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  • About Journal

    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Editor's Note
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      سنجش نسبت ميان فلسفه و فيلسوفان اسلامي با فلسفه و فيلسوفان يوناني و تأثير و تأثر ميان آنها، پيشينه‌يي دراز دارد و احتمالاً تتبّع و گردآوري نگرشها و تحليلها در اين زمينه و طبقه‌بندي نتايج حاصله از آن، خود بتواند موضوعي مستقل ـ و البته پُر ثمر ـ در اين زمينه بشمار آيد. د Full Text
      سنجش نسبت ميان فلسفه و فيلسوفان اسلامي با فلسفه و فيلسوفان يوناني و تأثير و تأثر ميان آنها، پيشينه‌يي دراز دارد و احتمالاً تتبّع و گردآوري نگرشها و تحليلها در اين زمينه و طبقه‌بندي نتايج حاصله از آن، خود بتواند موضوعي مستقل ـ و البته پُر ثمر ـ در اين زمينه بشمار آيد. در قرون اخير و بويژه در خلال اغلب نوشته‌هاي مستشرقان، نگاه و تعبير اخذ و اقتباس حكماي اسلامي از سنت يوناني و يوناني‌مآبي به گرته‌برداري و تقليد و استمرار همه‌جانبه بَدَل شده و در لابلاي انبوهي از گزارشهاي مربوط به دورة ترجمه و فهرستهاي مربوط به شرح و تفسيرهاي صورت گرفته بر آثار افلاطون و ارسطو و نوافلاطونيان، ابتكارات و نوآوريهاي حكيمان مسلمان در مداخل و مسائل فلسفي و مابعدطبيعي كمرنگ و ناچيز انگاشته و حتي ناديده گرفته شده است. علاوه بر اين، استفاده از واژگان مبهم و نادرستي چون «فلسفة عربي» و حتي قرار دادن آن در مقابل اصطلاحات دقيق و عميقي همچون «فلسفة ايراني»، «حكمت خسرواني» و «حكمت مشرقي»، اگر نگوييم ناشي از مقاصد سياسي و دلبستگيهاي ملي‌گرايانه است، دست‌كم ناشي از ناآگاهي نسبت به سير و مسير تطّور فلسفة اسلامي و روح حاكم بر اين سنت عقلي است. اهل نظر و محققان حوزة فلسفة اسلامي بخوبي ميدانند كه نه‌تنها حكمت متعاليه صدرايي و مشارب فلسفي پس از آن، بلكه حتي نظامهاي فلسفي فارابي و ابن‌سينا، به رغم مشابهتهايي در قلمرو معرفت‌شناسي و كيهان‌شناسي و طبيعيات، در قلمروهايي چون هستي‌شناسي، علم‌النفس و معاد، از اساس با فلسفه‌هاي ارسطو و مشائيان متفاوت است. براي نمونه، چگونه ميتوان دغدغة بنيادين فارابي در هماهنگي و تطابق ميان عقل و شرع را به زمينه‌هاي فلسفي و تأملات نظري سنت يوناني و حتي نوافلاطوني پيوند زد؟ يا چگونه ميتوان تقرير استوار و خلاقانة ابن‌سينا درباره علّيت و بويژه عليت فاعلي را مربوط و متأثر از فلسفة ارسطو و اتباع او دانست؟ در مورد اخير، مراجعه به نمط چهارم اشارات و تنبيهات شيخ‌الرئيس براي درك و آگاهي از تمايز و فاصلة وي از اسلاف يونانيش كفايت ميكند. «عليت» بعنوان يكي از اركان مباحث مابعدالطبيعه از يكسو و نقص و كاستي تقرير ارسطوئيان از اين مبحث با تأكيد و تمركز آنان بر علّيت‌ غايي از سوي ديگر، ميزان فاصلة صاحب اشارات را از تمامي صُور مشارب فلسفي قبل از خودش روشن ميسازد. بيترديد، اين مبحث مسبوق به نوعي وجودشناسي مستقل از يونانيان و مشخّصاً بر تمايز ميان «وجود و ماهيت» و «امكان و وجوب» استوار است كه زمينه‌يي در اسلاف يوناني ندارد. نمونه‌هايي از اين دست فراوان است، آنچه از اين جُستار انتظار ميرود، گردآوري و برآورد ابداعات حكماي مسلمان در جميع مداخل و ابواب طبيعيات، مابعدالطبيعه و حكمت عملي است كه هم حيث تاريخي آن مورد نياز است و هم حيث تحليلي و پديدارشناسانة آن. از حيث تاريخي، ملاحظاتي بميان مي‌آيد كه بر لزوم اِعمال دقّت و تأمل افزونتر مي‌افزايد؛ مهمترين اين ملاحظات به نگرش و نگارش جديدي از سير تحول و تطّور تاريخي انديشه‌ها و مشارب فلسفي در عالم اسلام بازميگردد. پيش از اين به نقيصة مشترك بسياري از آثار مربوط به تاريخ فلسفة اسلامي اشاره كرديم و آن عبارتست از التزام و تقيد نويسندگان به پيش‌فرضها و انگاره‌هاي شرق‌شناسي در اين زمينه. بدين‌ترتيب، در گام اول، سنجش و نقد اين پيش‌فرضها براي تدوين هرگونه مجموعه‌يي در باب تاريخ فلسفه و عرفان اسلامي ضرورت دارد و بدون بازنگري در اين انگاره‌ها، نتيجة‌ كار حداكثر تقريري نو از نوشته‌هاي قبلي خواهد شد. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Bilateral Relationship of Metaphysics of Light with the Dynamic World and Illuminationist Psychology in Dionysius and Suhrawardī
      Abdolreza Safari
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      The present paper basically hypothesizes that the recent Neoplatonic philosophy is entangled with Christian and Jewish traditions. Accordingly, it would be possible to match Dionysius’ thoughts with those of Illuminationist and mystic philosophers, particularly Suhrawar Full Text
      The present paper basically hypothesizes that the recent Neoplatonic philosophy is entangled with Christian and Jewish traditions. Accordingly, it would be possible to match Dionysius’ thoughts with those of Illuminationist and mystic philosophers, particularly Suhrawardī, in the world of Islam. In spite of their different religious and gnostic backgrounds, both Dionysius and Suhrawardī present the same metaphysical system that is based on the mysterious concept and creative role of light. The present study, while relying on the principles of this system, focuses on the similarities between their philosophies in three respects: metaphysics, psychology, and structures that lead to explaining the theorem of the illuminated universe. The author, on the one hand, intends to explain the core of this similarity based on the creative identity of light in order to reveal the emanated identity of the world and the effusion of light. On the other hand, he wishes to demonstrate the basis of their mutual metaphysical and Illuminationist relation to cosmology and fundamental principles of psychology and intuition. Based on the three-fold similarities of these two systems, three conclusions can be derived: 1- origination of the system of the world through emanation in divinity, 2- the reliance of the dynamic structure of the world on Illuminationist action in the whole world, 3- psychology of intuition as the basis of the deiformity of the soul in the world of lights. Nevertheless, the author shows that there is an obvious difference between the two thinkers’ metaphysical systems regarding the way the soul can attain devotion and deiformity. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Concept of Ethos in Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy and its Historical Reflection
