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        1 - سخن سردبير
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        درتاریخ اندیشۀ سیاسی جدید، دو کتاب شهریار ماکیاولی و لویاتان هابز از اهمیت ویژه‌یی برخوردارند. هر دو اثر، تقریباً همزمان در قرن هفدهم میلادی نوشته شده‌اند، الا اینکه یکی در ایتالیا و دیگری در انگلستان. موضوع مشترک در اینها ماهیت دولت و نحو، فرمانروایی حاکمان بر رعایا و Full Text
        درتاریخ اندیشۀ سیاسی جدید، دو کتاب شهریار ماکیاولی و لویاتان هابز از اهمیت ویژه‌یی برخوردارند. هر دو اثر، تقریباً همزمان در قرن هفدهم میلادی نوشته شده‌اند، الا اینکه یکی در ایتالیا و دیگری در انگلستان. موضوع مشترک در اینها ماهیت دولت و نحو، فرمانروایی حاکمان بر رعایا و مردمان و در یک کلام، چیستی دولت مطلوب است؛ حکومتی که به هیچ اصلی از اصول اخلاقی پایبند نیست و با انسانها همانند وحوش و بهائم باید رفتار کند. حدود یک قرن قبل از آن، هنری هشتم ـ پادشاه انگلستان ـ به قتل فیلسوف سیاسی مشهور و نویسنده اتوپیا، یعنی تامس مور فرمان داد و در 1535 سر از تن او جدا کردند. اما در سر آغاز عصر جدید، سیاست و تفکر سیاسی در چه شرایطی قرار داشته که زمینه‌های ظهور چنین پدیده‌هایی را فراهم ساخته است؟ در اینجا قصد تحلیل مفاد آثار و وقایعی چون قتل توماس مور را نداریم؛ قصد ما ریشه‌یابی و التفات به منشأ رفتار سیاسی قدرتهای امروز، یعنی آمریکا و اروپا است. از خود میپرسیم براستی کارنامۀ دموکراسی و لیبرالیسم جدید در چهارصد سالۀ اخیر چگونه است و آیا شعارهای آزادی و برابری و انسان دوستی و صلح و آبادانی و رعایت حقوق بشر، در برابر هزاران صحنۀ خشونت و جنگ و تجاوز و کشتار و ویرانی، که عمدتاً از ناحیۀ استعمار اروپاییها یا بپشتوانه قدرت نظامی و سیاسی و دسیسه‌های رنگارنگ اروپایی‌ـ‌امریکایی بر ملتهای ضعیف و مظلوم تحمیل شد، رنگ و نشانی دارد؟ مگر از زمان برده‌داری و برده‌فروشی غرب و رفتار کمپانی هند شرقی انگلستان و نسل‌کشی آمریکاییها در ویتنام و ژاپن و کره و کودتاهای خونین آنها در آمریکای جنوبی و وقوع دو جنگ بین‌الملل و کشتار هزاران تن در منطقه بالکان، یعنی قلب اروپا، چقدر گذشته است؟ آیا جز اینست که مرور و ملاحظۀ رویدادهای تلخ و غم‌انگیز همین دو دهۀ اخیر در هزارۀ سوم میلادی، نشان از منشئیت و دخالت آشکار و پنهان غرب در وقوع و گسترش چنین پدیده‌های شومی دارد؟ و حتی پدیده‌هایی که ظاهراً رنگ و بوی شرقی به آنها داده‌اند ـ مانند القاعده و تکفیری و وهابیت و اخیراً داعش ـ همگی در اصل از دامان ناپاک سیاست غرب متولد شده و بر سر سفره آنها تغذیه کرده و میکند؟ شهریار و لویاتان سندی است که تولد انسانی خاص و وقوع حوادثی بدست وی را در آینده خبر میدهد؛ گویی نویسنده در آیینۀ زمان چیزی را میدیده است که صورت بالفعل آن در زمانۀ ما آشکار شده، یعنی جدایی و استقلال سیاست از دین و حتی اخلاق و وجدان عمومی بشر. اگر تا چندی پیش صدای شعار مبارزه با تروریسم در محافل و رسانه‌های غربی گوش فلک را پر میکرد، امروز تروریسم دولتی به سرکردگی آمریکا و رژیم غاصب صهیونیستی، در خاک دیگر کشورها آدمکشی میکند و صدایی از مدعیان لیبرالیسم و دموکراسی در نمی‌آید! البته براستی چه دارند که بگویند؟ اگر روزگاری مردمان آسیا و افریقا و دیگر مناطق محروم جهان، چشم به آرمانشهر و اتوپیای غربی دوخته بودند، امروز در مقابل چشمان خود، ستم و نابرابری فراگیر برآمده از سیاست اخلاق‌ستیز و دین‌زدایانه غرب را مشاهده میکنند و در سستی و پوچی سراب انسانیت مدرن تردید ندارند. نسل حاضر اگر فرصت یا حوصله کافی برای مطالعۀ تاریخ جهان را ندارد، حداقل بازخوانی تاریخ معاصر را جهان را تکلیف خود بداند. گذشت زمان و تاریخ غفلت‌آور است، ولی یادآوری گذشته همواره برای حاضرین عبرت‌انگیز و راهگشاست. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Hume’s and Kant’s Epistemological Critique of Metaphysics
        حامد احتشامی SSeyyed Mohammad  Hakak
        Metaphysics is a term which was used by the compilers of Aristotle’s works for a part of them that appeared after the book of Physics. Later it was used as the title of the science which Aristotle dealt with in that section; a science that discusses the principles of ex Full Text
        Metaphysics is a term which was used by the compilers of Aristotle’s works for a part of them that appeared after the book of Physics. Later it was used as the title of the science which Aristotle dealt with in that section; a science that discusses the principles of existent qua existent. Since it delves into some of the fundamental problems of human beings such as God, self, and free will, this discipline has always been the main representative of philosophy. It is, in fact, only in the modern era that epistemology has gained more importance than metaphysics; moreover, some philosophers such as David Hume and Emanuel Kant have questioned its validity. In Hume’s view, metaphysics is an absurd field of science because its concepts are meaningless. In Kant’s view, metaphysical concepts and, thus, the related propositions are meaningful; however, it is impossible for theoretical wisdom to tackle them, and the solutions for metaphysical problems should be sought in the realm of practical wisdom or ethics. This paper reports and evaluates the viewpoints of these two philosophers in relation to metaphysics. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Historical look at the phrase “Political by nature” in the Middle Ages of the Islamic world
