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  • About Journal

    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - ُُEditor's Note
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      از مداخل مهم تاريخ علم و فلسفه جهان، مدخلي موسوم به «نهضت ترجمه» در دو قلمرو عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني است. تتبّعات و تحقيقات متعدّدي در چگونگي اين دو رخداد مهم علمي و فرهنگي صورت پذيرفته و اكنون به بركت اين تلاشها، داده‌هاي ارزشمندي دربارة آثار و منابع، مترجمان و چگونگي Full Text
      از مداخل مهم تاريخ علم و فلسفه جهان، مدخلي موسوم به «نهضت ترجمه» در دو قلمرو عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني است. تتبّعات و تحقيقات متعدّدي در چگونگي اين دو رخداد مهم علمي و فرهنگي صورت پذيرفته و اكنون به بركت اين تلاشها، داده‌هاي ارزشمندي دربارة آثار و منابع، مترجمان و چگونگي ترجمة آثار از زبان مبدأ به زبان مقصد در اختيار ماست. برابر گاهشماري موّرخانِ تاريخ علم، نهضت ترجمة نخست، حدّ فاصل قرن سوّم تا پنجم قمري در عالم اسلام و در مناطقي چون بغداد و مرو و نهضت ترجمة دوم، حد فاصل اواخر قرن يازدهم تا اواسط قرن سيزدهم ميلادي در مناطقي چون صَقليّه (سيسيل) و طليطليه (تولدو) در جنوب اروپاي آنروز پديد آمد. بي‌ترديد در باب مبادي و انگيزه‌هاي دو حوزة فرهنگي و تمدني عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني در اقبال به ترجمة متون نيز ديدگاههاي مختلفي عرضه شده است، ليكن همچنان پرسشهاي مهمي در اين زمينه وجود دارد كه نيازمند تتبّع و تحقيق افزونتري است، مانند اين پرسشها كه: به غير از احساس نياز به فراگيري دانشها ـ بويژه دانشهاي كاربردي نظير رياضيات، نجوم و طبّ ـ چه انگيزه يا انگيزه‌هاي ديگري در اخذ و اقتباس اين علوم وجود داشته است؟ در اقبال و توجه به علوم عقلي نظير منطق و فلسفه و كلام چه زمينه‌هاي روحي و فرهنگي مؤثر بوده است؟ و مهمتر اينكه: در اخذ و اقتباس علوم، چه افزوده‌ها و تغييراتي به صورتهاي اوليه آن علوم ضميمه شده است؟ بنظر ميرسد مبادي تحرّك و نشاط علمي سده‌هاي نخستين قمري در عالم اسلام و نيز تأثيرات ناشي از حضور هشتصد ساله حاكمان مسلمان (711 ـ 1492م.) در شبه جزيره‌ ايبري در جنوب اسپانيا از جمله موضوعاتي است كه همچنان نيازمند بررسي و پژوهش بيشتري است، زيرا در مقايسه با شرايط و موقعيتهاي قبل و بعد از اين مقاطع تاريخي، تحولات چشمگيري صورت گرفته كه تنها برمبناي آگاهي از گاهشماري آن تحولات، نميتوان به عمق روابط و مناسبات فرهنگي و معنوي آن روزگار پي‌ برد. به اين مطلب بايد مطلب ديگري نيز افزود و آن اينكه بخش اعظم پژوهشهاي صورت گرفته در خصوص اين دو جريان علمي بدست پژوهشگران غربي انجام شده و حتي آن بخش از اين پژوهشها كه مربوط به نهضت ترجمه در عالم اسلام است نيز عمدتاً از جانب پژوهشهاي غرب به شرق سرازير شده است، اين در حالي است كه منابع و مدارك تاريخي براي پژوهشهاي گسترده در اين زمينه در اختيار پژوهشگران عالم اسلام قرار داشته و دارد، مانند انبوهي از تراجم و فهرستها و گزارشهاي تاريخي كه هرچند نيازمند مطالعه و بررسي انتقادي است، ليكن حجم قابل توجهي از داده‌ها را در اختيار پژوهشگران اين حوزه قرار ميدهد. اميد آنكه اين مهم با همّت و دقت نظر صاحبان قلم و پژوهشگران علاقمند به حوزة تاريخ علم و تمدن تحقق يافته و افق جديدي از تأثير ميراث علمي جهان اسلام را به روي نسل حاضر بگشايد. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Zoroastrian Wisdom and the Magi Religion in Ancient Greek and Roman Sources
      Hojjatullah  Askarizadeh
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      The impact of Zoroastrian religion and worldview on Greek philosophy, ancient philosophers, and generally on history of philosophy as a fundamental topic regarding the historical development of philosophy has always been of interest to researchers. Ancient thinkers have Full Text
      The impact of Zoroastrian religion and worldview on Greek philosophy, ancient philosophers, and generally on history of philosophy as a fundamental topic regarding the historical development of philosophy has always been of interest to researchers. Ancient thinkers have always spoken of Zoroastrian wisdom and philosophy and connected them to the Magi religion. The present paper examines Zoroastrian philosophy and its origin in the Magi religion based on ancient Greek and Roman sources. Based on such sources, the founder of this school of philosophy is a Zoroastrian who is much older than Zoroaster, the author of Avesta, who lived in the time of Goštāsp. Therefore, if we wish to study Zoroastrian wisdom and philosophy from the viewpoint of ancient Greek and Roman thinkers, we must seek its roots in the Magi religion; a religion that is apparently one of the oldest philosophical schools of ancient times and first appeared in Iran. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - God’s Will in Ṭūsī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī
      Armin Mansouri Ali Alahbedashti
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      The howness of God’s Will is one of the problems that has provoked a lot of discussion in the field of theology. Although all philosophers have accepted God’s Will as a Divine Attribute, there are several disagreements in its interpretation. The purpose of this paper is Full Text
