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    History of Philasophy ( Scientific )
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  • About the journal

    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Recent Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - يادداشت سردبير
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      در میان منابع و مصادر مربوط به تاریخ فلسفه، عنوان عقیده/عقایدنگاری (معادل doxography) شامل آثاری است با موضوع گزارش آراء و انظار فیلسوفان، طبقه‌بندی و احیاناً، قرار دادن آنها ذیل مکتب و مشربی خاص. از نخستین آثاری که عموماً در این زمینه بدان اشاره و استناد میکنند، کتاب ح More
      در میان منابع و مصادر مربوط به تاریخ فلسفه، عنوان عقیده/عقایدنگاری (معادل doxography) شامل آثاری است با موضوع گزارش آراء و انظار فیلسوفان، طبقه‌بندی و احیاناً، قرار دادن آنها ذیل مکتب و مشربی خاص. از نخستین آثاری که عموماً در این زمینه بدان اشاره و استناد میکنند، کتاب حیات فیلسوفان نامدار، متعلق به دیوگنس لائرتیوس (سدۀ سوم میلادی) است که ترجمۀ احوال و آراء حدود 50 تن از فیلسوفان و خردمندان قدیم یونان تا زمان حیات مؤلف، را گزارش میکند. همچنین است کتابی با همین عنوان، اثر پلوتارک/ بلوتارخوس (سدۀ اول و دوم میلادی) در احوال سرداران و فرمانروایان و برخی خردمندان باستان؛ از قضا، برگردان هر دو اثر به زبان فارسی نیز انجام شده است. اثر اخیر از این امتیاز برخوردار است که از گزارش احوال ناموران، نتیجه‌یی اخلاقی در راستای اصلاح امور مردمان قصد شده است. اگرچه قبل از این دو نیز میتوان نوعی از این سنخ گزارشها را در لابلای متون فیلسوفان باستان مشاهده کرد، اما توافق بر این مطلب وجود دارد که مقدم بر آنها، دست‌کم نگارش کتابی با این منظور نمیشناسیم. اکنون دربارۀ مبادی و روشها و مقاصد این آثار تحقیقاتی صورت گرفته و میگیرد که بویژه در جهت فهم و مقایسۀ روشها و مقاصد آنها با دورۀ جدید و معاصر بسیار مفید است. کافی است توجه کنیم که امروزه هیچ تاریخ فلسفه‌یی بقصد تعلیمات اخلاقی و بهبود و تحول در مناسبات اجتماعی و سیاسی مردمان، نوشته نمیشود. کتابهایی که از زمان افلاطون به اینسو، با نگاه اتوپیایی و برپاساختن مدینۀ آرمانی نگاشته شده، با زوال اندیشۀ اتوپی فروکش کرد و بیان چارچوب و گزارش چگونگی و تحول آنها نیز در سیر و تطور اندیشه‌های فلسفی کمرنگ شد. قرینۀ این سنخ از منابع در دورۀ اسلامی، بغیر از آثار طبقۀ رجال و تراجم، مجموعه‌یی است که میتوان آنها را تحت عنوان فرقه‌نگاری قرار داد. آثاری مانند الفرق بین الفرق بغدادی، مقالات الاسلامیین اشعری و الملل و النحل شهرستانی از اینگونه‌اند که با چارچوبی قبلی، به تفکیک و طبقه‌بندی مذاهب و جریانهای عمدتاً کلامی و اعتقادی پرداخته‌اند و بطور مسلم، با مبادی نظری و روشی و مقاصد آثار عقایدنگار متفاوتند. پرسشی که در قالب یکی از آثار منتشره جدید به زبان انگلیسی مطرح شده و با ذکر نمونه‌هایی خاص به بررسی موضوع پرداخته، اینست که آیا در آثار کسانی مانند ابن‌سینا و ابن‌طفیل و عبدالکریم شهرستانی، میتوان به صورتی از ادبیات عقایدنگارانه دست یافت و آثار آنها را در ردیف چنین منابعی دانست یا نه؟ بررسی و دست یافتن به پاسخی مستند و متقن در این زمینه، از این حیث اهمیت دارد که از طریق تطبیق و مقایسۀ روشها و ساختار این منابع، به نحوۀ تلقی مؤلفان آنها از چگونگی سیر و تحول آراء و بطورکلی؛ نحوۀ فهم تاریخی آنان میتوان پی برد و باز، از رهگذر نتایج اخیر، به دریافت طیفی از دغدغه‌ها و پرسشهای انسان معاصر نایل آمد. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - A Study of Comparative History of Philosophy: With an Emphasis on Friedrich Schlegel’s View
      Reza Gandomi Nasrabadi
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      One of the approaches in comparative philosophy is comparison based on the classification of philosophical systems, which dates back to Aristotle’s time. In the first decade of the 19th century, Gérando and Schlegel introduced this kind of comparative philosophy with a More
      One of the approaches in comparative philosophy is comparison based on the classification of philosophical systems, which dates back to Aristotle’s time. In the first decade of the 19th century, Gérando and Schlegel introduced this kind of comparative philosophy with a focus on the typology of philosophical systems and their comparative analysis under the title of comparative history of philosophy. Typology allows thinkers to free themselves from the limitations of a specific philosophical system and grants them the opportunity to evaluate the contributions of various philosophers. The comparative history of philosophy is based on the principle that, in order to determine the place and share of each philosopher in the history of philosophy, one cannot judge them based on their valid and correct arguments. Rather, their contributions in the history of philosophy must be compared with the contributions and roles of other philosophers in various periods and philosophical schools and traditions. Therefore, the purpose of the comparative history of philosophy is not to provide a chronological list of different philosophical systems; rather, it aims to review all earlier schools of philosophy and explain the relationships among them. Accordingly, the quality