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        1 - ٍٍٍEditor's Note
        Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
        در تقویم رسمی کشور، روز اول شهریورماه هر سال ببهانة پاسداشت دانش پزشکی و جمعیت پزشکان، و در ارتباط با مقام بلند دانشمند بزرگ عالم اسلام، حکیم ابوعلی سینا، به نام «روز پزشک» نامگذاری شده است. در همین زمینه، برغم شهرت ابن‌سینا به طبیبی زبردست و صاحب دائرة‌المعارفی همچون ک Full Text
        در تقویم رسمی کشور، روز اول شهریورماه هر سال ببهانة پاسداشت دانش پزشکی و جمعیت پزشکان، و در ارتباط با مقام بلند دانشمند بزرگ عالم اسلام، حکیم ابوعلی سینا، به نام «روز پزشک» نامگذاری شده است. در همین زمینه، برغم شهرت ابن‌سینا به طبیبی زبردست و صاحب دائرة‌المعارفی همچون کتاب قانون، بسیاری از مورخان و متتبعان در فلسفه و حتی افکار و فرهنگ عمومی کشورمان، نسبت به وجوه اصلی شخصیت این چهرة بزرگ علمی و فلسفی عالم بشریت، آگاهی چندانی ندارند. در میان ملل و اقوام جهان، سنت چنین بوده و هست که در معرفی و ترسیم چهره‌های کلیدی و اثرگذار خود، اهتمام خاص بعمل آورند و چه بسا در تعریف و تمجید و پاسداشت مقام آنان، به مبالغه و بزرگنمایی هم روی می‌آورند؛ چنانکه در ترسیم چهره‌های تاریخی کسانی همچون اسکندر مقدونی، ناپلئون بناپارت، آبراهام لینکلن و امثال آنها، از داستان‌پردازی و تخیلات هم بهره گرفته میشود. اما دریغ است که در سرزمین علم و عالم‌پرور ایران، با آن سابقة درخشان علمی، فرهنگی و تاریخی که حتی ستایش انبوهی از مستشرقان و ایران‌شناسان را برانگیخته است، نه‌تنها در معرفی و معارفه شایستة، میراث علمی و معنوی آن، تلاش جدی صورت نمیگیرد، بلکه گاه در نشان دادن جایگاه واقعی آن چهره و واقعیتهای تاریخی مربوط به میراث علمی‌مان، کاهلی و خطا نیز راه می‌یابد. در مقام و مرتبة علمی ابن‌سینا، بویژه در عرصة دانش پزشکی هیچ تردیدی نیست، اما قبل از این وجهه و صبغة مشهور و متداول، باید مقام و نقش ابن‌سینا در عرصة وجه عقلانی و صورت درخشان خرد ایرانی و اسلامی، مورد التفات و تأمل صاحبان و جویندگان علم قرار گیرد. دربارة اندیشه‌های فلسفی و ابواب مختلف حکمت سینوی، نوشته‌های فراوانی از قدیم و جدید در اختیار ماست؛ همچنین شروح و تعلیقات و تقریرهایی که از شفا و اشارات و نجات و دانشنامه علائی و تعلیقات و مباحثات و مانند اینها صورت گرفته، کمّاً و کیفاً قابل توجه و بعضاً درخشان است، لیکن دربارة خاستگاهها و مبادی نظری و نوآوریهای فلسفی و حکمی شیخ، بویژه دیدگاههای سنجشگران، او با لحاظ فلسفة مشائی و سنت ارسطویی، همچنان ناگفته‌های بسیاری وجود دارد. بلحاظ دسته‌بندیهای مسالک و مشارب فلسفی، قرار دادن ابن‌سینا در ذیل یا امتداد مکتب فلسفی مشاء، به اعتباری درست و به اعتباراتی نادرست است. به اعتبار اخذ و اقتباس بسیار فارابی و ابن‌سینا از عناصر فلسفه ارسطو و اتباع او و تصدیق برخی مبانی و روشها و نتایج این مشرب فلسفی، اندراج وی ذیل فیلسوفان مشاء درست است، اما در فاصله گرفتن آنها از فضای مسلک مشائی و نقدهای بسیاری که بر دیدگاههای هستی‌شناختی، معرفت‌شناختی، معادشناختی و علم‌النفس این سنت فلسفی وارد ساخته، هنوز پژوهش جامع و کاملی صورت نگرفته است. بگفتة خود ابن‌سینا، «حکمت مشرقی» وی مشتمل بر مبانی کاملاً متفاوت از سنت مشائی است و بنا بر گزارش ابوعبید جوزجانی، شاگرد او، تنها در کتاب الانصاف شیخ‌الرئیس، صدها ایراد بر دعاوی مشائی مطرح و گردآوری شده بود. همین عدم التفات جامع به فلسفة سینوی است که اسباب خطای بسیاری از خاورشناسان و مورخان فلسفة اسلامی را فراهم ساخته است: غفلت یا نادیده انگاشتن عناصر غیرمشائی حکمت سینوی از یکسو و عدم التفات به پیوستگی و استمرار تاریخی حیات فلسفة اسلامی، از سوی دیگر. قرار دادن متفکر و فیلسوف در گفتمان فلسفی عصر او و لحاظ تفکر تاریخی بمنظور یافتن مبادی و مبانی و پرسشهای محوری وی، امری بایسته است که اختصاص به ابن‌سینا ندارد. این رهیافت در سنت تاریخ‌نگاری فلسفة غرب پیشینة نسبتاً زیادی دارد و ازاینرو مورخان فلسفه عموماً، نسبتها و پیوستگیهای فکری و فرهنگی را از نظر دور نمیدارند. اکنون بازخوانی مختصات تاریخی و جغرافیايی عصر ابن‌سینا و پرسشها و چالشهایی که بویژه در نسبت با فلسفة شایع با آنها مواجه بوده است، احتمالاً راه را برای درک و معرفی دقیق صورت عقلانیت سینوی هموار میکند؛ عقلانیتی که پیش‌فرض آن به‌اندازة تمایز وجود از ماهیت و امکان از وجوب، اهمیت داشته و یقیناً نتایج و دستاوردهایی متفاوت از فلسفة مشاء و اتباع آن دربرخواهد داشت. بهمین اندازه دربارة تأثیر نگاه و رهیافت غیرمشائی ابن‌سینا در ادوار بعدی و حتی نقش وی در تاریخ فلسفة غرب نیز نیاز به بازخوانی احساس میشود؛ از آن جمله است چرايی اقبال تفکر اواخر قرون وسطی و دورة جدید به شیوة تفکر ابن‌رشد و ابن‌رشدیان و دور شدن از تفکر ابن‌سینا و بطور خاص، فاصلة وی از سنت مشائی و مکتب ارسطو. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Genealogy and Identity of the World of Suspended Ideas in Illuminationist Philosophy
        Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
        The theory of suspended ideas is one of Suhrawardī’s most important philosophical innovations. Several challenging queries have been ventured regarding this theory; for example, questions have been raised about the identity of this world in the hierarchy of the realms o Full Text