        Sajjad Hejri Azartash Azarnoush
        Being political for/Politicalness of human beings is one of the topics which philosophers have been discussing from ancient times until now, and it is the basis/foundation of some branches of practical philosophy, especially the philosophical principles of social scien Full Text
        Being political for/Politicalness of human beings is one of the topics which philosophers have been discussing from ancient times until now, and it is the basis/foundation of some branches of practical philosophy, especially the philosophical principles of social sciences. Although the necessity of "social life" or Being political/Politicalness for all human beings is more or less obvious; it was Greeks who scrutinized this phenomenon in their philosophical works, and what we know as being political by nature (of/about human beings) from the past to the present in the Islamic world has its roots in Greece and the age of translation. This phrase was created/emerged/coined by Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn’s translation of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics in the third lunar century in the Islamic world, and the ground for its development was laid by Miskawayh’s Ethics. Although most contemporary translators of Aristotle's ethics into Persian and Arabic did not use this phrase, it's still prominent. The doctrine of Being political for/Politicalness of human beings became the basis/foundation of the demonstration of philosophers like Avicenna/ Ibn Sina to prove prophecy, and Fakhr al-Din Rāzi introduced it, which later became known as the way of philosophers, into theological works. By inquiring/studying/looking into available Persian and Arabic written heritage, this article tries to follow the development/pathway of the phrase “Political by nature”, which has turned into a term and model/form in the Islamic world, in middle ages and is still used today and in some aspects/somehow fill the gap of historical inquire about it in current literature. Manuscript Document
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        4 - On the Translation of Aristotle’s Ousia as Substance
        Hamid Khosravani Hamidreza  Mahboobi Arani Seyyed Mohammad Ali Hodjati
        Aristotle’s discussion of the Ousia are diverse and confusing since there are various definition of the term especially in Metaphysics, Physics and Categories. He refers to it sometimes as the underlying layer, sometimes he means something similar to the meaning of bein Full Text
        Aristotle’s discussion of the Ousia are diverse and confusing since there are various definition of the term especially in Metaphysics, Physics and Categories. He refers to it sometimes as the underlying layer, sometimes he means something similar to the meaning of being, and sometimes as essence and quiddity. Hence, the difficulty and disagreement among the translators and interpreters on the best equivalent for Ousia in other languages. In the present paper, after a short historical discussion about Ousia, I examine some common equivalents for the Ousia in Latin and English and attempt to discuss the different reasons for and against each equivalent. My argument, in general, goes for the term Substance, and I will bring 8 reasons to establish the argument. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Explanation of the causes of the earthquake in Avicenna’s works and his impact on Qutb-al-Din Shirazi and Shirvani
        Mir Hamid Hashemi Lashenloo Arash  Mousavi
        Some of the Iranian-Muslim scholars, including Avicenna, have written about the earthquake and what causes it to happen. The study is attempted to explain the views of Avicenna, Qutb-al-Din Shirazi and Mohammad Hassan Shirvani on why and how the earthquake would happen. Full Text
        Some of the Iranian-Muslim scholars, including Avicenna, have written about the earthquake and what causes it to happen. The study is attempted to explain the views of Avicenna, Qutb-al-Din Shirazi and Mohammad Hassan Shirvani on why and how the earthquake would happen. Following the Aristotle, Avicenna and even his followers, provided natural explanations for the earthquake. To explain the main cause of the earthquake, These books referred to a natural breath within the earth pushing the surface out. The study concluded that most Muslim scholars, following Avicenna, tended to use the natural factors on explanation of the natural phenomena, including earthquake; Thus they used a so-called scientific methodology to explain it. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Analytical Study of traversal and cutting movement in the View of Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra
        Ahmad Shakibaie Mansur  Imanpour
