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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Suhrawardī’s View of the Logic; A Fundamental Variation from Aristotelian School
        mostafa abedi jige  
        In contrast to Aristotelian tradition, in Suhrawardī’s philosophy, logic loses its instrumentality regarding knowledge and its place is established after the realization of wisdom. Aristotelian philosophy includes the whole human knowledge, except the principles of know Full Text
        In contrast to Aristotelian tradition, in Suhrawardī’s philosophy, logic loses its instrumentality regarding knowledge and its place is established after the realization of wisdom. Aristotelian philosophy includes the whole human knowledge, except the principles of knowledge, within the domain of acquired knowledge and considers knowledge to be a theoretical affair. However, through acknowledging the presential nature of knowledge, Suhrawardī extracts it from the realm of conceptual and acquired thought and maintains that it is primarily pre-theoretical. He initially attains wisdom through intuition and then adduces some arguments for it. Then, by a fundamental turn, he argues that conceptual thought is based on presential thought and emphasizes that the realm of presence is the criterion for the realm of acquisition. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Editor's Notes
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        Ibn Sina Cultural Heritage
        Ibn Sina Cultural Heritage Manuscript Document
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        3 - A Comparison of Perfect Nature in Islamic Philosophy with Fravashī in Khosravani Wisdom
        Maryam  Asadian Babak Alikhani Alikhani
        The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and lib Full Text
        The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and liberation from intermediate and immaterial worlds. This view, which was also shared by Abu’l-Brakāt al-Baghdādī and some others before Suhrawardī, was explained and interpreted by Mullā Ṣadrā and his students. Mullā Ṣadrā believed that perfect nature is a single intellectual form and the highest level of Man’s existence which enjoys the highest degree of immateriality. He called this level the “Holy Spirit” and emphasized that there is no difference between the soul and perfect nature and, basically, the whole identity of the human soil originates in their perfect nature. Although perfect nature is closely related to Hermetic teachings, one cannot ignore its Khosravani roots. In Mazdayasnan teachings, reference has been made to the states and modes of the soul, the most supreme of which is Fravashī or Farvahar. Fravashī is the heavenly essence or an aspect of Mīnuy-e Xerad (or spirit of wisdom) which reveals itself to ascetics and teaches them religious principles. In the present paper, after examining the views of Islamic philosophers regarding perfect nature, the authors have tried to demonstrate that this concept is rooted in the pre-eternal essence of wisdom, which, in conformity with Suhrawardī’s etymology of both Eastern (Khosravani) and Western (Hermetic) branches of philosophy, is among the most fundamental principles of epistemology. In fact, in order to attain his own illuminationist purpose, which is to revive the pre-eternal substance through posing the concept of perfect nature, Suhrawardī has brought Khosravani and Hermetic philosophies together. Mullā Ṣadrā has also advocated him in this regard. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Sinian Transcendent Philosophy: Ibn Sīnā’s Move from Peripatetic Philosophy to Transcendent Philosophy
        Mostafa  Momeni
        Although Ibn Sīnā has been frequently introduced as a Peripatetic philosopher and the “Master of Peripatetic Philosophers” in the world of Islam, one might wonder if such a reading of his philosophy is absolutely correct. Undoubtedly, his major works have been written o Full Text
        Although Ibn Sīnā has been frequently introduced as a Peripatetic philosopher and the “Master of Peripatetic Philosophers” in the world of Islam, one might wonder if such a reading of his philosophy is absolutely correct. Undoubtedly, his major works have been written on the basis of the principles of Peripatetic philosophy. However, the question is whether one can find some indications of his departure from this school of philosophy in the same works. Ibn Sīnā neither remained a Peripatetic philosopher nor followed Peripatetic thoughts to the end of his life. Through coining the term “Transcendent Philosophy” for his own school and inviting the seekers of truths to follow it in order to have an accurate grasp of what they sought for, Ibn Sīnā added a completely new dimension to his identity. Finally, the Transcendent Philosophy reached its peak of development in Sadrian thoughts. Here, the author intends to explain the “transcendence of Sinian philosophy” and, at the same time, trace the roots of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy in Sinian philosophy and highlight them in his works and words. Although the political occupations of Ibn Sīnā and his short life did not allow him to provide a new synthesis of such principles, he managed to pave the way for the creation of the Transcendent Philosophy by his successors. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Impact of Zoroastrian Wisdom on Pre-Socratic Philosophers and Plato
        Reza  Amiri
        There are several similarities among the philosophical thoughts of pre-Socratic sages and the preceding Zoroaster’s teachings. Such similarities indicate the familiarity of Greek philosophers with Zoroaster’s teachings through their contacts with eastern nations, partic Full Text