        The theory of suspended ideas is one of Suhrawardī’s most important philosophical innovations. Several challenging queries have been ventured regarding this theory; for example, questions have been raised about the identity of this world in the hierarchy of the realms of being. This question, in its Illuminationist sense, has been posed as follows: Is the identity of this world of the type of light, darkness, or a combination of both of them? Another question asks whether this theory is related to the legacy of Islamic philosophy, wisdom, and kalām, and to which views it leads in its genealogical sense in the history of these three disciplines. The findings of the present study indicate that the discussions of the faculty of imagination in Fārābī’s philosophy, imagination and spherical souls in Ibn Sīnā’s philosophy, the belief in Purgatory in Islamic kalām, and the theory of allegory in gnosis are the philosophical and ideological legacies which have influenced the explanation of this theory. On the other hand, resorting to Suhrawardī’s principles and arguments to explain this theory and the identity of the world of Ideas indicates that the existents of the world possess collective modal ideas and both luminous and dark identities. Manuscript Document
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        3 - A Critique of Innate Ideas in Descartes’ Philosophy Based on Sadrian Principles
        Maryam  Samadieh عبدالرزاق  حسامی فر
        Descartes believed in the existence of innate ideas in human beings. He maintained that the idea of God is the most important of such ideas which He, similar to a dexterous craftsman, has imprinted on our primordial nature (fitrah). The interpreters of Cartesian philoso Full Text
        Descartes believed in the existence of innate ideas in human beings. He maintained that the idea of God is the most important of such ideas which He, similar to a dexterous craftsman, has imprinted on our primordial nature (fitrah). The interpreters of Cartesian philosophy have adopted various methods to interpret the place of innate ideas in Descartes’ philosophy. Based on one of these interpretations, these ideas potentially exist and are present in the soul prior to experiencing them, and their appearance and actuality comes after their sense perception. However, based on another interpretation, the innateness of ideas does not necessarily indicate their permanent presence in the mind as, in this case, no idea can ever be innate. Rather, it means that we are capable of creating such ideas and can perceive their truth through sufficient mental and rational contemplation and needless of the knowledge acquired through the senses. It seems that the first interpretation conforms more to Descartes’ own view as to the potential existence and presence of such ideas. Accordingly, it is inferred that the existence of innate ideas in its Cartesian sense is not consistent with Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical principles because he denies the existence of any kind of concept and judgement prior to experiencing them in the mind. Moreover, based on Sadrian principles, the human soul is a corporeal substance void of any kind of concept and judgement at the beginning of its creation, but it gradually develops through its trans-substantial motion until it reaches the level of intellectual immateriality. Manuscript Document
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        4 - A Study of the Illuminationist Elements of Ibn Sīnā’s Works in the Realms of Method, Content, and Language
        Saeed  Rahimian
        Although Ibn Sīnā was the master of Peripatetic philosophers, he also provided the bases for the development of Illuminationist philosophy. In terms of methodology and epistemology, through introducing Oriental wisdom, which, irrespective of the Greeks’ views, is his ow Full Text
        Although Ibn Sīnā was the master of Peripatetic philosophers, he also provided the bases for the development of Illuminationist philosophy. In terms of methodology and epistemology, through introducing Oriental wisdom, which, irrespective of the Greeks’ views, is his own specific school of philosophy, and also through employing certain terminology, principles, and arguments which are associated with Illuminationism, he prepared the context for the revival and growth of Illuminationist philosophy by Suhrawardī. Ibn Sīnā’s critical mind and spiritual worthiness during his short life efficiently paved the way for the surge of Islamic philosophy and wisdom towards Illuminationist philosophy and then the Transcendent Philosophy in terms of methodology, content, and language. Suhrawardī mainly emphasizes the differences between his school of philosophy and that of Ibn Sīnā and his Peripatetic followers and introduces the beginning of his philosophy as the end of Peripatetic philosophy. However, we can confidently claim that his philosophy is to such a large extent influenced by Ibn Sīnā’s that one can consider Suhrawardī’s school to have been the outcome of the natural growth of Sinan philosophy in the course of time. Through highlighting gnostic and intellectually intuitive (or what was later called Illuminationist) elements in Ibn Sīnā’s available works, the present paper aims to demonstrate that Suhrawardī’s debt to Ibn Sīnā in all the three fields of methodology, content, and language is much greater than what is commonly assumed. