principles and grant them more depth and essence. Second, in addition to examining the structure of al-Huruf, the writer tries to explore Farabi’s fundamental doctrine of reconciliation. In doing so, he begins with an analysis of the two schools of Kufa and Basrah and then reviews the mentioned doctrine. In the second part of this book, Farabi demonstrates in two chapters on the unity of philosophy and religion (al-Silah bayn al-falsafah wal millah) that there is no choice but to defend the doctrine of reconciliation. He emphasizes that an irrational religion is nothing but fantasy and maintains that the fundamental principles of religion are based on the intellect and reasoning. In his view, neither Abu Bishr nor Abu Saeid had grasped the significance of this view. Matta Ibn Yunus was not merely a representative of logic and wisdom; rather, he and his companions and advocates relied only on autonomous reasoning, which Farabi found insufficient. In contrast, Abu Saeid was not merely a representative of syntax as advocated by the School of Baghdad, but, in company with several people who defended a purely religious approach, he opposed the role of reason in understanding and justifying religious beliefs. In this book Farabi tries to pose and develop a third theory based on analyzing these two approaches. Manuscript Document
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        2 - foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
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        3 - Rereading Suhrawardi’s Illuminationist Philosophy in the Light of Pierre Hadot’s Philosophical Model: Philosophy as a Way of Life
        Amir Abbas  ‘Alizamani Zahra  Rastakhiz Ghasroaldashti
        Pierre Hadot (1922-2010), the contemporary French philosopher showed the dynamism and true life of philosophy in philosophers’ everyday life through presenting a philosophical model, called Philosophy as a Way of Life, which is the product of his several years of resear More
        Pierre Hadot (1922-2010), the contemporary French philosopher showed the dynamism and true life of philosophy in philosophers’ everyday life through presenting a philosophical model, called Philosophy as a Way of Life, which is the product of his several years of research in the field of ancient philosophy. In this paper, the writers have tried to analyze and interpret Suhrawardi’s Illuminationist philosophy based on this model. Accordingly, in the first part, in addition to introducing the mentioned model, they explain its important elements such as the philosophical language of spiritual practice and its place in studying philosophical schools pursuing spiritual guidance. The second part provides an analysis and interpretation of the Illuminationist philosophy in the framework of this model. Therefore, it initially propounds the basic principles of Suhrawardi’s school regarding light, the hierarchy of lights, the soul and its significance, the world of Ideas and its necessity, epistemology, and ontology. Discussing the fundamental principles of Illuminationist philosophy helps to specify the way of life and its elements and features in this school in relation to the philosophical model of “Philosophy as a Way of Life”. Since Suhrawardi’s Illuminationist philosophy bears a tight unity with gnosis and spiritual wayfaring, it is difficult to perceive it philosophically and to demonstrate its structural coherence in explaining various philosophical problems. Through presenting certain strategies, Hadot’s model enables researchers to develop a coherent and comprehensive perception of the problems propounded in this philosophical-gnostic school and the way of life it advocates. Manuscript Document
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        4 - The Idea of Order in the History of Greek Philosophy: A Study of the Epistemological-Ontological Aspects of Order in Plato’s Political Philosophy
        Abdulrasul  Hasanifar Hamzah  Alimi Cheraghali
        One of the issues which has united the ontological, epistemological, and anthropological dimensions of philosophical thought in the course of history and has continually affected and determined the related social and political directions and general trends is “order”. I More
        One of the issues which has united the ontological, epistemological, and anthropological dimensions of philosophical thought in the course of history and has continually affected and determined the related social and political directions and general trends is “order”. In other words, order enjoys three ontological, epistemological, and anthropological aspects with respect to political life in society and can function as the basis for the interpretation and formation of the history of philosophy. In Greek philosophy, order is one of the philosophical principles which, due to its influence over different schools of philosophy and philosophers during the whole history of philosophical thought, enjoys an important and unique role and status. The issue of order in Platonic philosophy proved to be a turning point in this regard. Accordingly, in this paper it has been tried to explore the philosophical concept of order from its epistemological, ontological, and anthropological aspects in the history of Greek philosophy ,in general, and in Platonic philosophy, in particular. The writers have also aimed to demonstrate its influence and directive role in Plato’s political philosophy. Therefore, following an analytic-descriptive method, they firstly cast a historical glance at the concept of order in the works of pre-Platonic thinkers. Then they investigate his general philosophy and, particularly, his political philosophy with respect to the above-mentioned dimensions while emphasizing his desirable political and educational systems based on his idea of order. Their findings indicate that a philosophical thought based on order might begin with a mythological and naturalist view; nevertheless, with the later development of human thought, it shifts its attention to a kind of order with mathematical, cosmological, and metaphysical tendencies. Following this process, the Platonic natural and mathematical view of order unites with a divine and virtuous view of order. Consequently, as both the context and basis of other virtues and also as the ultimate goal of philosophy, it develops a political-social form in connection with law. Manuscript Document
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        5 - foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
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        6 - The Criterion for Detecting the Problems of Prime Philosophy and the Extent of Islamic Philosophers’ Commitment to them
        Mansour  Imanpour
        The main question advanced in this paper is as follows: Which specific criterion is used to distinguish the problems of prime philosophy from each other. Another related question here is whether Islamic philosophers really employ this criterion or not. A review of the w More
        The main question advanced in this paper is as follows: Which specific criterion is used to distinguish the problems of prime philosophy from each other. Another related question here is whether Islamic philosophers really employ this criterion or not. A review of the works of Greek philosophers, particularly Aristotle, indicates that Aristotle’s words regarding the subject of prime philosophy are diverse and divided. It also reveals that the problems of prime philosophy have not been inferred and formulated with reference to a specific subject in an organized manner. In spite of the entrance of Greek philosophy and all its concomitants into the world of Islam, Islamic philosophers, especially Ibn Sina, tried to explain the subject of prime philosophy and its problems, dissect the relationship between them, and provide a criterion for distinguishing philosophical problems from the problems of other sciences. They often considered the subject of prime philosophy to be existent qua existent and assumed that its problems include predicates which are deemed to be among the essential accidents of pure existents. Therefore, the main criterion for identifying the problems of prime philosophy and distinguishing them from each other was introduced as follows: the predicates of those problems had to be essential accidents for absolute existents. Nevertheless, in reality, these philosophers discussed some problems the predicates of which did not follow this rule. A study of the works of Aristotle and Islamic philosophers reveals that the secret of this ambiguity is hidden in an approach according to which they firstly divided theoretical sciences into three categories: natural sciences, mathematics, and prime philosophy. Then, in reality, they transferred the problems that could not be discussed in the other two sciences to the domain of prime philosophy while the equivalence of their predicates with essential accidents for existent qua existent were questionable. The present paper aims to analyze and explain the above claims in detail based on reliable documents and arguments and disclose the main reason behind the lack of conformity between the problems and the subject of prime philosophy in the history of Islamic philosophy. Manuscript Document
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        7 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
        Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
        The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of More
        The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript Document
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        8 - Principle of the Identity of Quiddity and Existence in the Truth in Islamic Tradition and Greek Philosophy
        Huda  Habibimanesh Shamsollah  Seraj
        The problem of the identity of existence and quiddity in Almighty Necessary has been referred to as the identity of existence and quiddity in the Truth in the works of Muslim philosophers and is dealt with as a philosophical principle. The great figures of Islamic philo More
        The problem of the identity of existence and quiddity in Almighty Necessary has been referred to as the identity of existence and quiddity in the Truth in the works of Muslim philosophers and is dealt with as a philosophical principle. The great figures of Islamic philosophy have provided different interpretations of this principle and derived various consequences from it. Undoubtedly, the ideas of Greek philosophers and the teachings of Islam have played a significant role in the development of this principle by Muslim philosophers. The present paper intends to analyze the roots and origins of this principle, and it appears that a conceptual analysis of the technical terms used there could help researchers to derive better and more profound conclusions from this principle. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
        A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
        Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir More
        Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document
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        10 - Origin of Islamic Philosophy
        Ghasem  Purhassan
        The question of the nature of Islamic philosophy has triggered an extremely important conflict over a very long time. The quality of dealing with this question can play a determining role in our approach towards Islamic philosophy. Generally speaking, there are three ap More
        The question of the nature of Islamic philosophy has triggered an extremely important conflict over a very long time. The quality of dealing with this question can play a determining role in our approach towards Islamic philosophy. Generally speaking, there are three approaches in this regard each deserving due attention and critical analysis. The first approach emphasizes the Greek origin of Islamic philosophy and considers it to be the extension of a philosophy which is called the Greek tradition. Advocates of this approach claim that all the philosophical trends in all periods have originated in or been influenced by Greek philosophy and must be studied in the light of the theory of linear continuity. According to this view, the assumption that rational thought has its origins in Iran, India, or China and also Babylon and Mesopotamia or Egypt is not much valid. The second approach insists that Islamic philosophy has no referent at all. The followers of this approach believe that, basically, all religious philosophies lack any kind of referent. They maintain that if we believe in Islamic philosophy, we will encounter some intricacies such as sacredness, contradiction, text interpretation, and the lack of growth and expansion of philosophy. This group claims that if we support the existence of Islamic philosophy, it would necessarily entail sacredness, and then any criticism of this kind of philosophy would be equal to a criticism of religion. However, this necessity is false. Regarding the problem of contradiction, it is claimed that it is not possible to reconcile the Qur’anic and traditional view of philosophy with that of the Greeks. Hence, the Greek view of happiness is in contrast to the Qur’anic one. The third approach emphasizes that Islamic philosophy is the expansion of Greek philosophy, and if we fail to provide a correct interpretation of their commensurability, we can never present a correct explanation of the nature of Islamic philosophy and its essential differences from Greek philosophy. That the number of philosophical problems in Greece was limited to 200 but increased to 700 during the Islamic period does not by itself provide a correct description of the nature of Islamic philosophy. Neither can it justify the Islamic nature of this kind of philosophy or defend it convincingly. The main point here is that the origin of Islamic philosophy is not Greek philosophy; rather, it is rooted in the Qur’anic verses, prophetic traditions, and religious prayers and texts. One cannot discuss the religious origin of Islamic philosophy based on the theory of the expansion of philosophical problems. There is a fundamental difference between a theory which considers Islamic philosophy to be rooted in Greece and limits the efforts of Muslim philosophers merely to increasing the number of philosophical topics and problems or adding variety to the related arguments or modifying or increasing them and a theory which asserts that Muslims, before becoming familiar with Greek philosophy, had already turned to rational thought. In doing so, they gradually set out to benefit from the philosophical knowledge of other nations and countries, particularly and mainly from that of Iranians, Indians, and Greeks. Therefore, the present paper intends to demonstrate that Islamic philosophy is rooted in the Qur’an and traditions. Manuscript Document