        Ibn Sina's and Mulla Sadra's use of traversal & cutting movement led to ambiguity in the movement existance. In this research, in order to eliminate this ambiguity, we have addressed the following: One, Ibn Sina's arguments for introducing two definite meanings of motio Full Text
        Ibn Sina's and Mulla Sadra's use of traversal & cutting movement led to ambiguity in the movement existance. In this research, in order to eliminate this ambiguity, we have addressed the following: One, Ibn Sina's arguments for introducing two definite meanings of motion, which are the responses to the bugs inflicted on the existence of motion and the reason for the very nature of motion; His arrangements have been explained in that they are the separation of the first perfection from the second, as well as the separation of the connection from the movement. After answering the problems raised by Ibn Sina's point of view it is clear that Mulla Sadra has succeeded in completing Ibn Sina's method by bringing forward the discussion of the Transcendent Philosophy, but Mulla Sadra has not explicitly proved the existence of a definite existence by justifying it on the basis of the principiality of existence Manuscript Document
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        7 - Challenges of two genres of tragedy and comedy from Avicenna's point of view according to Aristotle's poetic view
        Farideh Daliri Esmail BaniArdalan Amir Maziyar
        Aristotle's theory of poetry entered the realm of Iranian thought with the theme that the genres of tragedy and comedy seek to imitate and mimesis virtues and vices. Aristotle's treatise on poetry, despite its role in shaping Western theater, had no effect on the worl Full Text
        Aristotle's theory of poetry entered the realm of Iranian thought with the theme that the genres of tragedy and comedy seek to imitate and mimesis virtues and vices. Aristotle's treatise on poetry, despite its role in shaping Western theater, had no effect on the world of Persian poetry. It is necessary that the theater comes from the heart of Greek ontology is a reminder of the need for Iranian drama to have a poetic outlook on Iranian culture. This book has been translated and adapted many times as a reference treatise, and one of the most prominent adaptations is Avicenna's poetry. Although the Avicenna's poetry is a report on Aristotle's poetry, he did not merely suffice to summarize it. The fundamental feature of his work is dealing with the essence of poetry, imitation or imagination. His poetry has new features, points and theories. The fundamental motive of this research is to read Avicenna's approach to the Greek sage Poetics and to study his poetry based on the main genres of Aristotle's Poetics treatise. The passage to this goal with an analytical-descriptive approach and data collection method is a library in which the researcher has achieved the theories of two Greek and Iranian scholars with the intention of Avicenna in writing iranian poetry poetics Manuscript Document
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        8 - graduteness in whatness a critical study of Mirqavamuddin Razi's view
        Mahdi Askari Mansour Nasiri
        Muslim philosophers consider any contingent being to be a combination of nature and existence. Since Mirdamad, the question has been raised as to which of the two is the fundamental/objective (Asill). Following the discussion of the fundamentality of the existence and w Full Text
        Muslim philosophers consider any contingent being to be a combination of nature and existence. Since Mirdamad, the question has been raised as to which of the two is the fundamental/objective (Asill). Following the discussion of the fundamentality of the existence and whatness, the question of Graduate, the question was whether the existence is graduated or the whatness. Those who believed in the fundamentality of existence believed that graduteness is of that existence. On the other hand, those who believed in the fundamentality of whatness believed that graduteness is of that whateness. In the meantime, Mir Qawam al-Din Razi has taken a third promise. He believes that graduteness in whatness means inherent presuppositions are impossible and in transverse presuppositions whose derivation is not documented in the essence and essence of the subject is also impossible, but in transverse presuppositions whose derivation is documented in the essence and essence of the subject, graduteness occurs. The main issue of this article is to examine Mir Qawamuddin Razi's view on graduteness in transverse shipments. The purpose of this study is to show the third promise in this issue that has been neglected so far and the research method is descriptive-analytical and to some extent with a historical approach. The conclusion of this study is that the words of Mir Qawamuddin Razi can be correct and defensible according to the words of Mashaei philosophers such as Aristotle. Manuscript Document