      Mohammad Hashemi Amir Maziyar
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      In Aristotle’s view, an ideal tragic hero must be neither a villain nor a virtuous man but a character who stands between these two extremes based on a conscious process of choice. In order to explain ethos, the study inquires about the roles of conscious ethical choice Full Text
      In Aristotle’s view, an ideal tragic hero must be neither a villain nor a virtuous man but a character who stands between these two extremes based on a conscious process of choice. In order to explain ethos, the study inquires about the roles of conscious ethical choice, external virtues, and the similarities between the hero and the addressee in the unity of action and hero in Aristotle’s view. Moreover, it asks about the basis upon which the historical reflection of this unity can be studied. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between Aristotle’s theory of tragedy and philosophy of ethics and its historical reflection relying on the relationship between act and moral character in his Poetics and the related sections in his other treatises. Here, the author demonstrates that action and hero in a tragedy together present some imitations of the essence and ethical nature of the world. The historical reflection of Aristotle’s ethical approach to tragedy can be studied based on the theories related to the principiality of ethics and the relationship between art and ethics. This qualitative study has been conducted following a descriptive-analytic method. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The Influence of Social Conditions on Mullā Ṣadrā’s Classification of Sciences
      Fatemeh Jamshidi Nasrin Serajipour
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      During the Safavid era, at the time of Mullā Ṣadrā and upon the rise of court-jurisprudents and pseudo-mysticism, true sciences such as jurisprudence, philosophy, and gnosis were in seclusion. Mullā Ṣadrā, as a religious scholar who was familiar with the philosophical a Full Text
      During the Safavid era, at the time of Mullā Ṣadrā and upon the rise of court-jurisprudents and pseudo-mysticism, true sciences such as jurisprudence, philosophy, and gnosis were in seclusion. Mullā Ṣadrā, as a religious scholar who was familiar with the philosophical and gnostic ideas before him, tried to eliminate philosophical confusion from the scientific society and oppose this fallacious approach. Hence, he established a new philosophical system in order to bring all previous thoughts together in a consistent manner. In fact, he aimed to clarify the place of true knowledge and the ways of attaining it for society through establishing his own school of philosophy. The classification of sciences is one of the fundamental problems in any philosophical system. However, it is emphasized that each system of philosophy and the collection of its problems are influenced by the social conditions of their time. Similarly, Mullā Ṣadrā’s classification reflects his social concerns and has been developed in response to the social needs of his time and directing them towards true sciences. He has provided a specific classification of sciences in each of the three periods of his scientific life. He followed a peripatetic approach during the first period, an Illuminationist approach during the second one, and a transcendent approach during the third period, which reflected the height of his philosophical maturity. This paper aims to investigate Mullā Ṣadrā’s classification of sciences during each of the three periods of his scientific life and demonstrate how each was influenced by the social conditions of his time, and how each responded to the existing societal needs. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s Cultural Role in Interacting with Hulagu Khān
      Seyyed Mohsen  Hosseini Einullah khademi Amirhosein Mansori Noori mohsen shams
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      The present paper examines Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s cultural role in interacting with Hulagu Khān and the other elements involved in this cultural agreement. It also aims to explain how, through a correct perception of the cultural features and symbols of the Mong Full Text