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        11 - Theory of Continuity in Stoic Physics
        Mohammad Javad  Esmaeili Sina  Masheyekhi
        This paper investigates the theory of continuity in Stoic physics based on some concepts such as pneuma (the soul), hexis (disposition), and tonos (tension) and refers to its consequences. Moreover, it demonstrates that Stoic philosophers have provided an organized anal More
        This paper investigates the theory of continuity in Stoic physics based on some concepts such as pneuma (the soul), hexis (disposition), and tonos (tension) and refers to its consequences. Moreover, it demonstrates that Stoic philosophers have provided an organized analysis of the relationships among the animate and inanimate components of nature. This issue in Stoic physics is based on the theory of lack of vacuum in nature and its component parts. This theory connects the active elements in nature – God and the rational faculty – with the passive elements – non-organic nature. Therefore, through an analysis of the natural principles of Stoic philosophy, this paper initially explains the active element in physics, i.e. pneuma, and its various forms in nature including: a) its highest form or the rational faculty in human beings; b) its weaker form or hexis in the non-organic nature. Then it deals with the concept of continuity based on pneuma and demonstrates it empirically. Finally, it compares the theory of continuity based on Muslim philosophers’ interpretation of Stoic philosophy. Manuscript Document
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        12 - The Purple Philosopher: Life, Thoughts, and Writings of Porphyry
        Mehdi  ‘Azimi
        Porphyry or porphyries (meaning clad in purple) is the name of one of the most prominent exponents of Neo-Platonic Philosophy. Both the philosopher himself and his school exercised an undeniable influence over Islamic philosophy in the past. His doctrine of the five uni More
        Porphyry or porphyries (meaning clad in purple) is the name of one of the most prominent exponents of Neo-Platonic Philosophy. Both the philosopher himself and his school exercised an undeniable influence over Islamic philosophy in the past. His doctrine of the five universals can be seen in the preface of all logical books of the Islamic period in a more analytic and extensive fashion. His theory of the union of the intellect and the intelligible was first degraded by Ibn Sina and then accepted and expanded by Mulla Sadra. Becoming God-like as the end of ethics was a doctrine which Porphyry had borrowed from his master Plotinus, and which Muslim thinkers unanimously accepted. Moreover, a taint of Porphyry’s belief in transmigration can be observed in some of the words of Farabi and Ibn Sina. However, both of them rejected the Greeks’ idea of transmigration. Porphyry placed logic at the top of the educational system of the Neo-Platonic School, which influenced Muslim Neo-Platonists’ attention to logic. He believed in the fundamental agreement between Plato, Aristotle, and perennial philosophy, both of which clearly affected Farabi’s ideas in particular. Manuscript Document
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        13 - The Body-Soul Relation in the Transcendent Philosophy and Ibn Arabi’s School
        Mohammad  Miri
        There are several similarities between the philosophical view of the Transcendent Philosophy and the gnostic view of Ibn Arabi’s school of the quality of the body-soul relation. Both of them, based on certain considerations, believe in the oneness of the body and soul. More
        There are several similarities between the philosophical view of the Transcendent Philosophy and the gnostic view of Ibn Arabi’s school of the quality of the body-soul relation. Both of them, based on certain considerations, believe in the oneness of the body and soul. At the same time, while accepting the existence of a huge gap between the rational soul and corporeal body, they emphasize that the existence of the steam-like spirit is not enough to establish the body-soul relation and argue that the existence of an Ideal body and level, which stands between the steam-like spirit and rational soul, is necessary for this relation to be realized. Accordingly, based on the views of both schools, the intellectual and rational soul possesses three bodies which appear alongside each other vertically. That is, it first belongs to the Ideal body, then to the steam-like spirit, and then to corporeal body. In other words, the rational soul administers the corporeal body through two intermediaries, namely, the Ideal body and the steam-like spirit. Moreover, both the Transcendent Philosophy and Ibn Arabi’s school explain the place of the rational soul, Ideal body, steam-like spirit, and corporeal body as the levels of the microcosm and the correspondence of each with the levels of macrocosm based on the principle of the “correspondence of macrocosm and microcosm”. Manuscript Document
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        14 - Transition from Intellectual Philosophy to Esoteric Wisdom in the Ideas of Ikhwan al-Safa (An Analysis of Early Encounters of Muslim Thinkers with Philosophy)
        Hasan  Bolkhari Qehi
        The present paper initially discusses and explores the early applications of philosophical terms and their meanings in Islamic culture. Then it clarifies the dominant approach followed by those Muslim thinkers who try to reconcile Shari‘ah with philosophy through using More
        The present paper initially discusses and explores the early applications of philosophical terms and their meanings in Islamic culture. Then it clarifies the dominant approach followed by those Muslim thinkers who try to reconcile Shari‘ah with philosophy through using an acceptable concept in religion by resorting to the term hikmah (which is a purely Qur’anic term). This is an approach which managed to result in a kind of esoteric wisdom between the second and fourth centuries (AH) through employing such concepts as t’awil (interpretation) in the Qur’an and promoting the interest in piety and gnosis. Ikhwan al-Safa, who exercised a huge influence on the development of wisdom and philosophy in Islamic culture, are among the pioneers of the above approach. By composing a corpus of 54 Epistles, called Rasa’il, they took a great stride towards reconciling Shari‘ah with philosophy and explaining the concept of wisdom and, particularly, Batini wisdom. Here, following an analytic-historical approach, the writer performs a conceptual analysis of the two terms of philosophy and wisdom during the first period of the rise of philosophical thought in Islamic civilization. Besides, he deliberates on the efforts of Ikhwan al-Safa in order to reach a kind of esoteric wisdom, which is a synthesis of a completely philosophical and, at the same time, Qur’anic (and narrative) approach. This was an approach which inevitably advocated the unity of religion and philosophy in order to demonstrate such a synthesis. Manuscript Document
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        15 - School of Vedanta and Non-Dualism
        Ali Naqi  Baqershahi
        Vedanta is the most original Indian philosophical school which has borrowed its basic principles from Upanishads and emphasizes non-dualism. Indian historians have divided the history of this school into three periods: Pre-Shankara, Shankara, and Post-Shankara. In the f More
        Vedanta is the most original Indian philosophical school which has borrowed its basic principles from Upanishads and emphasizes non-dualism. Indian historians have divided the history of this school into three periods: Pre-Shankara, Shankara, and Post-Shankara. In the first period, some figures such as Badarayana and Gaudapada emerged and laid the foundation for Vedanta philosophy. In the second period, Shankara expanded this school and played a significant role in spreading and disseminating it. During the third period, Ramanuja presented a different interpretation of non-dualism and the notion of Ultimate Reality based on his own critical views and pushed the borderlines of this school even further. Generally speaking, each of the founders and interpreters of Vedanta philosophy explained and expanded this school based on their own philosophical tastes and views and tried to enrich it more than ever before. However, the important point here is that all of them were unanimous regarding the notion of non-dualism. Of course, they had some serious disagreements concerning certain issues, which can also be seen among their advocates. Some of the contemporary Indian thinkers, such as Rabindranath Tagore tried to reconcile their ideas with each other in some way. Vedanta has also influenced contemporary Indian philosophers and artists to such a great extent that their worldview has been completely affected by this school. In the present paper, the writer traces the historical development of the school of Vedanta and explores its relationship with non-dualism. Manuscript Document
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        16 - Background of the Cartesian Distinction in Islamic Philosophy and Kalam
        Mahdi  Assadi
        This paper intends to demonstrate that the traces of the epistemological criterion for Cartesian distinction existed previously in Islamic philosophy and kalam. Hence, the writer initially refers to Descartes’ views and follows their traces in the ideas of early Muslim More
        This paper intends to demonstrate that the traces of the epistemological criterion for Cartesian distinction existed previously in Islamic philosophy and kalam. Hence, the writer initially refers to Descartes’ views and follows their traces in the ideas of early Muslim scholars. Then he refers to the views of some Muslim thinkers such as Fakhr al-Din Razi, ‘Allamah Hilli, Taftazani, and Mulla Sadra, who were already involved in this discussion more than others and propounded more solid and plausible theories in this regard. They have sometimes reviewed the same informed theories critically before some of the critiques of Descartes. In this way, the author reveals that Islamic thinkers’ interpretation of the Cartesian distinction is closer to Hume’s more solid interpretation of this notion than to that of Descartes himself. Hume states that clarity and distinction result in possible existence rather than the very existence of the researchers. Manuscript Document
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        17 - A Critical Study of the Ideas concerning the Islamicity of Islamic Philosophy
        Mansur  Imanpour
        Today, one of the questions raised regarding Islamic philosophy is what is meant by Islamic philosophy and why this philosophy is described by the attribute “Islamic”. Several contradictory ideas have been put forward in response to this question. Some believe that this More
        Today, one of the questions raised regarding Islamic philosophy is what is meant by Islamic philosophy and why this philosophy is described by the attribute “Islamic”. Several contradictory ideas have been put forward in response to this question. Some believe that this philosophy is basically the same Greek philosophy, and it is unjustified to add to it the adjectives of “Arabic” and “Islamic”. Some others have reduced it to Islamic theology and kalam because of its supporting Islamic beliefs; nevertheless, there are many thinkers and researchers who believe in the truth and realization of this philosophy and its Islamic nature. These researchers are divided into two major groups: one group maintain that the title of “Islamic” has only a formal sense and argue that this school is called “Islamic philosophy” because it grew and was expanded in Islamic countries by Muslim philosophers and under the rule of Islamic governments. The other group, however, believe that this denomination is due to the nature and content of this philosophy and have provided different ideas in this regard. Some of the great figures of this group believe that, the reason for this denomination is that some of the issues and problems of this school are rooted in Islamic teachings, and some others are at the service of demonstrating these teachings. Some other thinkers also view the well-documented belief of the advocates of this philosophy in the existence of Almighty Necessary and Shar‘i and divine oneness as the main reason for calling it Islamic (in its general sense) philosophy. There are still others who introduce this philosophy as the same prophetic philosophy derived from the Book and Sunnah. The present paper, after explaining and analyzing the above views, concludes that Islamic philosophy is the birth child of the living interaction between Greek and Iranian philosophy and thought and Islamic culture and civilization. Through adhering to philosophical subjects, frameworks, and methods, this school is influenced by Islamic worldview and teachings in many respects. In fact, any kind of limitation in this regard and concentration on certain directions will inevitably lead to the fallacy of essence and aspect. Manuscript Document