      The howness of God’s Will is one of the problems that has provoked a lot of discussion in the field of theology. Although all philosophers have accepted God’s Will as a Divine Attribute, there are several disagreements in its interpretation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, compare, and evaluate the views of Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī in terms of the semantics, origin, and ontology of God’s Will. Ṭūsī maintains that will is the same as motive, which is the same as knowledge of the goodness of act, and thus believes in God’s essential will as an essential attribute. Mullā Ṣadrā also adds the sameness of love with will to the sameness of the knowledge of goodness of act with act and introduces will as an essential attribute. Moreover, he justifies the Infallible Imam’s narrations regarding the sameness of will with act by changing its meaning from having the intention to perform an act to the making and changing of its level from essence to the level of actual existents. However, ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī views the identity of free will with the knowledge of the best system as a verbal conflict and a merely different denomination. He disagrees with equating free will with any essential attribute (such as love) other than knowledge. Thus he maintains that free will is not an essential attribute but is, rather, abstracted from the level of act and is one of its attributes. He also introduces the essence of an act that occurs in the outside or the presence of perfect cause for the act as its source of abstraction. It seems that ٬Allāmah’s change of ontological view of free will and considering it an actual attribute in justifying rational constraints are more accurate than regarding it as an essential attribute without paying attention to the conceptual difference between free will and knowledge and love, which has been propounded by Ṭūsī and Mullā Ṣadrā. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Study of the Sinan System of Definition: An Analysis of Ibn Sīnā’s Encounter with Aristotle and Fārābī
      Mohammad Hosseinzadeh
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      The Sinan approach to the theory of definition is an explanation and expanded from of Aristotelian definition. He has accepted Aristotle’s definition of objects based on analyzing their quiddity in terms of their genus and differentia and extended it. Moreover, Ibn Sīnā Full Text
      The Sinan approach to the theory of definition is an explanation and expanded from of Aristotelian definition. He has accepted Aristotle’s definition of objects based on analyzing their quiddity in terms of their genus and differentia and extended it. Moreover, Ibn Sīnā has added some innovative views to it that have not received the attention that they truly deserve, and researchers have not explained and organized them in a consistent and structured from. Following a descriptive-analytic method, this paper explains the theory of Sinan definition within a consistent framework and analyzes the quality of Ibn Sīnā’s encounter with the views of Aristotle and Fārābī. Moreover, it refers to Ibn Sīnā’s innovations regarding the problem of definition and, by emphasizing its less studied aspects, responds to the following questions: to what extent is the unknown nature of objects’ differentia consistent with Ibn Sīnā’s theory on the definition and knowledge of objects? Does the theory of Sinan definition merely target quiddative affairs, or does it also extend to non-quiddative affairs? Which mechanism does Ibn Sīnā provide for defining non-quiddative affairs? Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Nature in the Views of Greek and Muslim Philosophers
      داود محمدیانی
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      Undoubtedly, nature has always attracted the attention of scientists and philosophers as the loci of the genesis and growth of natural existents and its current. Scientists working in the field of empirical sciences mainly seek the knowledge of natural existents and law Full Text
      Undoubtedly, nature has always attracted the attention of scientists and philosophers as the loci of the genesis and growth of natural existents and its current. Scientists working in the field of empirical sciences mainly seek the knowledge of natural existents and laws of nature, while philosophers basically deal with the knowledge of nature itself and its structure and try to provide an answer to the questions of what the meaning of nature is, what its structure is, what relationship exists between existents and nature, whether nature is the primary source of the appearance of existents in the world, and whether nature, as matter and form, is a cradle for the appearance of various forms of existents. Greek philosophers and, later, Muslim philosophers have provided various responses to these questions. In