      The present paper examines Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s cultural role in interacting with Hulagu Khān and the other elements involved in this cultural agreement. It also aims to explain how, through a correct perception of the cultural features and symbols of the Mongol ethnic group, Ṭūsī managed to overcome them in a cultural battle. At the same time, he exploited the Mongols’ interest in astronomy, which was a part of their culture, and strengthen the Imāmīyyah kalām regarding its epistemological dimension and the status of Shi‘ism in the political structure of Hulagu Khān’s government. The presence of Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī meant that Imāmīyyah Kalām had now a representative in the political structure of the time after many centuries, and even some Mongols became interested in Islam. With the downfall of the caliphate of Baghdad, whether Ṭūsī played a role there or not, one of the supporters of Ash‘arī kalām disappeared, and Imāmīyyah groups were revived. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Critique of Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī’s Criticism of Ibn Sīnā’s View of the Truth of Knowledge
      SeyedehZahra Mousavi Baygi Vahid Khademzadeh
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      Although Muslim Philosophers have not specifically discussed epistemological problems, they have extensively spoken of some general issues regarding knowledge. Ibn Sīnā has provided various definitions and explanations in relation to the nature of knowledge on different Full Text
      Although Muslim Philosophers have not specifically discussed epistemological problems, they have extensively spoken of some general issues regarding knowledge. Ibn Sīnā has provided various definitions and explanations in relation to the nature of knowledge on different occasions in many of his works. He has conceived of knowledge sometimes as pure quality, sometimes as quality possessing relation, and sometimes as pure relation. Moreover, he has interpreted knowledge as abstraction from matter in some of his works. Such a diversity of interpretations has given an excuse to some people such as Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī to criticize and question Ibn Sīnā’s view of the truth of knowledge. In different places in his works, Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī emphasizes that Ibn Sīnā’s view of knowledge was divided, and he failed to attain a single standpoint concerning the truth of knowledge. The present study, which was conducted following an analytic-descriptive method and a critical approach, firstly presents Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī’s claim and, then, evaluates its truth. Next, the authors delve into his other works to examine the definitions of knowledge in his view. The findings of this study demonstrate that, although there are some fundamental problems in Ibn Sīnā’s view, his words are based on his own principles, are solid, and can be reduced to a unitary view. However, Rāzī’s words on this problem are inconsistent. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A Critical Study of Empiricists’ Theories of Natural Law in Modern Period
      Mohammad Hosein Talebi
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      The doctrine of “natural law” is one of the oldest and most famous and efficient subjects of practical wisdom in Western philosophy. This theorem is employed in various fields of human sciences such as philosophy, anthropology, ethics, law, political science, education, Full Text
      The doctrine of “natural law” is one of the oldest and most famous and efficient subjects of practical wisdom in Western philosophy. This theorem is employed in various fields of human sciences such as philosophy, anthropology, ethics, law, political science, education, and sociology. Unlike Muslim philosophers, Western thinkers have provided several theories about this doctrine. According to their most famous interpretation, natural law is a system of law based on the orders of practical wisdom regarding the behaviors of human beings in order to attain happiness. The purpose of this study is to investigate modern empiricists’ philosophy concerning the natural law and explain the defects of their views following a rational and critical approach and based on philosophical arguments. The interpretation of the thinkers of the modern period (17th and 18th centuries), such as Thomas Hobbes and John Lock, of the rational doctrine of the natural law is an empiricist one. According to this interpretation, since the spirit of positivism dominated the thoughts of empiricists, the immateriality of the human soul was generally unacceptable to them. They only observed the human nature in order to explain the natural law and did not go beyond the satisfaction of human natural and material desires. They neglected the social interests of human being while the natural law always reinforces the orders of practical intellect for the development and progress of the humankind in all material and spiritual, personal and communal, and social affairs. The outcome of their approach to the natural law only directs people towards moral and material joys and delights and closes their eyes to everything that pertains to their everlasting and spiritual life in the hereafter. Therefore, the right to life and freedom, which is one of the concomitants of the natural law in the empiricism of modern Western civilization, mainly targets only material life and freedom. This approach results in ignoring a large part of the world of reality, that is, metaphysical affairs. This philosophy paved the context for the vast dominance of positivism over all aspects of human life in the 19th century and granted an empirical nature to all sciences. As a result, rational discussions, particularly those in relation to the natural law remained dormant for more than a whole century. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Historical Time and Philosophical Time in Ibrahimi Dinani’s View