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        18 - Interdisciplinary Components of the Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Wisdom and Philosophy: Introducing a New method for Compiling the History of Philosophy and Reviewing the Present Method of Historiography in Iran
        Reza  Mahuzi Maryam  Soleimani Fard
        The Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Philosophy, affiliated with the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute and the Scientific Society of the History of Philosophy has brought a great number of researchers together since 2005 in order to compile a co More
        The Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Philosophy, affiliated with the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute and the Scientific Society of the History of Philosophy has brought a great number of researchers together since 2005 in order to compile a comprehensive history of wisdom and philosophy in Iran and in the world in the light of cultural and social events and incidents. The general policy dominating the process of compiling the history of philosophy here dictates a collaborative and cooperative activity in which a number of professors and authorities in the fields of archaeology, linguistics, history, art, gnosis, religion, and philosophy are participating. The present paper firstly analyzes the rules and principles governing the interdisciplinary approach in the field of science and highlights its differences from the disciplinary approach. Then, based on the documents published by this Center, it presents a picture of researchers’ group work in conformity with the norms of the interdisciplinary approach and portrays and judges their present and future activities. Finally, based on the nature of this approach and the scientific expectations it arouses, the writers make some recommendations to the researchers and professors involved in this huge project. Manuscript Document
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        19 - Doxography Tradition of Ancient Greek Philosophers (with Reference to Hermann Diels’ View)
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Behnaz  Aqili Dehkordi
        In the sixth century BC, pre-Socratic philosophers introduced different research methods in the realms of science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific treatises, and presented the basic concepts in the process of deduction. However, we do not have access to any of More
        In the sixth century BC, pre-Socratic philosophers introduced different research methods in the realms of science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific treatises, and presented the basic concepts in the process of deduction. However, we do not have access to any of their independent works except for some extracts which have been quoted in the works of post-Socratic scholars. Nevertheless, this method lacks the required efficiency in understanding and evaluating the words of pre-Socratic scientists at all times. Hermann Alexander Diels presented a new method of doxography in his book of Doxographi Graeci (Greek Doxographers). He returned the tradition of doxography to the one adopted in a book by Theophrastus, who was a student of Aristotle. Diels’ method was criticized by later scientists, such as Mansfield. Based on his critique, the effects of Sufists’ ideas, Aristotle’s theory of edited collections and books of principles, tradition of genealogy writing, and commentators’ glosses on the formation of doxographical texts have not been much appreciated in Diels’ method. Manuscript Document
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        20 - Historical Roots of the Concept and Referent of Prime Matter and the First Emanated in Greek Philosophy
        ali haghi Abbas  Javareshkian Hossein   Bulkhari Ghahi
        Undoubtedly, the history of philosophy follows a continuous and successive process of development in the course of human life. Although inventions and new problems and topics have always been witnessed and warmly welcomed in this field, they have never interrupted the c More
        Undoubtedly, the history of philosophy follows a continuous and successive process of development in the course of human life. Although inventions and new problems and topics have always been witnessed and warmly welcomed in this field, they have never interrupted the continuous process of development of thought in the realm of philosophy. In fact, philosophy, which is the most illuminating dimension of human intellection on the history of thoughts, is responsible for the rational explanation of the most important issues in human life. Undoubtedly, one of the most important of all of them is clarifying the relationship between the Creator or Maker of the world and existents and creatures. Now, if we consider the rise of philosophy in Greece as a crucial event in the history of philosophy, the quality of the philosophical approach to prime matter and, then, the issue of the first emanated are viewed as two of the most significant and fascinating topics in this field. Following an analytic approach, the writers have tried to study the historical background of the first emanated in the history of Islamic philosophy (intellect as the first creation) with reference to Greek philosophy in this regard. The writers assume that the history of philosophy in Islamic civilization has been developed by deliberating over some Greek thoughts and has established the foundation of its own philosophical structure through a profound review of philosophical resources, such as the Qur’an and traditions, as the absolute center of this enterprise. Manuscript Document
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        21 - Explaining the Theory of Meta-History in Henry Corbin’s Philosophy
        Seyed Ali  Alamolhoda Marziyeh  Akhlaghi Naser  Mohamadi Hasan  Seyedarab
        Henry Corbin (1903-1978), the French philosopher, is the first western interpreter of Suhrawardi’s philosophy. His thoughts are focused on the fields of t’awil (esoteric interpretation), phenomenology, and the theory of meta-history. The present study aims to explain an More
        Henry Corbin (1903-1978), the French philosopher, is the first western interpreter of Suhrawardi’s philosophy. His thoughts are focused on the fields of t’awil (esoteric interpretation), phenomenology, and the theory of meta-history. The present study aims to explain and examine this theory and its impact on Corbin’s study of Iranian-Islamic philosophy and gnosis. In the realm of theoretical studies of history, the philosophy of history derives from philosophical studies and, accordingly, investigates history and historical events and incidents. In Corbin’s view, it is not possible to investigate the reporting of the history of philosophy based on the theory of the philosophy of history because one cannot describe historical events based on cause-effect relationships. Corbin’s view in this regard is rooted in theology. In fact, he has employed a theological approach in order to interpret the relationship between history and human beings; the philosophical periods of ancient Iran; Islamic philosophy and, particularly, the philosophical school of Suhrawardi (540-587 AH), and gnosis. He has attributed the issues related to the mentioned fields to the world of Ideas. Corbin benefitted from the theories of Edmund Husserl (1859-1928) and Martin Heidegger (1889-1996) in order to pose the theory of meta-history. The present paper is a first attempt at examining and analyzing Henry Corbin’s theory of meta-history. Manuscript Document
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        22 - Foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        Comperative Philosophy
        Comperative Philosophy Manuscript Document
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        23 - An Introduction to the Philosophy of History of Philosophy
        Masoud  Omid
        Although the discipline of history of philosophy and the related questions existed in the past, they have greatly occupied the minds of philosophers during the last two centuries. Some of the important questions in the field of the history of philosophy include the foll More
        Although the discipline of history of philosophy and the related questions existed in the past, they have greatly occupied the minds of philosophers during the last two centuries. Some of the important questions in the field of the history of philosophy include the following: what is the meaning and nature of history of philosophy? What is its station of confirmation and demonstration? Is history of philosophy a perfect field or it is still in the process of development and expansion? What is the relationship between us and history of philosophy or what should it be like? Is this field the same as history or philosophy or of the type of philosophy? What is the difference between the history of philosophy and the history of science, religion, art, or the like? Due to the increasing attention to the problems related to the history of philosophy (in Iran and in the world), the present paper is intended to deal with some issues in relation to history of philosophy while discussing it in a framework entitled the philosophy of history of philosophy. In the past, philosophers referred to the theoretical philosophy of history and the philosophy of the science of history; however, it seems that it is now the right time to discuss the philosophy of the history of philosophy. The most fundamental themes which are propounded in this paper regarding this field include the place of philosophy of history of philosophy in various schools of philosophy and the possibility, necessity, and desirability of this field of knowledge. Finally, it appears that the philosophy of history of philosophy can be considered to be a branch of related philosophical fields, and it can even be offered as a new course at universities. Manuscript Document
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        24 - Role of Christianity in the Return of Greek Philosophy to the Sassanid Iran
        Zahra  Abdi
        The present paper explores the role of Christianity in the transfer of Greek sciences, particularly philosophy, to Iran during the Sassanid period. Initially, Christianity enjoyed a brotherly and cooperative nature; however, later, in order to consolidate the status of More
        The present paper explores the role of Christianity in the transfer of Greek sciences, particularly philosophy, to Iran during the Sassanid period. Initially, Christianity enjoyed a brotherly and cooperative nature; however, later, in order to consolidate the status of theology and teaching it, Christian teachers and saints had to use a philosophical system, which they adapted from Greek philosophers, including Plato, Aristotle, and their followers, such as neo-Platonists. Some innovative branches of Christianity such as Monophysites and Nestorians began teaching their theoretical theology based on certain philosophical ideas. Moreover, the Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia, who were mainly Nestorian, translated the works of Plato, Aristotle, and neo-Platonists into Syriac in their schools so that, while teaching philosophy, they could use them in their own religious field. The emigration of these groups to Iran, whether as refugees or captives, resulted in the transfer of Greek sciences to Iran. In this paper, the writer has discussed the above issues based on library resources and following the descriptive-analytic method. Manuscript Document
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        25 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
        Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
        One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei More
        One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript Document
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        26 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
        Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
        One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech More
        One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript Document
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        27 - A Study of the Fundamental Principles and Elements of Comparative Philosophy in Izutsu’s Philosophy
        Hamidreza Eskandari Ghasem  Purhassan
        Due to the dominance of the theory of analogy and Henry Corbin’s phenomenological approach, comparative philosophy has not yet been properly explored. In Iran, no reference has ever been made to Toshihiko Izutsu and his meta-historical theory, and no study has ever been More
        Due to the dominance of the theory of analogy and Henry Corbin’s phenomenological approach, comparative philosophy has not yet been properly explored. In Iran, no reference has ever been made to Toshihiko Izutsu and his meta-historical theory, and no study has ever been conducted in this regard. Izutsu’s meta-historical view is a fundamental departure from Paul Masson-Oursel’s approach and even historicism. However, it is considered to be an innovative view which demands more accurate deliberation. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to explore the elements and fundamental principles of comparative philosophy in Izutsu’s thoughts. In doing so, the authors have examined the importance and place of Izutsu in comparative philosophy, the nature of comparative philosophy, the necessity and possibility of comparative philosophy, and Europe-centeredness in Izutsu’s philosophy. They aim to clarify how one can discover the necessity and possibility of comparative philosophy based on his principles and, at the same time, remain immune against the criticisms advanced against other comparative philosophical approaches. Manuscript Document