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Anthropological Principles of Hobbes and Spinoza on Government (A Historical Overview)
        Bayan Karimy Seyyed Mustafa  Shahraeini
        Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their v Full Text
        Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their views are clearly different from those of their predecessors and even from those of Descartes, who is almost contemporary with them. Spinoza has been influenced by Hobbes in some respects; however, because of the differences between the logic and general philosophy of each of them, there are some noteworthy differences between these two philosophers’ anthropological interpretations and the functions of their political philosophy. The main purpose of the present paper is to highlight the historical background of political philosophy in ancient Greece, particularly during the Middle Ages. While challenging this historical background, it also aims to discover the explicit and implicit metaphysical and anthropological principles and assumptions underlying the views of Hobbes and Spinoza regarding a desirable government and report the differences and similarities between them. The authors intend to demonstrate that Spinoza’s political philosophy is based on ethics and reason. The distinctive feature of his philosophy is its love of human beings and reason. On the other hand, Hobbes’ political philosophy is based on the senses, and its distinctive feature is having a pessimistic view of human beings and presenting a material interpretation of their nature. Accordingly, the principle of preserving the essence in Hobbes’ view is limited to preserving the body, and a superior government means absolute monarchy, the sole purpose of which is protecting the lives of its citizens and establishing security in society. Nevertheless, in Spinoza’s view, protecting the essence is beyond the protection of the body and extends to reason, perhaps even more than the body, because human essence mainly depends on their reason rather than their body. Hence a superior government in Spinoza’s view is of a democratic nature. He also emphasizes the role of government in promoting the human culture and the necessity of educational and ethical policy-making. Manuscript Document
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        6 - A Study of the Rule of the One from the Viewpoint of Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī
        Rohollah Adineh Fatemeh Babaeiy Adeleh Fallah
        The rule of the one or al-wāḥid (nothing proceeds from the one, but one) is one of the most fundamental rules which is referred to in philosophy and, particularly, in discussions on the quality of the creation of the world. This principle has provoked several debates in Full Text
        The rule of the one or al-wāḥid (nothing proceeds from the one, but one) is one of the most fundamental rules which is referred to in philosophy and, particularly, in discussions on the quality of the creation of the world. This principle has provoked several debates in the history of philosophy, and many philosophers have resorted to it when explaining their own cosmological views. However, some philosophers have found it completely inconsistent with the absolute power and will of Almighty Truth and harshly criticized it. Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī is one of the scholars, who, in spite of being a well-known philosopher and presenting a great number of innovative ideas, has not received the attention that he truly deserves. He studied the “rule of the one” extensively and intended to demonstrate it based on several rational and traditional arguments and through resorting to various Qur’anic verses and narrations. Following a descriptive-analytic method and based on several historical documents, the present study initially explores the origin of the rule of the one and its historical development among philosophers. Next, it presents the view of Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī regarding the rule of the one and analyzes and examines his rational and traditional arguments. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Purpose of Rational Training in Heraclitus’ Logos-Centered Philosophy