ancient Greek philosophy, physis or nature means growth, living, and life. This meaning, which had provided the basis for pre-Socratic philosophy, changed into the “content of the world” and “maker of things” in Stoic philosophy. Plato also defined physis as the origin of the appearance of all things. He used the words technē (art) and archē (origin) to explain the emergence of the world and considered the creation of the world as an artistic innovation. Aristotle, who viewed the world synonymous with the whole nature, believed that nature is the source of motion and change in things; however, Muslim thinkers have provided various ideas about nature. Ikhwān al-Ṣafā maintained that nature is the fifth level of the levels of being and the “active” aspect of the world, with matter as its passive aspect. Ibn Sīnā considered nature and the interactions therein as God’s act and believed that nature is the cause of the appearance of corporeal substance by synthesizing matter and form. Unlike the Peripatetics, who believed that archetypes are the same as the nature of things, Suhrawardī rejected archetypes and replaced them with luminary nature. Finally, Mullā Ṣadrā viewed the world of nature identical with renewal and change and maintained that the nature of substance enjoys permanent motion and flow. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Middle Platonism: Introduction and Analysis of Religious and Philosophical Theorems
      Mahbobeh  Hadina
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      Middle Platonism is one of the most important philosophical-religious schools of the first century BC. While claiming to revive the original Platonic school, it is rooted in the fundamental epistemological and philosophical theorems of that time including the essence of Full Text
      Middle Platonism is one of the most important philosophical-religious schools of the first century BC. While claiming to revive the original Platonic school, it is rooted in the fundamental epistemological and philosophical theorems of that time including the essence of the One, God as Creator, descent of the soul, rational knowledge, and salvation. A study of middle Platonists’ works reveals that the philosophical principles of this school are mainly based on a reinterpretation of certain religious-philosophical theorems of Platonic, Stoic, Pythagorean, and gnostic schools. In fact, a clear trace of the concern for explaining the problem of the oneness and transcendence of the essence of Almighty, the quality of the creation of the world, and the presence of evil therein can be witnesses in the works of the philosophers that advocate the mentioned schools. The fundamental principles of middle Platonism are basically religious, and this school is mainly concerned with such topics as the duality of the essence of divinity in two concepts, God as the Maker or Creator of the world, the duality of the spiritual and material origin of Man and the descent of the soul, cosmology and the material structure and fate of the world, eschatology with an emphasis on the theorem of Man’s salvation through rational knowledge, and finally the discussion of ethics and the definition of its practical frameworks for attaining rational perfection, which is necessary for salvation. The present paper aims to explain and provide a comparative analysis of the principles and quality of the formation of the philosophical theorems of Middle Platonism as a philosophical-religious school. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Explaining the Concepts of Illuminationist Philosophy in Iranian Houses
      ‏Takameh Abbasnia Tehrani Khosro  Sahhaf Hassan  Rezaei Abolghasem  Qavam
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      Illuminationist philosophy is a discoursive-intuitive and light-centered school of philosophy. It has exercised a significant effect on Iranian art and architecture because of the Iranian-Islamic philosophical concepts that it employs. The present paper examines the ef Full Text
      Illuminationist philosophy is a discoursive-intuitive and light-centered school of philosophy. It has exercised a significant effect on Iranian art and architecture because of the Iranian-Islamic philosophical concepts that it employs. The present paper examines the effects of Illuminationist views as a common language for the design of spiritual houses in the contemporary era. Hence, following a descriptive-analytic method, the authors initially explain some of the concepts and ideas in Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy and then examine their manifestation in the architecture of Iranian houses. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - A Study of the Methodological Development of Interpretive Philosophy in Islam from Kindī to Mīr Dāmād
      Seyed Mohammad Hosain  Mirdamadi
      Issue 2 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2022