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        28 - History of Philosophy and its Models
        Masoud  Omid
        Could the history of philosophy be viewed in the light of models? The author of this paper believes that a deliberation over the history of philosophy can reveal the traces of certain models for philosophizing. A model for philosophizing in its general sense indicates a More
        Could the history of philosophy be viewed in the light of models? The author of this paper believes that a deliberation over the history of philosophy can reveal the traces of certain models for philosophizing. A model for philosophizing in its general sense indicates an allegorical mould based on which and within the framework of which a philosopher formulates his philosophy and his method of philosophizing. Accordingly, one can provide a general classification for all models of history of philosophy and then explain each of them. Based on the trend of the development of history of philosophy and the activities of philosophers, the models of philosophizing can be divided into three neutral, positivist, and negativist groups in general. The mirror (reflective) and narrative (iterative) models can be placed in the neutral category. However, the positivist models themselves can be divided into two mechanical and organic groups. The encyclopedic models fall under the first group, while the mathematical-tree (Descartes) models, mathematical-geometrical (Spinoza), puzzle-like models (Hume), architectural models (Kant), dialectic architectural models (Hegel), universalist organic architectural models (Schopenhauer), phenomenological architectural models (Heidegger in Being and Time) and logical architectural models (early Wittgenstein) belong to the second group. The therapeutic model (late Wittgenstein) and post-modern philosophies can be categorized under negativist models. Manuscript Document
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        29 - Heraclitus, Ethics, and Knowledge
        Majid  Mollayousefi Maryam  Samadieh
        Heraclitus was one of the important pre-Socratic philosophers who had some scattered notes on ethics. In order to understand his ethical views, in addition to referring to his existing notes, it is necessary to pay attention to the context in which his philosophy was fo More
        Heraclitus was one of the important pre-Socratic philosophers who had some scattered notes on ethics. In order to understand his ethical views, in addition to referring to his existing notes, it is necessary to pay attention to the context in which his philosophy was formed. Heraclitus was under the influence of two traditions of his time. The first was the influence of Homer and early poets and philosophers, such as Solon, Bias of Priene, and the like, who were distinctively characterized by believing in human-like Gods or anthropomorphism. The other was the influence of a new scientific and technical tradition which was developed during the same century in Miletus under the influence of some figures such as Thales and Anaximander, who were mainly concerned with cosmology, that is, an understanding of the quality of the creation, survival and, finally, annihilation of the world order. In fact, Heraclitus’s philosophy can be viewed as a bridge between these two different traditions. Since he considered the world order and human order to be the same, it can be said that his main purpose and concern was explaining the status of human beings in the physical world and not the physical world itself. The ethics of Heraclitus, similar to those of other ancient Greek philosophers, described a kind of ethics of virtue, the core of which comprised virtue and happiness. In the field of virtue, he dealt with both moral virtues and intellectual virtues. Regarding moral virtues, through distinguishing bodily joys from non-bodily joys, he ultimately rejected excessive acts and introduced moderation in joys as the criterion for human behavior. With respect to intellectual virtues, Heraclitus also relied on the knowledge of wisdom and acknowledged that wisdom does not simply mean to have vast knowledge; rather, it means a kind of conscious and well-scrutinized knowledge which conforms to logos. As a result, he mainly emphasized intellectual rather than ethical virtues. Finally, he viewed man’s happiness a result of knowing and behaving in line with logos. Manuscript Document
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        30 - An Analysis of the Philosophical Principles of Anthropology in Ancient Egyptian Philosophy
        Mohammad Hossein Madad Elahee Hossein  Zamaniha
        The Greeks were familiar with Egyptian culture long before Thales in the 6th century BC and greatly benefitted from their teachings particularly in the field of mathematics. Recent studies in the realm of philosophy also indicate that Thales had a thorough knowledge of More
        The Greeks were familiar with Egyptian culture long before Thales in the 6th century BC and greatly benefitted from their teachings particularly in the field of mathematics. Recent studies in the realm of philosophy also indicate that Thales had a thorough knowledge of ancient Egyptian philosophy and was influenced by it in developing his own philosophical views. In ancient Egyptian philosophy, in spite of resorting to myths in order to analyze and explain the truths of the world, there are also some traces of philosophical thought in its particular sense. For example, there are some traces of pure philosophical thought in the realms of ontology, politics, sociology, and anthropology. This kind of philosophical thought is formed based on the profound and multi-dimensional concept of ma’at. This word means order in the field of ontology, justice in the field of politics and sociology, and honesty in the field of anthropology. Within the domain of anthropology, ancient Egyptians specifically believed that Man’s existence has nine grades and dimensions which enjoy a kind of unity among themselves. What has led to the final emergence of such grades, particularly the last grade called thought, and, thus, Man’s eternity, is following ma’at or the laws governing the order of being. Accordingly, they establish a tight relationship between their ontology and anthropology. Manuscript Document
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        31 - Philoponus and the Development of his Philosophical Thoughts
        Farhad Assadi    
        Philoponus, the neo-Platonic Alexandrian philosopher of later periods, had become so knowledgeable in most sciences of his period that some gave him the nickname of all-knower (‘allamah). However, this was not the only distinctive feature of this thinker of Alexandrian More
        Philoponus, the neo-Platonic Alexandrian philosopher of later periods, had become so knowledgeable in most sciences of his period that some gave him the nickname of all-knower (‘allamah). However, this was not the only distinctive feature of this thinker of Alexandrian school. His philosophical thoughts underwent such massive fluctuations that some have praised his courage in criticizing and rejecting the views of his predecessors at the level of a hero and considered him as the forerunner of critical thinking, while some others have introduced him as a coward and greedy thinker who, for fear of his life and love of material things, yielded to the coercions of the Christian-Roman government and gave up his own philosophical achievements. The present paper aims to unveil the secret character of this philosopher with reference to the invaluable works of contemporary researchers and take a step, however small, in providing a profound and correct understanding of the development of philosophical thought in the history of philosophy. One of the cases that the writers highlight in this paper is the quality of the interactions between the Alexandrian school and the powerful Christian government. During this period, the context was provided for the growth and development of a number of philosophers and commentators, such as Philoponus, who disseminated Aristotelian philosophy. However, the most important achievement of this paper is probably an investigation of Philoponus’ critical approach to the views of Aristotle and his predecessors as well as a comparative study of his most important philosophical views during two periods of his academic activities. Here, the authors focus on some of his opposing and sometimes contradictory views which created great debates in their own time and exercised particular impact on the development of philosophical thought, including Islamic philosophy, in different societies. Manuscript Document
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        32 - Kant and History of Philosophy: Perspectives and Main Points
        Masoud  Omid
        Investigating the history of philosophy and philosophers’ views of it are of great significance because the most important source of philosophy and philosophizing is the same field of the history of philosophy. The trend of modern philosophy, whether in the mould of rat More
        Investigating the history of philosophy and philosophers’ views of it are of great significance because the most important source of philosophy and philosophizing is the same field of the history of philosophy. The trend of modern philosophy, whether in the mould of rationalism or empiricism, has generally been developed without acknowledging the need for history of philosophy, without making it the center of discussion, and without having a particular historical perspective in this respect. For example, in order to develop his philosophy, Descartes merely focused on the thinker’s capacity and the endless world. Empiricists have also tried to have a share of the knowledge of human nature and the world of qualities and quantities through experimentation. However, when it comes to Kant, at the beginning of his book, Critique of Pure Reason, he focuses on the possibilities of human knowledge, while he finishes this work with a section entitled “History of Pure Reason”. Even the opening section and some of his words in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics reflect certain perspectives and points concerning the history of philosophy. Therefore, it can be said that he was, to some extent, interested in the history of philosophy and even believed that he owed the development and consolidation of his philosophy to perceiving the nature and history of metaphysics and the related sciences and teachings. Kant found out that it would be impossible to understand the nature of philosophy or conduct philosophical inquiries and discoveries without first studying the history of metaphysics and other philosophical and empirical sciences. The rise of subject and its transcendental nature would have also been impossible without considering the history of philosophy and sciences and following a historical approach regarding systematic human sciences. However, Kant did not deal with the history of philosophy by itself; rather, he focused on the history of philosophical studies. Moreover, even at this point, the relation of the history of philosophical studies or a historical approach to the definition, restriction, and specification of subject is not of a constitutive knowledge-producing type; rather, it can be of a regulatory functional type. The history of philosophical studies could function as a guiding principle for philosophical understanding and work and highlight the signs and traces of the subject. Nevertheless, it cannot, by itself, define or create the subject, for Kantian subject has a historical aspect but is not a historical entity. In other words, the subject is a historian, perspectivist, and history-bound but is not of a historical nature. The history of philosophy is the occurrence condition of the subject and not its transcendental condition. The transcendental conditions of the subject are internal and included in its definition rather than being external, historical, and accidental. The present paper examines Kantian views of the history of philosophy in order to reveal this neglected and hidden aspect of his philosophy. In doing so, it explores some problems such as the meaning and definition of history of philosophy, history of interest in philosophy, end of history of philosophy, difference and similarity between history of philosophy and history of science, classification of history of philosophy, the relationship between philosophy and history of philosophy, the relationship between the philosophy of history and history of philosophy, and the like from Kant’s point of view. Manuscript Document
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        33 - Foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        Islamic Philosophy, Arabic Philosophy, Orientalism
        Islamic Philosophy, Arabic Philosophy, Orientalism Manuscript Document
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        34 - Hakim Sabziwari’s Impact on the School of Tehran: Continuity of the Qajar Philosophical School of Isfahan
        Mohammad Javad  Sami Saeed  Rahimian
        The present study examines the quality of the realization of Islamic schools of philosophy in the Iranian cultural field between eighth and thirteenth centuries (AH). Initially, the authors discuss the development of such schools from the “Philosophical School of Shiraz More
