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        1 - Editor's Note
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        History of philosophy The Books of Sects and Creeds Biography
        History of philosophy The Books of Sects and Creeds Biography Manuscript Document
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        2 - A Study of the Philosophical Elements of Platonic-Plotinian Tradition in Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s Philosophy
        Seyed Morteza  Honarmand
        After the rise of Islam, philosophy and wisdom in Iran and in other corners of the world of Islam were united with Greek philosophy and interacted with it through the Translation Movement. Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī was of the prominent thinkers of the world of Islam who Full Text
        After the rise of Islam, philosophy and wisdom in Iran and in other corners of the world of Islam were united with Greek philosophy and interacted with it through the Translation Movement. Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī was of the prominent thinkers of the world of Islam who became familiar with Greek philosophy and enriched it in the light of his innovations through the Peripatetic Philosophy and the works of Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā. Now, the question is which of the philosophical elements of Greek wisdom, particularly the Platonic-Plotinian tradition, is more visible in Ṭūsī’s philosophical-kalāmī thoughts. This study, which was carried out following a descriptive-analytic method and through exploring Ṭūsī’s works, concludes that this presence and similarity have emerged in different forms, including: 1) complete acceptance of Greek views without any change though with some displacement of Greek views, such as the most logical problems, the discussion of the ten-fold categories, the four-fold causes, and classifications of sciences; 2) completion, change, and addition of some arguments for demonstrating the previous views, such as the problem of impossibility of endless chain, immateriality of the soul, proving the Necessary, oneness of the Necessary, impossibility of the emanation of many from the one, union of the intellect and intelligible, and the substantial nature of archetypes, and 3) the change of the content and nature of Greek views while preserving their old names, such as Platonic Ideas. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Substance and Essence of Aristotle’s Ousia and its Translation into Substance and Reality
        Hamid Khosravani Hamidreza  Mahboobi Arani
        Aristotle’s ousia suffered the same fate it had in the West when it arrived in ancient Iran and the world of Islam. Among all the existing appropriate equivalents, the term “substance” was chosen as its nearest equivalent in western philosophical texts. Similarly, the t Full Text
        Aristotle’s ousia suffered the same fate it had in the West when it arrived in ancient Iran and the world of Islam. Among all the existing appropriate equivalents, the term “substance” was chosen as its nearest equivalent in western philosophical texts. Similarly, the term “jawhar”, which is the Arabic for “gawhar” in Persian and a close equivalent for substance, was accepted by all philosophers in the world of Islam. In previous translated works before and after the translation movement in Baghdad’s Dar al-Tarjumah (Translation House), there were some words such as ayn, inniyyat, huwiyyat, and budish which implied almost the true meaning of ousia as intended by Aristotle. This was because this term has been derived from the verb to be and basically means existent, essence, or being; however, jawhar and substance were the ultimate choices of translators. The dominance of this substantialist view, both in the West and in the East, was partly because of the early translations of Aristotle’s works. This paper aims to, firstly, examine the fate of Aristotles’s ousia upon its arrival in Iran and the world of Islam and, then, discuss the relationships between the meanings of the chosen equivalents in the Islamic world with those of their western equivalents. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Priority of Sophia to Phronesis and its Significance in Aristotle’s Philosophy of Ethics
        Ali Nazemi Ardakani Reza Davari Ardakani Malek Hosseini
        The relationship between phronesis or practical wisdom and Sophia or theoretical wisdom and, at another level, the relationship between ethical virtues and intellectual virtues are among the important subjects in Aristotle’s philosophy of ethics. Their importance is due Full Text
        The relationship between phronesis or practical wisdom and Sophia or theoretical wisdom and, at another level, the relationship between ethical virtues and intellectual virtues are among the important subjects in Aristotle’s philosophy of ethics. Their importance is due to the fact that not only in case of the priority of phronesis to sophia, contradiction will arise between Aristotle’s teachings in Metaphysics and Nichomachean Ethics, but also because it seems that such a priority will eventually lead to a kind of diversion from prime philosophy and, hence, considering human being as the noblest subject in philosophy. Of course, Aristotle himself disagrees with this position. This paper mainly inquires whether in Aristotle’s philosophy priority belongs to sophia or phronesis, and what the significance and consequences of the priority of one over the other is. The authors argue that, although phronesis has a supreme place in his philosophy, it is sophia which enjoys fundamental priority. On the other hand, in Aristotle’s system of thought, eudaimonia or the highest human good cannot be attained unless through possessing phronesis and Sophia at the same time. Hence, it seems that, in order to learn about the ultimate goal of philosophy, it is necessary to further deliberate over the concepts of sophia and phronesis and their relationships with each other and with other virtues. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Term and Definition Based on Sadrian and Sinan Philosophies
        Narges Vanaei Mansur  Imanpour Sohrab  Haghighat
        The discussion of definition has a particular place in epistemology and sometimes raises a number of complicated problems. One of these problems is the role of differentia in Ibn Sīnā’s epistemological system, which complicates delimiting the definition of things. This Full Text