of the emergence of a philosophical system from the core of another one and its extension and annihilation are investigated in a process of comparative analysis. Instead of relying on earlier principles, the comparative history of philosophy considers the outcomes and practical effects of various philosophies in the realms of science, art, and government as the basis for evaluation. In this paper, while exploring Schlegel’s intercultural approach to the comparative history of philosophy, its similarities to and differences from comparative philosophy in its new sense (Paul Masson-Oursel’s view) and the comparative history of world philosophy (with an emphasis on Sharfstein’s A Comparative History of World Philosophy) will be examined. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Historical Roots of the Doctrine of the Trans-Substantial Motion
      Mansour  Imanpour
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      Undoubtedly, the interpretation of the truth of the world of nature is one of the basic discussions in philosophia prima and has always been debated since the rise of philosophy and gnosis. Based on the doctrine of trans-substantial motion, Mullā Ṣadrā has equated the w More
      Undoubtedly, the interpretation of the truth of the world of nature is one of the basic discussions in philosophia prima and has always been debated since the rise of philosophy and gnosis. Based on the doctrine of trans-substantial motion, Mullā Ṣadrā has equated the whole world of nature with motion and becoming and confirmed its essential motion towards the world of stability. However, the question is whether this theory is a completely innovative one, or it has a historical background. Following a descriptive-analytic approach, the present paper demonstrates that this problem is not unprecedented, and some philosophers in ancient Greece believed in the motion of all existents in the world of nature. In the Islamic world, some philosophers only believed in motion in the realm of accidents and tried to reject the theory of the trans-substantial motion based on some discussions and arguments. However, some others view the world from a different angle and, following a gnostic view and through resorting to intuitive experiences, considered the whole beings to be capable of renewal. Based on this available treasure of knowledge and under its influence, Mullā Ṣadrā revised and reintroduced the doctrine of the trans-substantial motion in conformity with his own ontological philosophy. Next, by proving it and placing it at the foundation of several philosophical problems, he presented a new theory following a macro-approach, based on which he divided being into two fixed and changing parts. Then, relying on this division, he arrived at certain conclusions regarding some general affairs and theological problems. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Critique of East-Oriented and West-Oriented Readings of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist Philosophy
      Ali Babaei
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist Philosophy has attracted the attention of both Muslim and Western researchers from different aspects. During the contemporary period, several people and groups have tried to interpret the relationship between Illuminationist Philosophy and e More
      Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist Philosophy has attracted the attention of both Muslim and Western researchers from different aspects. During the contemporary period, several people and groups have tried to interpret the relationship between Illuminationist Philosophy and earlier philosophical schools. For instance, two Western researchers, Henry Corbin and John Walbridge, have conducted a number of influential studies in this regard. Through resorting to certain terms, including the “Pythagorean Leavon” and “Khusrawānῑ Leavon”, which Suhrawardī used in his works and following an Orientalist approach, Corbin explains that Suhrawardī’s purpose in developing Illuminationist philosophy is the revival of ancient Iranian philosophy. However, Corbin is not alone in deriving this conclusion; most of the thinkers who have written on Khusrawānῑ wisdom or dealt with Suhrawardī’s philosophy have adopted the same approach. On the other hand, John Walbridge believes that Suhrawardī’s purpose is to revive the pre-Aristotelean or Pythagorean-Platonic philosophy. Walbridge’s efforts in introducing his interpretation leads to some problems that are far from reality and, in a sense, a kind of deviation in interpreting Suhrawardī’s approach. This is the case while a study of the theorems of Illuminationist philosophy, particularly the attention to the meaning of “perennial leaven”, demonstrates that Suhrawardī’s main goal was to develop a new school of philosophy originated in perennial leaven. He believed that all true schools of philosophy are rooted in perennial leaven and maintained that he received the sparkle of this philosophy on a marvelous day directly from the Holy Master of Miracles. There were also some others in Greece, ancient Iran, and some other civilizations who benefitted from this leaven. Here, perennity does refer to the beginning of history. Rather, it refers to an affair beyond time that encompasses all linear historical times. In the same vein, being inspired by perennial leaven does not mean being influenced by history. Therefore, neither the East-oriented nor the West-oriented reading of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy is correct. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The Relationship between Daemon in Ancient Greek and Div in Zoroastrian Wisdom and Jinn in Islamic Philosophy
      Hojjatullah  Askarizadeh
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      There are some shared truths regarding daemon in ancient Greek, div in Zoroastrian wisdom, and jinn in Islamic theology. Although daemon is in some cases distinguished from theos in Greek philosophy, it is usually confused with other divine existents, thus creating the More
      There are some shared truths regarding daemon in ancient Greek, div in Zoroastrian wisdom, and jinn in Islamic theology. Although daemon is in some cases distinguished from theos in Greek philosophy, it is usually confused with other divine existents, thus creating the challenge of how ancient Greek gods gradually turned into div and Satan during the Christian period and after that. In the same vein, there is not only a distinction but also total contrast and opposition between Divine gods and divs in Zoroastrian wisdom. The former is divine and good while the latter is evil and satanic. There is also an existent called “jinn” in Islamic worldview and teachings that is neither angel-like nor of an absolute evil nature. On the one hand, it is close to the world of immateriality and angels and can perform supernatural and superhuman acts; on the other hand, it is the origin of evil and wicked affairs in several cases, thus deserving the name of Satan. However, it is possible to explain the challenges related to ancient Greek daemons more accurately based on Muslim philosophers’ approach in classifying spiritual and immaterial existents and the distinctions that they make among angels, good jinns, and evils. This endeavor plays an important role in understanding the roots of the ideas held in ancient schools of philosophy, particularly in ancient Greece, so that one can clarify the role of daemons in ancient Greece more effectively. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - An Analytic Study of Proclus’ Reading of Aristotle’s Psychology Based on Athulujiya and On the Soul
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtar Hajar Nili Ahmadabadi
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      The knowledge of the soul and its whatness have always held a particular status among philosophical discussions. This, in a way, seems to be the case in empirical sciences as well. Aristotle and Proclus, two representatives of the most prominent and influential ancient More
      The knowledge of the soul and its whatness have always held a particular status among philosophical discussions. This, in a way, seems to be the case in empirical sciences as well. Aristotle and Proclus, two representatives of the most prominent and influential ancient schools of philosophy – Peripatetic philosophy and Neo-Platonic School, respectively – paid particular attention to this field and discussed them in their main works. Through focusing on two main sources of psychology written by these two philosophers, the present paper is intended to examine the development of the definition of the whatness of the soul while identifying the points of agreement and conflict between the views of Aristotle and Proclus. In his natural definition, Aristotle considers the soul to be related to the body and maintains that it is necessarily the substance and form of the natural body, which enjoys potential life. He also views the soul as the first perfection of the natural body, which enjoys potential life. However, in his metaphysical definition of the soul, he introduces it as being independent of the body and considers the soul to be the origin of the life of the living existent. In his natural and metaphysical definitions of the soul, Proclus follows a relatively similar path to Aristotle. In his natural definition of the soul, he introduces it as the perfection of the body and, in fact, the natural form and perfection of a potentially living organic body. However, he adopts a route different from that of Aristotle in his descriptive definition of the soul. Here, he stipulates that the truth of the soul is a self-made, self-animated, self-formed, and self-actualized entity and believes that the soul is the origin of life and the cause of bodies, their existence and preservation and, in a sense, the creator of their uniqueness and continuity. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - The Systematic Method of Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī in Confronting Critics of Islamic Philosophy