        The present study examines the quality of the realization of Islamic schools of philosophy in the Iranian cultural field between eighth and thirteenth centuries (AH). Initially, the authors discuss the development of such schools from the “Philosophical School of Shiraz (represented by Qutb al-Din Shirazi and Sadr al-Din Dashtaki) to the “School of Safavid Isfahan (represented by Mir Damad and Mulla Sadra) and from there to the School of Qajar Isfahan (represented by Mulla Ali Nuri and Mulla Isma’il Khwajavi), and finally to the “School of Tehran” (represented by Mulla Ali Mudarris Zunuzi, Mulla Mohammad Reza Ghomshei, and Hakim Jilwah). Then they deal with the key role of Hakim Sabziwari in the development of the third school in the School of Tehran. Clearly, because of the chosen period, there is no place for focusing on the schools preceding the philosophical school of Shiraz, such as “School of Maragheh” (represented by Khawaja Nasir al-Din Tusi) or the schools succeeding the School of Tehran, such as the “Neo-Sadrian School” (represented by ‘Allamah Tabataba’i). In line with the purpose of the study, the authors have tried to refer to the specific features of the four target schools, the social conditions dominating the society, and the reasons behind people’s referring to the distinguished philosophers and scholars of each school. Following a library method of research and a comparative design, this study demonstrates that the rulers’ coercion and cruelty and the scholars’ attempts at granting legitimacy to their acts and following them were the main causes of the creation of certain pseudo-parties and centers around spiritual authorities in the garb of philosophers and Sufis. Manuscript Document
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        35 - A Critical Analysis of Henry Corbin’s Thoughts on the Comparison of Suhrawardī’s Philosophy with Greek Philosophy
        Hasan Seyedarab seyedali Alamolhoda Alireza parsa Akhlaghi Marzie
        Henry Corbin is a western commentator of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy. His thoughts in relation to interpreting this philosophy are based on t’awīl (hermeneutics), phenomenology, metahistory, and comparative philosophy. The present paper is the first attempt More
        Henry Corbin is a western commentator of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy. His thoughts in relation to interpreting this philosophy are based on t’awīl (hermeneutics), phenomenology, metahistory, and comparative philosophy. The present paper is the first attempt at addressing this subject, and it is intended to critically investigate Corbin’s thoughts regarding the comparison of Suhrawardī’s philosophy with those of Plato, Aristotle, and neo-Platonists. Here, the authors have explored Suhrawardī’s innovative ideas so that the differences between them and the thoughts of the above-mentioned philosophers are disclosed. They have also presented a general critique of Corbin’s methodology and its defects in the conclusion. Comparative philosophy, which is sometimes called intercultural philosophy, requires philosophers to deal with various cultural, linguistic, and philosophical trends with an emphasis on the fundamental principles underlying the philosophers’ thoughts and to study the differences and similarities among their views. In Corbin’s view, comparative philosophy has functioned as the gateway of the correct perception of philosophical thoughts in the history of philosophy, and that is why he has compared Illuminationist philosophy with the philosophical views of Plato and Aristotle. He believes that Suhrawardī’s philosophy has been derived from Plato’s views, which seems to have its roots in his idea that the origin of philosophy is Greece. Corbin considers him as the Plato of the world of Islam; however, he ignores Suhrawardī’s innovations, the differences between his philosophy and that of Plato, and his criticism of Aristotle. Manuscript Document
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        36 - The Concept and Place of Bahman in Avestan and Pahlavi Texts as the “First Emanated” in Illuminationist Philosophy
        Hasan  Bolkhari Qehi
        The statement, “Reason was the first thing that God created”, which has been mentioned in several Islamic texts and has been quoted and emphasized by some great philosophers such as Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā (in Sharḥ-i uṣūl al-kāfī), is a well-known narration in Islam More
        The statement, “Reason was the first thing that God created”, which has been mentioned in several Islamic texts and has been quoted and emphasized by some great philosophers such as Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā (in Sharḥ-i uṣūl al-kāfī), is a well-known narration in Islamic ḥadīths. A similar statement with a clearer meaning is: “The Glorious God created the intellect, which was the first heavenly created”. Such statements gain more significance when we compare them with similar statements regarding the place of the intellect, which is equal to being, in Greek philosophy. As the master of all Iluminationist philosophers, Suhrawardī, as he has emphasized in his treatise of Fī ḥaqīqat al-‘ishq (On the Truth of Love) (p. 268), was well-aware of this famous narration. Given Suhrawardī’s explicit reference to this statement and his clear indication in Ḥikmat al-ishrāq, in which he calls himself the reviver of ancient Iranian philosophy (or at least introduces the wisdom of ancient Iranian philosophers (fahlavīūn) as one of the main sources of his own philosophy), this study aims to provide an answer to the question of how we can trace the effects of ancient Iranian wisdom in Suhrawardī’s philosophy. One of the most important factors linking his philosophy to ancient Iranian philosophy is his reference to the place of such Amesha Spenta as Bahman or Urdībihišt in Avestan and Pahlavi texts and considering them as the pillars of the nūrī (illuminative) and ontological system in his philosophy. Here, based on the principle of “Nothing is emanated from the one but one”, he calls the first-emanated from the light of lights (al-nūr al-anwār) the closest light (al-nūr al-aqrab) and, based on ancient Iranian philosophy, he calls it Bahman. However, one might inquire about the relationship between Bahman and the first-emanated, particularly if the first-emanated in Islamic philosophy is the intellect. Following a historical and analytic approach, this paper investigates the philosophy of choosing Bahman as the first-emanated in Suhrawardī’s philosophy and examines his particular choice of Bahman as the god of wisdom and knowledge as tantamount to the intellect in Islamic ḥadīths, which demonstrates Suhrawardī’s profound knowledge of ancient Iranian wisdom. Manuscript Document
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        37 - A Study of Idah al-Khayr al-Mahd and its Influence over the History of Islamic Philosophy
        Gholamhossein  Ahmadi Ahangar
        The book al-Khayr al-mahd is inspired by Proclus’ Elements of Theology and, in spite of its small size, has exercised the greatest influence upon Islamic philosophy along with Athologia. In this treatise, Proclus has propounded several problems concerning the prime caus More
        The book al-Khayr al-mahd is inspired by Proclus’ Elements of Theology and, in spite of its small size, has exercised the greatest influence upon Islamic philosophy along with Athologia. In this treatise, Proclus has propounded several problems concerning the prime cause, intellect, and soul, which are accepted by Muslim philosophers. Through posing the four elements of prime cause, existence, intellects, and souls in the cosmological theory of emanation based on effusion, as well as dividing each of the intellects and souls into primary and secondary ones and discussing them based on their ontological places and excellence, Proclus stands at a distance from Plotinus’ theory of emanation. The translation of al-Khayr al-mahd into Arabic granted it a more visible presence before Muslim philosophers because of its greater conformity with their religious and revealed thoughts. That is why we sometimes confront the same words and statements used in al-Khayr al-mahd in their works. For example, in ‘Amiri’s treatise of Fi al-m‘alim ilahiyyah, the principles and problems discussed in al-Khayr al-mahd have been presented in exactly the same form. However, they have been reflected in a new form in others’ works. In this paper, the writer has tried to demonstrate the influence of this book on Muslim philosophers. Manuscript Document
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        38 - A Historical Glance at the Move from Self-Knowledge to Knowledge of God in Peripatetic and Illuminationist Philosophies
        Seyyed Mohammed Kazem  Alavi
        The development and consequences of self-knowledge is one of the important discussions in Islamic philosophy. One of the most noteworthy of these consequences, according to the hadith of “One who has self-knowledge verily knows God”, is to know the Creator. The explanat More
        The development and consequences of self-knowledge is one of the important discussions in Islamic philosophy. One of the most noteworthy of these consequences, according to the hadith of “One who has self-knowledge verily knows God”, is to know the Creator. The explanation and interpretation of this hadith was not taken seriously in earlier schools of Islamic philosophy. In fact, it was not until the early periods of the Schools of Shiraz and Isfahan up to the period of the dominance of the Transcendent Philosophy among contemporary thinkers that great attention was devoted to clarifying and interpreting it. This paper is intended to discuss the background of these explanations and analyses in two of the early schools of Islamic philosophy, Peripatetic and Illuminationist philosophies, and even in those preceding them. The interpretation of the hadiths on self-knowledge in Islamic philosophy is united with psychology. That is why its background is traceable to Greek philosophy. In books on Islamic philosophy, some ideas and words have been attributed in this regard to Greek early philosophers, who are considered to mark the beginning of writing the history of this issue. The narration of these hadiths and similar words began during the first periods of Islamic philosophy with Ikhwan al-Safa (Brethren of Purity). They mainly focused on the importance of self-knowledge and the immateriality of the soul, which is more prominent in the Peripatetic philosophy considering the significance of psychology and self-knowledge in this school. Through relying on these hadiths, Ibn Sina demonstrated the most important problem of self-knowledge, that is, the immateriality of the soul, and uses it as a religious confirmation of this point versus the view of mutikallimun as to the corporeality of the soul. In Illuminationist philosophy, given the fundamental status of the dimension of the epistemology of the soul, a more basic approach to the relationship between self-knowledge and the knowledge of God is observed. This approach is introduced as an argument in order to demonstrate the existence of God and His attributes; it is an argument which is indeed superior to other arguments. What is clearly witnessed in this historical process is an interpretation referring to the possibility of self-knowledge and the possibility of the move from that knowledge to the knowledge of God, which is considered to be gradational in its most Illuminationist explanation. Manuscript Document
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        39 - A Comparison of Perfect Nature in Islamic Philosophy with Fravashī in Khosravani Wisdom
        Maryam  Asadian Babak Alikhani Alikhani
        The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and lib More
        The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and liberation from intermediate and immaterial worlds. This view, which was also shared by Abu’l-Brakāt al-Baghdādī and some others before Suhrawardī, was explained and interpreted by Mullā Ṣadrā and his students. Mullā Ṣadrā believed that perfect nature is a single intellectual form and the highest level of Man’s existence which enjoys the highest degree of immateriality. He called this level the “Holy Spirit” and emphasized that there is no difference between the soul and perfect nature and, basically, the whole identity of the human soil originates in their perfect nature. Although perfect nature is closely related to Hermetic teachings, one cannot ignore its Khosravani roots. In Mazdayasnan teachings, reference has been made to the states and modes of the soul, the most supreme of which is Fravashī or Farvahar. Fravashī is the heavenly essence or an aspect of Mīnuy-e Xerad (or spirit of wisdom) which reveals itself to ascetics and teaches them religious principles. In the present paper, after examining the views of Islamic philosophers regarding perfect nature, the authors have tried to demonstrate that this concept is rooted in the pre-eternal essence of wisdom, which, in conformity with Suhrawardī’s etymology of both Eastern (Khosravani) and Western (Hermetic) branches of philosophy, is among the most fundamental principles of epistemology. In fact, in order to attain his own illuminationist purpose, which is to revive the pre-eternal substance through posing the concept of perfect nature, Suhrawardī has brought Khosravani and Hermetic philosophies together. Mullā Ṣadrā has also advocated him in this regard. Manuscript Document
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        40 - Sinian Transcendent Philosophy: Ibn Sīnā’s Move from Peripatetic Philosophy to Transcendent Philosophy
        Mostafa  Momeni
        Although Ibn Sīnā has been frequently introduced as a Peripatetic philosopher and the “Master of Peripatetic Philosophers” in the world of Islam, one might wonder if such a reading of his philosophy is absolutely correct. Undoubtedly, his major works have been written o More