        The discussion of definition has a particular place in epistemology and sometimes raises a number of complicated problems. One of these problems is the role of differentia in Ibn Sīnā’s epistemological system, which complicates delimiting the definition of things. This has gone beyond the realm of Peripatetic philosophy and affected other philosophers as well so that, when examining the source of this problem and the reasons behind the debates, they sometimes attribute the problem to the philosophical systems they follow. However, each has eventually tried to resolve the issue in a way based on their own philosophical views. Ibn Sīnā had to resort to logical differentia in order to solve the problem though he considers definition under such differentia to be descriptive and its role to be merely the distinction of definiens. Relying on his own philosophical principles and placing differentia among the concomitants of existence, he considered definition based on logical differentia similar to term and, in this way, promoted description to the level of term. Moreover because of the ontological mode which he introduced against the conceptual mode for differentia, he maintained that conceptual knowledge is not sufficient for knowing about the truth. Therefore, while emphasizing and acknowledging presential knowledge, he introduced it as a strategy to be used against Ibn Sīnā’s inability for presenting a term and a solution for the problem. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Explaining Fārābī’s Teleological View of Music
        Mohsen  Habibi Seyed Mohsen Mousavi
        Fārābī’s specific view of music reveals the teleological importance of music for him. In his philosophy, music is connected with logical thought and political philosophy, and this connection plays an effective role in his musical system. The relationship between music, Full Text
        Fārābī’s specific view of music reveals the teleological importance of music for him. In his philosophy, music is connected with logical thought and political philosophy, and this connection plays an effective role in his musical system. The relationship between music, logic, and politics is established through the end of music. That is, the genre of poetry, as a part of logic, determines the end of music and also develops a relationship with civil philosophy (politics) in the course of this relation in the view of Fārābī. The reflection of such relationships can be seen in the definition of music, specifying its principles and source of its formation, types of music, and the classification and ranking of musical instruments. Given the final cause of music and its principles, which mathematics is not capable of explaining, Fārābī distances himself from mathematics when analyzing music. He equates the final cause of music with that of poetry, which is the same provoking of imagination to attain happiness for all. In this way, he emphasizes the imitative aspect of music and defines it as something more than a tool for entertainment. The teleological view yields some consequences for Fārābī’s general approach to music, which are the focal points of this paper. Manuscript Document
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        7 - A Comparative Study of Poetics of Aristotle and Ibn Sīnā Regarding the Nature of Poetry
        Farideh Daliri Esmail BaniArdalan Amir Maziyar
        The nature and definition of poetry has always attracted the attention of literary thinkers in the field of philosophy. Aristotle’s Poetics is one of the greatest works on the content and structural criticisms of poetry. Given his Greek culture, Aristotle believes that Full Text
        The nature and definition of poetry has always attracted the attention of literary thinkers in the field of philosophy. Aristotle’s Poetics is one of the greatest works on the content and structural criticisms of poetry. Given his Greek culture, Aristotle believes that tragedy is an imitation of an action and a kind of dramatic art which results in catharsis. In Islamic tradition, the familiarity with Aristotle’s Poetics began from the third and fourth centuries (AH) through the related translations and abridged versions. During the same century, Fārābī and then Ibn Sīnā began analyzing and commenting on Poetics in order to explore Aristotle’s views in the realm of poetry. The most important abridgement of this treatise and commentary on it were made by Ibn Sīnā under the influence of Fārābī. In Ibn Sīnā’s treatise the concept of poetry is different from that in the field of conventional poetry. Imitation is the essence of poetry whereby imagination has an efficient presence. While trying to compare the nature of poetry in the Poetics section of Ibn Sīnā’s al-Shifā and Aristotle’s Poetics, this study aims to explain Ibn Sīnā’s view of poetry and his definition of poetry and its components and demonstrate the proximity between his standpoints in this regard with those of Aristotle. The authors have employed an analytic-descriptive and comparative approach to conduct this study. Manuscript Document
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        8 - A Glance at one Century of Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosophers from the Beginning of the 20th Century until Now)
        Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
        The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the la Full Text
        The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the later years and the large number of the prominent philosophers in various fields of philosophy, this list only contains the names of 40 of the most influential philosophers of this period in Iran. The translators who have rendered the works of these philosophers into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manuchehr Sanei Darrehbidi has mainly focused on Wilhelm Dilthey, Yadollah Moaghan on Ernst Cassirer, Malek Hosseini on Wittgenstein, and Mohammad Hassan Lotfi on Jaspers. The works of some philosophers have been translated several times, for instance, Nietzsche and Philosophy by Gilles Deleuze; Political Ideas, Why I Am Not A Christian, Power: A New Social Analysis, and Marriage and Morals by Bertrand Russell; Existentialism is a Humanism and The Words by Jean-Paul Sartre; The Myth of Sisyphus and Notebooks (3 volumes) by Albert Camus; The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn; Logical-Philosophical Treatise by Wittgenstein, and Being and Time by Martin Heidegger have been translated at least four times. Among them Russell’s Power: A New Social Analysis ranks first with six retranslations. This bibliography introduces the works of the following 40 philosophers: Theodor W. Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Alfred Jules Ayer, Henry Bergson, Karl Raimund Popper, William James, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Dilthey, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, John Bordley Rawls, Richard McKay Rorty, Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur, Jean Paul Sartre, John Rogers Searle, Paul Karl Feyerabend, Friedrich Ludwig GottlobFrege, Paul-Michel Foucault, Rudolf Carnap, Ernst Alfred Cassirer, Albert Camus, Saul Aaron Kripke, Willard Van Orman Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-François Lyotard, Gabriel Honoré Marcel, Herbert Marcuse, Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty, George Edward Moore, Alfred North Whitehead, Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Jürgen Habermas, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich August von Hayek, and Karl Theodor Jaspers. Manuscript Document