      Hesamal-din  Momeni Shahraki
      Issue 3 , Vol. 14 , Winter 2024
      Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī can be considered one of the most prominent advocates of Islamic philosophy during the period of eclipse of thought and philosophizing. He prevented the extinction of the light of this original school of thought drawing on his scientific and ph More
      Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī can be considered one of the most prominent advocates of Islamic philosophy during the period of eclipse of thought and philosophizing. He prevented the extinction of the light of this original school of thought drawing on his scientific and philosophical support and efforts. In order to defend Islamic philosophy against its critics, he used a systematic method that resulted in a fundamental transformation in the development of Islamic philosophy and kalām. While employing some descriptive, analytic, and ascriptive arguments and certain logical and deductive analytic methods, the present study aims to explain Ṭūsī’s scientific-defensive method in facing the critics of Islamic philosophy. The findings of this study indicate that the features of his systematic method include explaining the lack of conflict of interest between philosophy and religion, entering dialogs with other thinkers, explaining Ibn Sīnā’s philosophy, criticizing the views of opponents of philosophy, synthesizing Peripatetic and Illuminationst philosophies, revealing the functions of philosophy through presenting philosophical explanations, following a rational and unbiased approach in commenting and criticism, and observing the rules of ethics in criticism. Finally, the author concludes that Ṭūsī’s philosophical intellect and rational approach provide the basis and main axis for his scientific-defensive system. Manuscript profile
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Issue 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech More
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - The Relationship between Language and Reality in Plato: An Interpretation of Plato’s Cratylus in the Light of the Three Allegories in Republic
      Hassan Fathi Aboubakr Soleymanpour
      Issue 1 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2017
      Before Plato, the thinkers dealing with the problem of language viewed it as a dual phenomenon. In Aristotle’s eyes, language is a mysterious entity which functions not only as a link connecting the gods and human beings but also as a body of laws for revealing the trut More
      Before Plato, the thinkers dealing with the problem of language viewed it as a dual phenomenon. In Aristotle’s eyes, language is a mysterious entity which functions not only as a link connecting the gods and human beings but also as a body of laws for revealing the truth. For Heraclitus, language enjoys a code-like aspect similar to logos, which is mainly a phenomenon referring to the truth rather than a tool for explaining and analyzing it. On the other hand, for Parmenides, language is a deceptive phenomenon which is the product of a kind of social contract as well as a problem in the sensible world which, by itself, is not of much value. Sophists also consider language to be an arbitrary and relative phenomenon which merely functions as a medium of speech and entails no absolute truth by itself. Given this historical background, Plato set out to explore the problem of language. He developed a view in Cratylus which completed the mentioned historical background. For him, language is a deceptive and imperfect phenomenon; a phenomenon which he investigated in Cratylus based on its essence and its relationship with reality. He maintains that, since language is an artificial entity, it is essentially imperfect and, hence, incapable of providing any knowledge regarding reality. He believes that language can only be used to reflect the reality as accurately as possible, is ontologically posterior to reality, and is only temporally prior to it in terms of its instructional feature. In other words, according to Plato, one cannot attain knowledge through language because it is an artificial phenomenon which, at its best, can manifest the reality in an imperfect form. Manuscript profile

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      3 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Issue 4 , Vol. 6 , Spring 2016