        Although Ibn Sīnā has been frequently introduced as a Peripatetic philosopher and the “Master of Peripatetic Philosophers” in the world of Islam, one might wonder if such a reading of his philosophy is absolutely correct. Undoubtedly, his major works have been written on the basis of the principles of Peripatetic philosophy. However, the question is whether one can find some indications of his departure from this school of philosophy in the same works. Ibn Sīnā neither remained a Peripatetic philosopher nor followed Peripatetic thoughts to the end of his life. Through coining the term “Transcendent Philosophy” for his own school and inviting the seekers of truths to follow it in order to have an accurate grasp of what they sought for, Ibn Sīnā added a completely new dimension to his identity. Finally, the Transcendent Philosophy reached its peak of development in Sadrian thoughts. Here, the author intends to explain the “transcendence of Sinian philosophy” and, at the same time, trace the roots of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy in Sinian philosophy and highlight them in his works and words. Although the political occupations of Ibn Sīnā and his short life did not allow him to provide a new synthesis of such principles, he managed to pave the way for the creation of the Transcendent Philosophy by his successors. Manuscript Document
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        41 - Concept of “Perennial Essence” and the Problem of “Revival or Establishment” in Suhrawardī’s Philosophy
        Ali Babaei
        The concept of “perennial essence” and its relationship with “Khosravani wisdom” in Illuminationist philosophy has prompted some researchers, such as Henry Corbin, to consider the purpose of Illuminationist philosophy and Suhrawardī’s “huge lifelong project” to be the r More
        The concept of “perennial essence” and its relationship with “Khosravani wisdom” in Illuminationist philosophy has prompted some researchers, such as Henry Corbin, to consider the purpose of Illuminationist philosophy and Suhrawardī’s “huge lifelong project” to be the revival of the philosophy of ancient Persia known as Khosravani wisdom. The present study reveals that several pieces of evidence in Illuminationist philosophy indicate that his goal was to establish a new school of philosophy rather than merely reviving a traditional one. An analysis of the concept of “perennial” and the related concepts and the attention to the newly emerged referents of perennial essence in various civilizations disclose the truth of Suhrawardī’s view. There are several differences between the concepts of “establishment” and “revival”; revival is a secondary, dependent, and imitative job, while establishment is an original, fundamental, and innovative endeavor which can also be followed by revival. Moreover, revival is consistent with historical changes, while pre-eternity is not a historical entity and is, rather, metahistorical, and any reception from perennial essence means receiving from a metahistorical source. Hence, discovering the relationship between ancient Persia and Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy could never be Suhrawardī’s main purpose. If he considers Khosravani wisdom to be a manifestation of the perennial essence, his view of Pythagorean philosophy and other schools of philosophy in some civilizations such as those of India and Babylonia should be the same. As a result, the advocates of the idea of the revival of Persian wisdom should repeat exactly the same views regarding the revival of Greek philosophy and other philosophical schools, while this is not the case. Therefore, Suhrawardī’s main purpose, unlike what some researchers claim, was to establish the Illuminationist philosophy and not to revive Khosravani wisdom. A careful scrutiny of the content of the theory of perennial essence and its concomitants nullifies any claim as to Suhrawardī’s being a Shu‘ūbi philosopher or the dominance of neo-Shu‘ūbism over his philosophical thoughts. Manuscript Document
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        42 - Methodology of Great Muslim Philosophers’ Encounter with the Translation Trend of the Abbassid Period
        Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
        Researchers in the field of Islamic studies in the West have chosen the name of “Translation Movement” to refer to the trend of the translation of the books of different nations into Arabic during the Abbasid period. This trend, which continued for two centuries in diff More
        Researchers in the field of Islamic studies in the West have chosen the name of “Translation Movement” to refer to the trend of the translation of the books of different nations into Arabic during the Abbasid period. This trend, which continued for two centuries in different spontaneous or guided forms, received some reactions from the Islamic society. One of the important questions in this regard is what the attitude of the distinguished Muslim philosophers of that period, particularly al-Kindī, Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā, was to this movement. The present study indicates that, unlike the common response in the historiography of the translation trend, instead of a translation movement, during this time we are faced with a philosophical movement alongside a scientific one in the history of Islam. The philosophers mentioned above separated their judgments of three problems, namely, translation, translators and interpreters, and translated and interpreted works, from each other. Based on their own philosophical movement, which was in conformity with the principles of Islamic thought, they had three methodological, reformist, and critical reactions to this trend. They evaluated the translated works based on Islamic philosophical theorems and benefitted from them with some innovations in their own philosophical systems. Manuscript Document
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        43 - Avestan Sīmurgh, Ishraqi Sīmurgh (A Historical Etymology of Sīmurgh in Islamic-Iranian Philosophy)
        Hasan  Bolkhari Qehi
        Undoubtedly, Sīmurgh is one of the most important and attractive Ishraqi (Illuminationist) and gnostic symbols in the Islamic-Iranian civilization. The traces of this mythical bird can also be found in Avestan and Pahlavi texts as a near-stationed and heaven-residing bi More
        Undoubtedly, Sīmurgh is one of the most important and attractive Ishraqi (Illuminationist) and gnostic symbols in the Islamic-Iranian civilization. The traces of this mythical bird can also be found in Avestan and Pahlavi texts as a near-stationed and heaven-residing bird as well as the name of a prominent philosopher in Zoroastrian philosophy. The correct pronunciation of the world Sīmurgh is mərəyō saēnō in Avesta, sēnmurw and saeno muruk in Pahlavi language, and siræng in some Persian texts. Orientalists have translated this word into eagle and royal falcon in English. Perhaps the translation of Sīmurgh into eagle is rooted in translations’ focus on the word syena in Sanskrit, which means eagle in this language. Admittedly, this Sanskrit word is quite similar to the Avestan saena. Suhrawardī has talked about sīmurgh in different parts of his works such as in the treatises of Ṣafīr-i Sīmurgh, ‘Aql-i surkh, and Fī ḥālat al-ṭufullīyah. In ‘Aql-i surkh, following an innovative approach and method of interpretation, he discusses sīmurgh’s support of Rostam in his war with Esfandiar; in Ṣafīr-i sīmurgh he explains the virtues of sīmurgh in the Introduction to the treatise, and in the last treatise he elaborates on sīmurgh’s living in heaven. Suhrawardī’s method of discussion in these works reveals the place and holiness of this bird in his mind and language and, most importantly, the depth of his knowledge of ancient Iranian philosophy. In this paper, the author discusses the place of sīmurgh in Avestan and Pahlavi texts and Illuminationist philosophy. Manuscript Document
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        44 - A Glance at A Century of the Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosopher from Before Christ until the 20th Century)
        Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
        During the last century, we have witnessed the second movement of the translation of Western philosophical works in Iran. This bibliography provides a list of the works of 40 famous philosophers of the West from before Christ until the 19th century which have been trans More
        During the last century, we have witnessed the second movement of the translation of Western philosophical works in Iran. This bibliography provides a list of the works of 40 famous philosophers of the West from before Christ until the 19th century which have been translated into Persian. The translators who have rendered classic works of philosophy into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and have specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manouchehr Bozorgmehr has mainly been interested in George Berkeley, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi in Plato and Plotinus, Daryush Ashuri in Friedrich Nietzsche, Ziba Jebelli in Marx, and Manuchehr Sanei in Kant. The works of some philosophers have also been translated several times; for example, the book of Thus spoke Zarathustra: A Book for all and None holds the record with 14 different translations. In certain cases, none of the books of some famous Western philosophers, such as Nicolas Malebranche, Dans Scotus, Bonaventure, and William of Ockham, has been translated into Persian. In this bibliography, the authors have introduced the works of the following philosophers: Thomas Aquinas, Augustino of Hippo, Anselm of Canterbury, Epictetus, Epicure, Aristotle, Herbert Spencer, Baruch Spinoza, Plato, Plotinus, Friedrich Engles, Marcus Aurelius, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon, Blaise Pascal, Pre-Socratic Philosophers, Descartes, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich von Schiller, Ludwig Feuerbach, Johan Gottlieb Fichte, Kant, Auguste Comte, Soren Kierkegaard, John Locke, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Lucretius, Marx Niccolo Machiavelli, Montesquieu, George Edward Moore, John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Thomas Hobbes, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and David Hume. Manuscript Document
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        45 - A Glance at one Century of Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosophers from the Beginning of the 20th Century until Now)
        Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
        The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the la More
        The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the later years and the large number of the prominent philosophers in various fields of philosophy, this list only contains the names of 40 of the most influential philosophers of this period in Iran. The translators who have rendered the works of these philosophers into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manuchehr Sanei Darrehbidi has mainly focused on Wilhelm Dilthey, Yadollah Moaghan on Ernst Cassirer, Malek Hosseini on Wittgenstein, and Mohammad Hassan Lotfi on Jaspers. The works of some philosophers have been translated several times, for instance, Nietzsche and Philosophy by Gilles Deleuze; Political Ideas, Why I Am Not A Christian, Power: A New Social Analysis, and Marriage and Morals by Bertrand Russell; Existentialism is a Humanism and The Words by Jean-Paul Sartre; The Myth of Sisyphus and Notebooks (3 volumes) by Albert Camus; The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn; Logical-Philosophical Treatise by Wittgenstein, and Being and Time by Martin Heidegger have been translated at least four times. Among them Russell’s Power: A New Social Analysis ranks first with six retranslations. This bibliography introduces the works of the following 40 philosophers: Theodor W. Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Alfred Jules Ayer, Henry Bergson, Karl Raimund Popper, William James, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Dilthey, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, John Bordley Rawls, Richard McKay Rorty, Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur, Jean Paul Sartre, John Rogers Searle, Paul Karl Feyerabend, Friedrich Ludwig GottlobFrege, Paul-Michel Foucault, Rudolf Carnap, Ernst Alfred Cassirer, Albert Camus, Saul Aaron Kripke, Willard Van Orman Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-François Lyotard, Gabriel Honoré Marcel, Herbert Marcuse, Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty, George Edward Moore, Alfred North Whitehead, Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Jürgen Habermas, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich August von Hayek, and Karl Theodor Jaspers. Manuscript Document
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        46 - A Study of the Philosophical Elements of Platonic-Plotinian Tradition in Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s Philosophy
        Seyed Morteza  Honarmand
        After the rise of Islam, philosophy and wisdom in Iran and in other corners of the world of Islam were united with Greek philosophy and interacted with it through the Translation Movement. Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī was of the prominent thinkers of the world of Islam who More