        There are several similarities among the philosophical thoughts of pre-Socratic sages and the preceding Zoroaster’s teachings. Such similarities indicate the familiarity of Greek philosophers with Zoroaster’s teachings through their contacts with eastern nations, particularly Iranians. In this paper, following a comparative method, the author intends to provide an answer to the question of how Zoroaster’s teachings influenced pre-Socratic philosophies. The findings of this study demonstrate that some thinkers such as Thales, Pythagoras, Empedocles, and, particularly, Plato developed their views under the influence of Iranian philosophical thoughts. In this regard, reference can be made to some concepts including partnership, duality, Plato’s king-sage, and Pythagoras’ views regarding spirit and numbers. Manuscript Document
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        6 - The Relationship between Platonic and Aristotelian Philosophies in Alexandrian (Ammonian) Philosophy
        Roohollah Fadaei Ahmad Asgari
        Since the first century BC, Platonic philosophy has always been in conflict with Peripatetic philosophy. Here, the main trend which tried to reconcile these two schools with each other reached its culmination in Ammonius Saccas’ philosophy. The same idea was fully reali Full Text
        Since the first century BC, Platonic philosophy has always been in conflict with Peripatetic philosophy. Here, the main trend which tried to reconcile these two schools with each other reached its culmination in Ammonius Saccas’ philosophy. The same idea was fully realized in Porphyry’s school, following which Platonic philosophers devoted particular attention to reconciling the views of Plato and Aristotle. However, Sureyanus and Proclus did not agree with this trend and criticized Aristotle with respect to some important issues. They also maintained that some of his views were in contrast to those of Plato. According to Proclus, Aristotle had denied the world of Ideas and had failed to grasp the concept of the Divine efficient cause, thus limiting His agency to the final cause. He also maintained that Aristotle had promoted the intellect to the level of the first origin and absolute one, which was by itself an unforgivable mistake and diversion. In contrast, in the light of the efforts made by Ammonius Hermiae and his students, the Alexandrian School of Philosophy was developed. This School aimed to reconcile the philosophical Schools of Plato and Aristotle with each other following a systematic process and, finally, managed to do so in the best way possible. As one of the most prominent philosophers of this field, Simplicus, under the influence of Ammonius Hermiae, interpreted what Proclus deemed as the points of departure between the views of Aristotle and Plato in a way that they turned into their points of agreement. He did this not because of his personal preferences but due to the existing philosophical necessities. Manuscript Document
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        7 - The Belief in the Other World in Pre-Historic Iran (A Philosophical Analysis based on Archeological Proofs)
        Atousa  Moemeni
        Following the growth of human sciences, archeology, as one of the materialist and spiritual branches of human sciences, has recently been seeking to learn about the quality of the formation, continuity, and change of early societies. It has been doing so on the basis of Full Text
        Following the growth of human sciences, archeology, as one of the materialist and spiritual branches of human sciences, has recently been seeking to learn about the quality of the formation, continuity, and change of early societies. It has been doing so on the basis of tangible and intangible proofs and through investigating the development of thoughts, cultures, traditions, and beliefs of such societies. Moreover, archeologists aim to perceive this process of change and development alongside rational and logical findings in relation to human worldviews as an everlasting treasure which has lingered since pre-history until now. Death and its life-related and ontological dimensions in different cultures and societies have always been among the most fundamental problems attracting the attention of human beings all over the world. In fact, humans are essentially living beings who are always thinking about death and have continually kept their connection with this concept in the course of history. Archeological proofs represent the most tangible legacy of death-related thoughts and demonstrate people’s attention and sensitivity to death, which are themselves rooted in their philosophy of the other world. In the present paper, the author has tried to deal with the philosophy of death and Man’s thanatoptic nature during the second and first millennia BC based on some archeological diggings in an Iron Age cemetery (which represents a specific age and a region with a rich ancient history and culture). She has also sought to particularly study burial traditions and their changes along with their underlying ideological foundations. In this way, with references to certain archeological studies and discovered artifacts in field excavations, the author hopes to shed some light on Man’s awareness of death and their beliefs in relation to the world after death and analyze the transfer of such thoughts and all their evolving dimensions to the next generations based on rational and logical principles. Manuscript Document