      M‘asumeh  Qorbani Anderehci
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 12 , Winter 2022
      Perception of time is of an intellectual nature, and the human mind can easily divide it into seconds and minutes, for example, and measure it. However, when speaking of the truth of time, one is in fact faced with a complex and difficult mystery. The attempts at disamb Full Text
      Perception of time is of an intellectual nature, and the human mind can easily divide it into seconds and minutes, for example, and measure it. However, when speaking of the truth of time, one is in fact faced with a complex and difficult mystery. The attempts at disambiguating this mystery has resulted in wide-spread disagreements among philosophers and thinkers so that some of them hold that time exists while some others deny its existence. Gholam Hossein Ebrahimi Dinani, a contemporary Iranian thinker, conceives of time as an ontological entity. He has reanalyzed and reinterpreted the views of several thinkers regarding time and believes that everything in the world of being is manifested and emerges through the channel of human consciousness. He emphasizes that the relationship between Man and time is so strong that its rupture is meaningless. Dinani maintains that time has two dimensions: one is the material dimension, which is realized in the material world, and the other is the Ideal dimension, which is indeed perceived as a path towards the world of meaning. The latter, while being material, is of an Ideal nature. In his view, time in its material dimension is the same as the measure of motion, and time in the world of thought is identical with the form of human perception. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech Full Text
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2017
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek Full Text
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Summer 2015
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir Full Text
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 6 , Spring 2016
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged Full Text
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Reflection of the Philosophy of Amesha Spenta in Suhrawardi’s Theory of Archetypes
      Nadia  Maftouni Morteza  Darrudi Jawan
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 8 , Spring 2018
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta Full Text
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bandhesh, and other scientific and analytic texts, the authors have searched for them in Suhrawardi’s works. They have extracted and enumerated all the cases in which explicit references have been made to amesha spenta and their general and specific features. After calculating the frequency of the features and signs of each amesha spenta, they have provided a content and conceptual analysis for them. Among the findings of this study are determining the number of explicit references to amesha spenta and the relative order of the frequency of the signs based on the order of amesha spenta, referring to the five-fold amesha spenta as accidental intellects based on their archetypal functions, providing a collection of the strongest signs in Persian texts, and reminiscing about Iranian mythical heroes. Manuscript Document

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      6 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei Full Text
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript Document

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      7 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 5 , Spring 2014
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The Full Text
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript Document

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      8 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 6 , Winter 2016
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Full Text
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript Document

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      9 - Farabi and his Distinction between Existence and Quiddity
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 5 , Winter 2015
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn S Full Text