        After the rise of Islam, philosophy and wisdom in Iran and in other corners of the world of Islam were united with Greek philosophy and interacted with it through the Translation Movement. Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī was of the prominent thinkers of the world of Islam who became familiar with Greek philosophy and enriched it in the light of his innovations through the Peripatetic Philosophy and the works of Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā. Now, the question is which of the philosophical elements of Greek wisdom, particularly the Platonic-Plotinian tradition, is more visible in Ṭūsī’s philosophical-kalāmī thoughts. This study, which was carried out following a descriptive-analytic method and through exploring Ṭūsī’s works, concludes that this presence and similarity have emerged in different forms, including: 1) complete acceptance of Greek views without any change though with some displacement of Greek views, such as the most logical problems, the discussion of the ten-fold categories, the four-fold causes, and classifications of sciences; 2) completion, change, and addition of some arguments for demonstrating the previous views, such as the problem of impossibility of endless chain, immateriality of the soul, proving the Necessary, oneness of the Necessary, impossibility of the emanation of many from the one, union of the intellect and intelligible, and the substantial nature of archetypes, and 3) the change of the content and nature of Greek views while preserving their old names, such as Platonic Ideas. Manuscript Document
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        47 - Editors Note
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        پیشینة تألیف و تدوین کتاب یا مجموعه کتابهایی با عنوان «تاریخ فلسفه» چندان زیاد نیست و اساساً ظهور عناوینی چون تاریخ هنر، تاریخ ادبیات، تاریخ ادیان، تاریخ تمدن و مانند آن، به ظهور تفکر و نگاه تاریخی ـ که از مظاهر تفکر جدید و معاصر است‌ـ بازمیگردد. معنای این سخن آن نیست ک More
        پیشینة تألیف و تدوین کتاب یا مجموعه کتابهایی با عنوان «تاریخ فلسفه» چندان زیاد نیست و اساساً ظهور عناوینی چون تاریخ هنر، تاریخ ادبیات، تاریخ ادیان، تاریخ تمدن و مانند آن، به ظهور تفکر و نگاه تاریخی ـ که از مظاهر تفکر جدید و معاصر است‌ـ بازمیگردد. معنای این سخن آن نیست که آدمی قبل از دورة جدید به مقولة تاریخ و تأملات تاریخی التفاتی نداشته است، بلکه مقصود آنست که در این عصر، نحوی از نگاه تاریخی تکوین، بسط و گسترش یافته که عالم و مسیر حوادث و سوانح را نه برابر طرح و مشیت‌الهی، که مطابق طرح فاعل شناسا و مدرک خودبنیاد و خودآيین (سوژه) تبیین و تقریر میکند. تاریخ در نظر قدما، صحنة ظهور اراده خالق هستی و واجد غایت و فرجامی ابدی است و نقش انسان همانا درک و دریافت غایت هستی و تطبیق ارادة فردی خویش با ارادة کلی و کیهانی است. این تفاوت و تمایز در همة شئون دانش و عمل، میان دورة اخیر و ماقبل آن بچشم میخورد. تاریخ‌انگاری و غلبة طرح و شاکلة سوژه، صفت عام و مشترک تمامی علوم انسانی و اجتماعی شمرده میشود. در این میان، از قرن نوزدهم میلادی به اینسو و از زمان درسگفتارهای هگل دربارة تاریخ فلسفه و فلسفه تاریخ و نیز نگارش پدیدارشناسی روح، مجموعه نوشته‌هایی با عنوان تاریخ فلسفه رواج قابل ملاحظه‌يی یافت و ابتدا در اروپای قاره‌يی و سپس در دنیای انگلیسی زبان، گسترش چشمگيري پیدا کرد. روح و منطق حاکم بر این نوشته‌ها موضوعی است که نیاز به تأمل و سنجش دارد، چرا که اولاً، گذشته از تفاوتها در صورت و قالب (حجم، ادبیات، نوع نگارش، ایجاز یا تفصیل، تعداد نویسندگان و...) در محتوا و مضامین (پیش‌فرضها و انگاره‌ها، منطق و هندسه، نوع تحلیل و تبیین، نوآوری یا تکرار و تقلید، منابع و مراجع و...)، در برخی مبادی و خاستگاه‌ها نیز از یکدیگر متمایزند و ثانیاً، در نگاه به میراث فلسفی، عرفانی و معرفتی مشرق زمین، غالباً و عملاً در مدار منطق و روش «شرق‌شناسی» و قالبهای کلیشه‌يی آن قرارگرفته و از انگاره‌های آن تبعیت میکند. این نسبت میان انحاء تاریخ‌نگاری غرب با شرق‌شناسی از یکسو و با فلسفة تاریخ از سوی دیگر، موضوعی است که در ردیف مبادی و مبانی دانش معاصر باید لحاظ شود. حکایت پیامدهای نگاه تاریخ‌انگارانه و شرق‌شناسانه به ساحتهای مختلف دانش، حکایت شورباری است، تا آنجا که مثلاً برخی نویسندگان عرب زبان که در چند دهة اخیر به نگارش تاریخ فلسفه روی آورده‌اند، یا مقید و مقهور پیش‌فرضهای شرق‌شناسی شده‌اند یا در دام ناسیونالیزم خام افتاده‌اند.گذشته از نقدهای گزنده ادوارد سعید و نشان دادن شجاعانه و بیپردة باطن شرق‌شناسی در نسبت با مقاصد سیاسی و استعماری، باید در نظر داشت که چهارصد سال پیشینة شرق‌شناسی کلاسیک، نوعی حالت متصلب و سترون در پیکرة آن پدید آورد و تاریخ‌انگاری (هیستوریسیسم) در این تصلب نقش نخست را ایفا کرد. کوتاه سخن آنکه، سنجش و ارزیابی این سلسله نوشته‌ها که بعضاً در محافل دانشگاهی نیز تدریس میشود، ضرورت دارد و به این مطلب، وفور و تعدد ترجمه‌هایی را باید افزود که در یکی دو دهة اخیر با عنوان تاریخ فلسفه در سطحی وسیع چاپ و منتشر شده است. بررسی آثاری که در زبان فارسی در عداد منابع تاریخ فلسفه قرار گرفته‌اند مجال مستقلی میطلبد، لیکن همینقدر اشاره کنیم که پس از نگارش سیر حکمت در اروپا به قلم محمدعلی فروغی در حدود هشتاد سال پیش و پس از انتشار مجلدات تاریخ فلسفه کسانی چون امیل بریه، ویل دورانت، برتراند راسل و سرانجام، فردریک کاپلستون، در خلال پنج دهة اخیر (و با لحاظ تمامی تفاوتهای کمی و کیفی میان آنها)، اکنون نیز مجموعه‌های تک جلدی و چند جلدی تاریخ فلسفه شامل تاریخ فلسفه‌های موسوم به راتلج، آکسفورد، استنفورد، گاتری، گمپرتس (دو اثر اخیر فقط در حوزة یونان باستان) و اخیراً آنتونی کنی، روانه بازار نشر شده‌اند و افزون بر این، برخی از این آثار حتی ترجمه مکرر شده است. این تنوع و تعدد، فی‌نفسه نشان از رغبت و توجه اهالی فلسفه به آگاهی از سیر و صیرورت تفکر فلسفی از گذشته دور تاکنون دارد ولی در عین حال بنظر میرسد برغم تعدد و گوناگونی این دسته از آثار، نوعی مشابهت و حتی اقتباس و تکرار ناشی از وحدت انگاره‌ها و پیش‌فرضها نیز در میان این آثار دیده میشود و در عوض، جای مطالعات انتقادی نسبت به مثلاً دورة یونانی و یونانی‌مآبی در آنها خالی است و طنین لحن ستایش‌گرانه و همدلانه نویسندگان قرن نوزدهم و بیستم میلادی در اینها نیز موج میزند. سخن خود را با طرح یک پرسش به پایان میبریم و آن اینکه، آیا نوبت به عرضة تصویری نو و متفاوت از تاریخ فلسفه و بویژه متفاوت با پیش‌فرضهای تاریخ‌انگارانه و شرق‌شناسانه نرسیده است؟ به دیدگاه‌ها و پیشنهادهای محققان و صاحب‌نظران کشور عزیزمان ارج گذارده و از گشوده شدن باب بحث و گفتگو در این زمینه استقبال میکنیم. Manuscript Document
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        48 - Analytic Philosophy and the Charge of Anti-Historicity
        Mohammad Saeid  Abdollahi Mohamad Ali  Abdollahi
        According to some philosophers, not heeding historicity is one of the characteristics of analytic philosophy in comparison to other philosophical schools. That is why analytic philosophers are always being accused of ignoring historicity and blamed for this charge. Cont More
        According to some philosophers, not heeding historicity is one of the characteristics of analytic philosophy in comparison to other philosophical schools. That is why analytic philosophers are always being accused of ignoring historicity and blamed for this charge. Continental and traditionalist philosophers are unanimous in this regard. However, the question is whether the critics of analytic philosophy can support this accusation with sufficient and convincing arguments, or whether not taking heed of history is a baseless claim rooted in an incorrect perception and insufficient knowledge of this philosophical movement. This paper is intended to explain the critic’s claims, arguments, and proofs as to historical ignorance in analytic philosophy, on the one hand, and to describe the attention and accuracy invested in analytic philosophers’ view of history of philosophy and their arguments. The authors emphasize that, firstly, one must distinguish between essential, instrumental, and weak types of historicity. Analytic philosophers might reject essential historicity but accept a kind of weak historicity. Secondly, an emphasis on the distinction of the history of philosophical problems from history of philosophy should not be understood in the sense of anti-historicity or equating the past and presence. Manuscript Document
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        49 - Anthropological Principles of Hobbes and Spinoza on Government (A Historical Overview)
        Bayan Karimy Seyyed Mustafa  Shahraeini
        Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their v More
        Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their views are clearly different from those of their predecessors and even from those of Descartes, who is almost contemporary with them. Spinoza has been influenced by Hobbes in some respects; however, because of the differences between the logic and general philosophy of each of them, there are some noteworthy differences between these two philosophers’ anthropological interpretations and the functions of their political philosophy. The main purpose of the present paper is to highlight the historical background of political philosophy in ancient Greece, particularly during the Middle Ages. While challenging this historical background, it also aims to discover the explicit and implicit metaphysical and anthropological principles and assumptions underlying the views of Hobbes and Spinoza regarding a desirable government and report the differences and similarities between them. The authors intend to demonstrate that Spinoza’s political philosophy is based on ethics and reason. The distinctive feature of his philosophy is its love of human beings and reason. On the other hand, Hobbes’ political philosophy is based on the senses, and its distinctive feature is having a pessimistic view of human beings and presenting a material interpretation of their nature. Accordingly, the principle of preserving the essence in Hobbes’ view is limited to preserving the body, and a superior government means absolute monarchy, the sole purpose of which is protecting the lives of its citizens and establishing security in society. Nevertheless, in Spinoza’s view, protecting the essence is beyond the protection of the body and extends to reason, perhaps even more than the body, because human essence mainly depends on their reason rather than their body. Hence a superior government in Spinoza’s view is of a democratic nature. He also emphasizes the role of government in promoting the human culture and the necessity of educational and ethical policy-making. Manuscript Document
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        50 - Editor's Note
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        History of philosophy The Books of Sects and Creeds Biography
        History of philosophy The Books of Sects and Creeds Biography Manuscript Document
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        51 - Outline of Ḥakīm Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī’s Works and Transition to the Neo-Peripatetic School (An Analytic Introduction to his Writings or Teachings)
        Mahmoud  Hedayatafza
        Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī became involved in religious wayfaring and purification of the soul after his preliminary studies and, finally, joined the classes of Ḥakīm Mīr Fendereski. Most biographers acknowledge Tabrīzī’s inward purification and mastery over physics, logic, and More
        Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī became involved in religious wayfaring and purification of the soul after his preliminary studies and, finally, joined the classes of Ḥakīm Mīr Fendereski. Most biographers acknowledge Tabrīzī’s inward purification and mastery over physics, logic, and philosophy, and only a few of them, such as the writer of Riyāḍ al-‘ulamā and some of his students, have accused him of not having mastery over Arabic literature. Ḥakīm Tabrīzī, who lived about 30 years after Mullā Ṣadrā, was one of the serious critics of Sadrian thought. In doing so, he expanded the Peripatetic literature, reinterpreted some of its principles, and introduced a number of new terminology so that a cradle could be provided for the analysis of new problems within the framework of Neo-Peripateticism. However, he did not try to record all his teachings in writing and spent most of his time on individual wayfaring, teaching intellectual sciences, and training his students. Therefore, some of his knowledgeable students, particularly Pirzādeh, Qawām al-Dīn Rāzī, and Muḥammad Sa‘īd Ḥakīm, transcribed his teachings and scientific notes. The treatise of Ithbāt al-wājib, al-Uṣūl al-aṣfīyah, al-M‘arīf al-ilāhīyyah, Muṣannafāt-i Qawām al-Din Rāzī, and Sharḥ-i Tawḥīd Ṣadūq by Qāzī S‘aīd comprise the most important research sources on Ḥakim Tabrīzī’s neo-Peripatetic school of philosophy. The reports of translators and the ideas and theories of some contemporary editors and researchers have also been evaluated in this paper. Manuscript Document
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        52 - A Study of the Methodological Development of Interpretive Philosophy in Islam from Kindī to Mīr Dāmād
        Seyed Mohammad Hosain  Mirdamadi
        This study examines the background of pre-Sadrian Islamic philosophers’ method of interpretive or t’awīlī thinking following a descriptive-analytic method. Interpretive philosophy has been defined in different ways; however, its general feature is going beyond the surfa More
        This study examines the background of pre-Sadrian Islamic philosophers’ method of interpretive or t’awīlī thinking following a descriptive-analytic method. Interpretive philosophy has been defined in different ways; however, its general feature is going beyond the surface meaning of concepts and employing both reason and revelation in interpreting a text. A glance at the historical development of this method demonstrates its general growth, although with some fluctuations, in the Islamic philosophical tradition. This is because the process of t’awīl is rooted in the move from the separation of religion and philosophy towards their graded unity. A method of thinking that leads to unity indicates intellectual growth in case it is based on sound reasoning because the intellect advocates unity while imagination is pluralist. From a historical perspective, it can be said that philosophers’ interpretive thoughts have gradually moved away from defending the opposition of religion and philosophy to accepting that their truths are inseparable. In the case of the former standpoint, philosophers sometimes followed the exoteric meanings of religion and sometimes took side with the intellect and philosophy. However, later they unanimously concluded that religion and philosophy share the same truth that has been expressed in different languages. Therefore, the important point is to perceive their methods and languages and explain the related constraints. Hence, we are witnessing a process of monopoly and partiality instead of universality and holism. Manuscript Document