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged More
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Meaning of Truth in the View of Muslim Philosophers with an Emphasis on Ibn Arabi’s Works
      Mohsen  Habibi Mohammad Sadiq  Rezaee
      Issue 4 , Vol. 6 , Spring 2016
      The truth and its meaning have always been discussed by gnostics and philosophers in the course of history. Philosophers have mainly dealt with truth in its logical sense; however, some philosophers, such as Mulla Sadra in Islamic philosophy and Heidegger in Western phi More
      The truth and its meaning have always been discussed by gnostics and philosophers in the course of history. Philosophers have mainly dealt with truth in its logical sense; however, some philosophers, such as Mulla Sadra in Islamic philosophy and Heidegger in Western philosophy, have paid attention to truth in its ontological sense, which is very close to Islamic gnostics’ particular impression of this word. The meaning of truth in gnostics’ view is greatly influenced by its meaning in the Qur’anic and traditional culture. One of the divine names mentioned in the Holy Qur’an is the “Truth”, and Almighty God has called Himself by this name. Some philosophers such as Ibn Arabi used to refer to Qur’anic verses and traditions in order to consolidate their religion. Muslim gnostics concede that there is only one truth in the world, and it is the Necessary Being. They believe that any existent other than Him is mentally-posited and is among the manifestations of that simple Truth. That is why gnostics, themselves, consider the religion of the philosophers who believe in the graded unity of existence to be atheistic and believe in the individual and true unity of existence. Hence, they view closeness to the truth as the only way to attain it and have always been after some ways in order to gain proximity to that original Truth. On the other hand, gnostics consider the human soul to be the most complete locus of the manifestation of God; therefore, the first step in Islamic gnosis in order to attain the knowledge of God is to attain the knowledge of the soul. Ibn Arabi also believes that wayfaring towards God is of vital importance for learning about that single Truth. Manuscript profile

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      5 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn 2017
      Neo platonic tradition has especial characters in history of philosophy. In this paper I explain 4 character of this school.
      Neo platonic tradition has especial characters in history of philosophy. In this paper I explain 4 character of this school. Manuscript profile

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      6 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 4 , Vol. 6 , Spring 2016

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Issue 1 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2017
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek More
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript profile

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      8 - A Critical Study and Explanation of Mulla Mohammad Na‘im Taleqani’s Approach to the Theory of the Individual Unity of Existence
      Seyyed Shahriyar  Kamali Sabzewari
      Issue 2 , Vol. 8 , Autumn 2017
      In the view of Mulla Mohammad Na‘im Taleqani, the theory of the individual unity of existence necessitates either the absolute identity of Almighty Necessary with objects or His possible being. Therefore, several objections can be advanced against this theory, which ren More
      In the view of Mulla Mohammad Na‘im Taleqani, the theory of the individual unity of existence necessitates either the absolute identity of Almighty Necessary with objects or His possible being. Therefore, several objections can be advanced against this theory, which render it into an implausible and unacceptable one. Here, after analyzing his view regarding this theory through using such concepts as the copulative existence of the effect and encompassing plurality and distinction, the writer clarifies the theory of the individual unity of existence and demonstrates that none of the mentioned objections are justified. He finally concludes that Taleqani has failed to explain and analyze gnostics’ views regarding this theory. Manuscript profile

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      9 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Issue 4 , Vol. 5 , Spring 2015
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The More
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Issue 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei More
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript profile
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