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn Sina, because of their epistemological rupture with Greek tradition, sought to understand being differently from Aristotle and, in a way, abstained from reducing the question of being to the question of the whatness of objects. In addition to a conceptual and logical distinction, Farabi managed to develop and present an ontological distinction in the field of philosophy. Ibn Sina expanded it so vastly that some might consider this theory as one of his own philosophical achievements. After the problem of the evidence and principliality of existence, the quality of the relationship between existence and quiddity turned out to be one of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy. At the beginning, under the influence of dividing being into necessary and possible types, Muslim philosophers tried to explain the fundamental difference between them through explaining the relationship between quiddity and existence. As a result, they considered two propositions as the basis of two interpretations of existence and the explanation of its relationship with quiddity. The theory of the synthetic nature of quiddative existents in terms of their existence and quiddity, the existence’s being superadded or accidental to quiddity, and the distinction between existence and quiddity in existents are the views that emerged in Islamic philosophy with Farabi and gradually came to the fore as the most important discussions concerning existence. Furthermore, Farabi’s discussion concerning the individuation of quiddities and the criterion for individuation, which was later accepted by all Islamic philosophers and emphasized by them, was developed under the influence of the above theories. In this paper, the writer has initially tried to provide a correct understanding of the theory of distinction through clarifying its fundamental bases. Then he has clarified its ontological and philosophical consequences and highlighted the importance of this theory in Islamic philosophy. Such an explanation necessitates an extensive investigation of Farabi’s ideas about existence, the meaning of existence, and the existence-quiddity relation. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Farabi and a Philosophical Reading of al-Huruf
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 7 , Autumn 2016
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important ph Full Text
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of Farabi, and most of the studies conducted on this book emphasize that it is merely a commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. That is why Farabi’s innovations have been disregarded there. This book is of great importance not only because of its focus on linguistic principles but also because of its discussing the relationships between language and philosophy, religion and philosophy, and everyday language and philosophical language. Here, the writer also reveals the nature of the 200-year conflicts between kalam, philosophy, syntax, and logic in the world of Islam. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze two fundamental principles and evaluate the related views. Therefore, the writer initially attends to the general and philosophical status and writing style of al-Huruf and explains the related ideas. This book is, first and foremost, a reaction to the enemies of philosophy and rationalist trends in understanding religion. Farabi begins the book with linguistic discussions and, then, in the light of his introduction, spells out the intricacies of logical and epistemological theories, and finally clarifies the nature of ontological thoughts. In this book, he discusses how ignoring fundamental linguistic principles could harm ontological and epistemological discussions. He also illustrates how linguistic studies could demystify philosophical principles and grant them more depth and essence. Second, in addition to examining the structure of al-Huruf, the writer tries to explore Farabi’s fundamental doctrine of reconciliation. In doing so, he begins with an analysis of the two schools of Kufa and Basrah and then reviews the mentioned doctrine. In the second part of this book, Farabi demonstrates in two chapters on the unity of philosophy and religion (al-Silah bayn al-falsafah wal millah) that there is no choice but to defend the doctrine of reconciliation. He emphasizes that an irrational religion is nothing but fantasy and maintains that the fundamental principles of religion are based on the intellect and reasoning. In his view, neither Abu Bishr nor Abu Saeid had grasped the significance of this view. Matta Ibn Yunus was not merely a representative of logic and wisdom; rather, he and his companions and advocates relied only on autonomous reasoning, which Farabi found insufficient. In contrast, Abu Saeid was not merely a representative of syntax as advocated by the School of Baghdad, but, in company with several people who defended a purely religious approach, he opposed the role of reason in understanding and justifying religious beliefs. In this book Farabi tries to pose and develop a third theory based on analyzing these two approaches. Manuscript Document
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