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        53 - Zoroastrian Wisdom and the Magi Religion in Ancient Greek and Roman Sources
        Hojjatullah  Askarizadeh
        The impact of Zoroastrian religion and worldview on Greek philosophy, ancient philosophers, and generally on history of philosophy as a fundamental topic regarding the historical development of philosophy has always been of interest to researchers. Ancient thinkers have More
        The impact of Zoroastrian religion and worldview on Greek philosophy, ancient philosophers, and generally on history of philosophy as a fundamental topic regarding the historical development of philosophy has always been of interest to researchers. Ancient thinkers have always spoken of Zoroastrian wisdom and philosophy and connected them to the Magi religion. The present paper examines Zoroastrian philosophy and its origin in the Magi religion based on ancient Greek and Roman sources. Based on such sources, the founder of this school of philosophy is a Zoroastrian who is much older than Zoroaster, the author of Avesta, who lived in the time of Goštāsp. Therefore, if we wish to study Zoroastrian wisdom and philosophy from the viewpoint of ancient Greek and Roman thinkers, we must seek its roots in the Magi religion; a religion that is apparently one of the oldest philosophical schools of ancient times and first appeared in Iran. Manuscript Document
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        54 - Explaining the Concepts of Illuminationist Philosophy in Iranian Houses
        ‏Takameh Abbasnia Tehrani Khosro  Sahhaf Hassan  Rezaei Abolghasem  Qavam
        Illuminationist philosophy is a discoursive-intuitive and light-centered school of philosophy. It has exercised a significant effect on Iranian art and architecture because of the Iranian-Islamic philosophical concepts that it employs. The present paper examines the ef More
        Illuminationist philosophy is a discoursive-intuitive and light-centered school of philosophy. It has exercised a significant effect on Iranian art and architecture because of the Iranian-Islamic philosophical concepts that it employs. The present paper examines the effects of Illuminationist views as a common language for the design of spiritual houses in the contemporary era. Hence, following a descriptive-analytic method, the authors initially explain some of the concepts and ideas in Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy and then examine their manifestation in the architecture of Iranian houses. Manuscript Document
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        55 - A Study of the Illuminationist Elements of Ibn Sīnā’s Works in the Realms of Method, Content, and Language
        Saeed  Rahimian
        Although Ibn Sīnā was the master of Peripatetic philosophers, he also provided the bases for the development of Illuminationist philosophy. In terms of methodology and epistemology, through introducing Oriental wisdom, which, irrespective of the Greeks’ views, is his ow More
        Although Ibn Sīnā was the master of Peripatetic philosophers, he also provided the bases for the development of Illuminationist philosophy. In terms of methodology and epistemology, through introducing Oriental wisdom, which, irrespective of the Greeks’ views, is his own specific school of philosophy, and also through employing certain terminology, principles, and arguments which are associated with Illuminationism, he prepared the context for the revival and growth of Illuminationist philosophy by Suhrawardī. Ibn Sīnā’s critical mind and spiritual worthiness during his short life efficiently paved the way for the surge of Islamic philosophy and wisdom towards Illuminationist philosophy and then the Transcendent Philosophy in terms of methodology, content, and language. Suhrawardī mainly emphasizes the differences between his school of philosophy and that of Ibn Sīnā and his Peripatetic followers and introduces the beginning of his philosophy as the end of Peripatetic philosophy. However, we can confidently claim that his philosophy is to such a large extent influenced by Ibn Sīnā’s that one can consider Suhrawardī’s school to have been the outcome of the natural growth of Sinan philosophy in the course of time. Through highlighting gnostic and intellectually intuitive (or what was later called Illuminationist) elements in Ibn Sīnā’s available works, the present paper aims to demonstrate that Suhrawardī’s debt to Ibn Sīnā in all the three fields of methodology, content, and language is much greater than what is commonly assumed. Manuscript Document
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        56 - The Influence of Social Conditions on Mullā Ṣadrā’s Classification of Sciences
        Fatemeh Jamshidi Nasrin Serajipour
        During the Safavid era, at the time of Mullā Ṣadrā and upon the rise of court-jurisprudents and pseudo-mysticism, true sciences such as jurisprudence, philosophy, and gnosis were in seclusion. Mullā Ṣadrā, as a religious scholar who was familiar with the philosophical a More
        During the Safavid era, at the time of Mullā Ṣadrā and upon the rise of court-jurisprudents and pseudo-mysticism, true sciences such as jurisprudence, philosophy, and gnosis were in seclusion. Mullā Ṣadrā, as a religious scholar who was familiar with the philosophical and gnostic ideas before him, tried to eliminate philosophical confusion from the scientific society and oppose this fallacious approach. Hence, he established a new philosophical system in order to bring all previous thoughts together in a consistent manner. In fact, he aimed to clarify the place of true knowledge and the ways of attaining it for society through establishing his own school of philosophy. The classification of sciences is one of the fundamental problems in any philosophical system. However, it is emphasized that each system of philosophy and the collection of its problems are influenced by the social conditions of their time. Similarly, Mullā Ṣadrā’s classification reflects his social concerns and has been developed in response to the social needs of his time and directing them towards true sciences. He has provided a specific classification of sciences in each of the three periods of his scientific life. He followed a peripatetic approach during the first period, an Illuminationist approach during the second one, and a transcendent approach during the third period, which reflected the height of his philosophical maturity. This paper aims to investigate Mullā Ṣadrā’s classification of sciences during each of the three periods of his scientific life and demonstrate how each was influenced by the social conditions of his time, and how each responded to the existing societal needs. Manuscript Document
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        57 - ُُEditor's Note
        Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
        از مداخل مهم تاريخ علم و فلسفه جهان، مدخلي موسوم به «نهضت ترجمه» در دو قلمرو عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني است. تتبّعات و تحقيقات متعدّدي در چگونگي اين دو رخداد مهم علمي و فرهنگي صورت پذيرفته و اكنون به بركت اين تلاشها، داده‌هاي ارزشمندي دربارة آثار و منابع، مترجمان و چگونگي More
        از مداخل مهم تاريخ علم و فلسفه جهان، مدخلي موسوم به «نهضت ترجمه» در دو قلمرو عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني است. تتبّعات و تحقيقات متعدّدي در چگونگي اين دو رخداد مهم علمي و فرهنگي صورت پذيرفته و اكنون به بركت اين تلاشها، داده‌هاي ارزشمندي دربارة آثار و منابع، مترجمان و چگونگي ترجمة آثار از زبان مبدأ به زبان مقصد در اختيار ماست. برابر گاهشماري موّرخانِ تاريخ علم، نهضت ترجمة نخست، حدّ فاصل قرن سوّم تا پنجم قمري در عالم اسلام و در مناطقي چون بغداد و مرو و نهضت ترجمة دوم، حد فاصل اواخر قرن يازدهم تا اواسط قرن سيزدهم ميلادي در مناطقي چون صَقليّه (سيسيل) و طليطليه (تولدو) در جنوب اروپاي آنروز پديد آمد. بي‌ترديد در باب مبادي و انگيزه‌هاي دو حوزة فرهنگي و تمدني عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني در اقبال به ترجمة متون نيز ديدگاههاي مختلفي عرضه شده است، ليكن همچنان پرسشهاي مهمي در اين زمينه وجود دارد كه نيازمند تتبّع و تحقيق افزونتري است، مانند اين پرسشها كه: به غير از احساس نياز به فراگيري دانشها ـ بويژه دانشهاي كاربردي نظير رياضيات، نجوم و طبّ ـ چه انگيزه يا انگيزه‌هاي ديگري در اخذ و اقتباس اين علوم وجود داشته است؟ در اقبال و توجه به علوم عقلي نظير منطق و فلسفه و كلام چه زمينه‌هاي روحي و فرهنگي مؤثر بوده است؟ و مهمتر اينكه: در اخذ و اقتباس علوم، چه افزوده‌ها و تغييراتي به صورتهاي اوليه آن علوم ضميمه شده است؟ بنظر ميرسد مبادي تحرّك و نشاط علمي سده‌هاي نخستين قمري در عالم اسلام و نيز تأثيرات ناشي از حضور هشتصد ساله حاكمان مسلمان (711 ـ 1492م.) در شبه جزيره‌ ايبري در جنوب اسپانيا از جمله موضوعاتي است كه همچنان نيازمند بررسي و پژوهش بيشتري است، زيرا در مقايسه با شرايط و موقعيتهاي قبل و بعد از اين مقاطع تاريخي، تحولات چشمگيري صورت گرفته كه تنها برمبناي آگاهي از گاهشماري آن تحولات، نميتوان به عمق روابط و مناسبات فرهنگي و معنوي آن روزگار پي‌ برد. به اين مطلب بايد مطلب ديگري نيز افزود و آن اينكه بخش اعظم پژوهشهاي صورت گرفته در خصوص اين دو جريان علمي بدست پژوهشگران غربي انجام شده و حتي آن بخش از اين پژوهشها كه مربوط به نهضت ترجمه در عالم اسلام است نيز عمدتاً از جانب پژوهشهاي غرب به شرق سرازير شده است، اين در حالي است كه منابع و مدارك تاريخي براي پژوهشهاي گسترده در اين زمينه در اختيار پژوهشگران عالم اسلام قرار داشته و دارد، مانند انبوهي از تراجم و فهرستها و گزارشهاي تاريخي كه هرچند نيازمند مطالعه و بررسي انتقادي است، ليكن حجم قابل توجهي از داده‌ها را در اختيار پژوهشگران اين حوزه قرار ميدهد. اميد آنكه اين مهم با همّت و دقت نظر صاحبان قلم و پژوهشگران علاقمند به حوزة تاريخ علم و تمدن تحقق يافته و افق جديدي از تأثير ميراث علمي جهان اسلام را به روي نسل حاضر بگشايد. Manuscript Document
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        58 - Discussion on Music in the Philosophical Treatise Entitled Resale-ye Sena’iye by Mir Fendereski
        Sahand Soltandoost Mehdi Keshavarz Afshar Asghar Fahimifar
        In his most notable work entitled Resale-ye Sena’iye, Abulqasim Mir Fendereski (c. 1562–1640), the Hakim and philosopher of the Safavid era, examines theoretical music. In this regard, he stands exceptional among the philosophers of the period. But unlike the philosophe More
        In his most notable work entitled Resale-ye Sena’iye, Abulqasim Mir Fendereski (c. 1562–1640), the Hakim and philosopher of the Safavid era, examines theoretical music. In this regard, he stands exceptional among the philosophers of the period. But unlike the philosophers of the early Islamic epoch, Mir Fendereski's purpose was not to teach music technically through the written text but to employ the example of theoretical music to clarify different kinds of crafts. Using the qualitative method of text analysis and historical resources, the present paper, written with the aim of investigating Mir Fendereski's philosophical views on music under a category within the crafts, briefly reviews the time, works and ideas of Mir, and explains the theoretical basis and terms of the treatise to analyze the author’s purpose by exemplary usage of theoretical music, so that one can comprehend his true intention. The most important conclusion of musical fragments is that in this period, scholars made a clear and decisive distinction between the science and practice of music. It was likely that a prominent religious figure, despite having full knowledge of theoretical music, an ear for music, and even instructing it, might have avoided practising music and even banned his pupils from it. This fact can be thought of as an obvious indication of the separation between musical science and practice in this era. Manuscript Document
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        59 - رویکرد ارزشی به علوم در انگارة حکمای اسلام ؛ بازخوانی و اعتبارسنجی
        احمد شه گلی Fardin Jamshidi Mehr
        This study seeks to explain the views of Islamic scholars on the issue of skeptical approach to science and express the dimensions and results of this issue. One of the principles governing the worldview of Islamic sages is a skeptical and orderly attitude towards affai More
        This study seeks to explain the views of Islamic scholars on the issue of skeptical approach to science and express the dimensions and results of this issue. One of the principles governing the worldview of Islamic sages is a skeptical and orderly attitude towards affairs. Both are the same. There are also these attitudes about science. According to this thinking, sciences have different degrees and levels in terms of value. Some sciences are higher, some lower, some more valuable and some lower. The scholars believe that Ashraf is the science of "philosophy" and they have mentioned criteria and reasons for this claim. This article uses descriptive-analytical and critical methods to explain this approach and express its epistemological effects and finally re-read this view. Explaining this issue first introduces our understanding of the principles and approach of the sages, and by reflecting on this issue, its fruits and results become clear in other areas. This study seeks to explain the views of Islamic scholars on the issue of skeptical approach to science and express the and express its epistemological effects and finally re-read this view. Explaining this issue first introduces our understanding of the principles and approach of the sages, and by reflecting on this issue, its fruits and results become clear in other areas. rinciples and approach of the sages, and by reflecting on this issue, its fruits and results become clear in other areas. Keywords: science, philosophy, Ashraf sciences, skeptical approach.Keywords: science, philosophy, Ashraf sciences, skeptical approach.dimensions and clear in other areas. Manuscript Document