      This study examines the background of pre-Sadrian Islamic philosophers’ method of interpretive or t’awīlī thinking following a descriptive-analytic method. Interpretive philosophy has been defined in different ways; however, its general feature is going beyond the surfa Full Text
      This study examines the background of pre-Sadrian Islamic philosophers’ method of interpretive or t’awīlī thinking following a descriptive-analytic method. Interpretive philosophy has been defined in different ways; however, its general feature is going beyond the surface meaning of concepts and employing both reason and revelation in interpreting a text. A glance at the historical development of this method demonstrates its general growth, although with some fluctuations, in the Islamic philosophical tradition. This is because the process of t’awīl is rooted in the move from the separation of religion and philosophy towards their graded unity. A method of thinking that leads to unity indicates intellectual growth in case it is based on sound reasoning because the intellect advocates unity while imagination is pluralist. From a historical perspective, it can be said that philosophers’ interpretive thoughts have gradually moved away from defending the opposition of religion and philosophy to accepting that their truths are inseparable. In the case of the former standpoint, philosophers sometimes followed the exoteric meanings of religion and sometimes took side with the intellect and philosophy. However, later they unanimously concluded that religion and philosophy share the same truth that has been expressed in different languages. Therefore, the important point is to perceive their methods and languages and explain the related constraints. Hence, we are witnessing a process of monopoly and partiality instead of universality and holism. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Issue 3 , Volume 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech Full Text
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Issue 1 , Volume 8 , Summer 2017
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek Full Text
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Issue 1 , Volume 6 , Summer 2015
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir Full Text
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Issue 4 , Volume 6 , Spring 2016
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged Full Text
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Reflection of the Philosophy of Amesha Spenta in Suhrawardi’s Theory of Archetypes
      Nadia  Maftouni Morteza  Darrudi Jawan
      Issue 4 , Volume 8 , Spring 2018
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta Full Text
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bandhesh, and other scientific and analytic texts, the authors have searched for them in Suhrawardi’s works. They have extracted and enumerated all the cases in which explicit references have been made to amesha spenta and their general and specific features. After calculating the frequency of the features and signs of each amesha spenta, they have provided a content and conceptual analysis for them. Among the findings of this study are determining the number of explicit references to amesha spenta and the relative order of the frequency of the signs based on the order of amesha spenta, referring to the five-fold amesha spenta as accidental intellects based on their archetypal functions, providing a collection of the strongest signs in Persian texts, and reminiscing about Iranian mythical heroes. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Issue 4 , Volume 5 , Spring 2014
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The Full Text
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Issue 3 , Volume 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei Full Text
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript Document

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      8 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Issue 3 , Volume 6 , Winter 2016
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Full Text
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript Document

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      9 - Farabi and his Distinction between Existence and Quiddity
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 3 , Volume 5 , Winter 2015
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn S Full Text