        Maryam Barati Rezaali Norozy
        The purpose of the present study is to introduce some practical solutions to the problem of transgression in society through benefitting from the teleology of the rational training of Heraclitus, the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. This qualitative study was carried out Full Text
        The purpose of the present study is to introduce some practical solutions to the problem of transgression in society through benefitting from the teleology of the rational training of Heraclitus, the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. This qualitative study was carried out following Frankena’s practical syllogism. In doing so, the researchers firstly investigated Heraclitus’ works and extracted the related discussions. Next, in order to gain access to the ultimate and intermediary goals of rational training, they considered an initial must as the premise of the first deduction and, then, based on a realist philosophical proposition as the second premise of the practical syllogism, its conclusion, which is the same ultimate goal of rational training in Heraclitus’ logos-centered philosophy, was extracted. Finally, based on this ultimate goal and other philosophical principles, they inferred the intermediary goals of Heraclitus’ rational training and, given the findings, presented some strategies for establishing the culture of normativeness. The findings of the study indicate that the end of rational training in Heraclitus’ view is to connect to logos (universal intellect) and to learn about it so that Man can discover the principles and rules of the universal intellect, move ahead accordingly, and attain perfection. Hence, it can be said that attaining the knowledge of laws is the first goal in the process of solving the problem of norm-breaking and moving towards the ideal society based on the laws. Moreover, given the intermediary goals of Heraclitus’ rational training, it can be concluded that, in order to attain knowledge and act according to the norms, rational training must be realized at three levels: cognitive, including self-knowledge and social understanding; strategic, including reference-orientedness, and ethical, including fighting against whims and developing good behavior. In this way, one can overcome the problem of transgression or norm-breaking. Manuscript Document
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        8 - Theoretical Changes about the Faculty of Estimation in the Course of Historical Development of Islamic Philosophy
        Mohammad-Ali  Ardestani
        The faculty of estimation is one of the inner, particular, and perceptive powers of the soul that plays a significant role in particular cognitions, and without which it is impossible to organize and balance life affairs. Its potential of transcending the realm of meani Full Text
        The faculty of estimation is one of the inner, particular, and perceptive powers of the soul that plays a significant role in particular cognitions, and without which it is impossible to organize and balance life affairs. Its potential of transcending the realm of meanings has placed it on top of all inner particular powers. Following a descriptive-analytic evaluation method, the present paper examines the development of the views of Muslim philosophers in this regard. Three important theories stand out in this process. In their quest to attribute a specific source to each kind of perception, Peripatetic philosophers consider the faculty of estimation to be independent from others, place it alongside the faculties of sensation, imagination, and intellect, and emphasize that it can perceive the nature of all specific universals. Accordingly, perceptions are divided in two four sensory, imaginative, estimative, and rational types. Among the followers of the Transcendent Philosophy, some philosophers such as Mullā Hādī Sabziwārī have advocated the Peripatetics on this ground, but Mullā Ṣadrā and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī have criticized this theory each in their own way. Mullā Ṣadrā has promoted the faculty of estimation to the level of the intellect and placed it at the level of revealed intellect. Accordingly, perceptions are divided into three sensory, imaginative, and rational types. However, ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī has attributed the faculty of estimation to the common sense and demoted its status to the level of the senses. He acknowledges the unity of sensory, imaginative, and estimative perceptions. Manuscript Document