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn Sina, because of their epistemological rupture with Greek tradition, sought to understand being differently from Aristotle and, in a way, abstained from reducing the question of being to the question of the whatness of objects. In addition to a conceptual and logical distinction, Farabi managed to develop and present an ontological distinction in the field of philosophy. Ibn Sina expanded it so vastly that some might consider this theory as one of his own philosophical achievements. After the problem of the evidence and principliality of existence, the quality of the relationship between existence and quiddity turned out to be one of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy. At the beginning, under the influence of dividing being into necessary and possible types, Muslim philosophers tried to explain the fundamental difference between them through explaining the relationship between quiddity and existence. As a result, they considered two propositions as the basis of two interpretations of existence and the explanation of its relationship with quiddity. The theory of the synthetic nature of quiddative existents in terms of their existence and quiddity, the existence’s being superadded or accidental to quiddity, and the distinction between existence and quiddity in existents are the views that emerged in Islamic philosophy with Farabi and gradually came to the fore as the most important discussions concerning existence. Furthermore, Farabi’s discussion concerning the individuation of quiddities and the criterion for individuation, which was later accepted by all Islamic philosophers and emphasized by them, was developed under the influence of the above theories. In this paper, the writer has initially tried to provide a correct understanding of the theory of distinction through clarifying its fundamental bases. Then he has clarified its ontological and philosophical consequences and highlighted the importance of this theory in Islamic philosophy. Such an explanation necessitates an extensive investigation of Farabi’s ideas about existence, the meaning of existence, and the existence-quiddity relation. Manuscript Document

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      10 - Farabi and a Philosophical Reading of al-Huruf
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 2 , Volume 7 , Autumn 2016
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important ph Full Text
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of Farabi, and most of the studies conducted on this book emphasize that it is merely a commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. That is why Farabi’s innovations have been disregarded there. This book is of great importance not only because of its focus on linguistic principles but also because of its discussing the relationships between language and philosophy, religion and philosophy, and everyday language and philosophical language. Here, the writer also reveals the nature of the 200-year conflicts between kalam, philosophy, syntax, and logic in the world of Islam. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze two fundamental principles and evaluate the related views. Therefore, the writer initially attends to the general and philosophical status and writing style of al-Huruf and explains the related ideas. This book is, first and foremost, a reaction to the enemies of philosophy and rationalist trends in understanding religion. Farabi begins the book with linguistic discussions and, then, in the light of his introduction, spells out the intricacies of logical and epistemological theories, and finally clarifies the nature of ontological thoughts. In this book, he discusses how ignoring fundamental linguistic principles could harm ontological and epistemological discussions. He also illustrates how linguistic studies could demystify philosophical principles and grant them more depth and essence. Second, in addition to examining the structure of al-Huruf, the writer tries to explore Farabi’s fundamental doctrine of reconciliation. In doing so, he begins with an analysis of the two schools of Kufa and Basrah and then reviews the mentioned doctrine. In the second part of this book, Farabi demonstrates in two chapters on the unity of philosophy and religion (al-Silah bayn al-falsafah wal millah) that there is no choice but to defend the doctrine of reconciliation. He emphasizes that an irrational religion is nothing but fantasy and maintains that the fundamental principles of religion are based on the intellect and reasoning. In his view, neither Abu Bishr nor Abu Saeid had grasped the significance of this view. Matta Ibn Yunus was not merely a representative of logic and wisdom; rather, he and his companions and advocates relied only on autonomous reasoning, which Farabi found insufficient. In contrast, Abu Saeid was not merely a representative of syntax as advocated by the School of Baghdad, but, in company with several people who defended a purely religious approach, he opposed the role of reason in understanding and justifying religious beliefs. In this book Farabi tries to pose and develop a third theory based on analyzing these two approaches. Manuscript Document
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