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    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Recent Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Editor's Note
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      در تاريخ سرزمين ما، ايران، ادوار و مقاطعي هست كه هنوز زوايا و ابعاد مهمي از آنها همچنان در تاريكي و ابهام باقي مانده و آگاهي و دانش ما دربارة آنها ناچيز است؛ ازجمله دورة موسوم به حمله و اشغال مغولان (ح654ـ 616 ق) كه برغم انجام تتبعات و پژوهشهاي گوناگون اجتماعي، سياسي، ا More
      در تاريخ سرزمين ما، ايران، ادوار و مقاطعي هست كه هنوز زوايا و ابعاد مهمي از آنها همچنان در تاريكي و ابهام باقي مانده و آگاهي و دانش ما دربارة آنها ناچيز است؛ ازجمله دورة موسوم به حمله و اشغال مغولان (ح654ـ 616 ق) كه برغم انجام تتبعات و پژوهشهاي گوناگون اجتماعي، سياسي، ادبي و فرهنگي، دست‌كم بلحاظ مختصات علمي اين دوره ـ شامل شيوه‌هاي آموزش، وضعيت مدارس، چگونگي نگارش آثار علمي و ادبي، كتابخانه‌ها و حتي فهرست جامعي از عالمان و دانشمندان ـ آگاهي ما نسبت به آن اندك است. از جهت داده‌هاي مربوط به «تاريخ فلسفه» ـ ‌و در معناي عام آن، علوم عقلي ـ از نقش كساني چون خواجه‌نصيرالدين طوسي (672ـ 597 ق) گزارشها و نوشته‌هاي بسياري به زبانهاي مختلف در دست است، ليكن همچنان ناگفته‌هاي بسياري در اين زمينه وجود دارد كه نيازمند تتبّع و پژوهش گسترده‌تري است. اهميت خواجه نصير و نقش او در حفظ ميراث علمي ايران و اسلام (تأسيس رصدخانه و كتابخانه مراغه، تجميع آثار علمي از نقاط مختلف، دعوت از عالمان و دانشمندان در زمينه‌هاي مختلف علمي، نگارش آثاري جاويدان در فلسفه و رياضي و كلام و هيئت و ...) تنها بخشي از خدمات علمي اين چهره بزرگ تاريخ ماست؛ ابتكار و نوآوريهاي او در دانشهاي عصر ـ بويژه فلسفه و كلام ـ آنهم در زمانه وحشت و ناامني ناشي از حملة مغول، نيازمند بازخواني و معرفي جديد است. توجه كنيم! رام كردن و انقياد قومي كه از دانش و فرهنگ و زندگي شهري و آداب تمدني دور بودند، در دشتها و بروي پشت اسبها پرورش يافته و از هجوم و غارت و آتش زدن خانه و كاشانه مردمان لذت ميبردند، كار آساني نبود؛ آنهم براي دانشمندي كه ميبايست از سويي در قلاع اسماعيلي دست به نگارش اخلاق ناصری زده و برخي ماجراجوييها و رفتارهاي افراطي سران اسماعيلي را مهار كند و از سويي ديگر، در دربار هلاكوخان مغول، ضمن تمشيت و تدبير امور، به اصلاح و آباداني و انتشار علوم اهتمام ورزد و در كنار همة اين امور، امنيت نفوس و ذخاير مادي و معنوي دارالاسلام را تأمين كند. هركدام از اينها بتنهايي برگي درخشان در كارنامة حيات علمي، سياسي و اجتماعي يك چهرة ماندگار بحساب مي‌آيد. خدمات خواجه در حوزة علوم عقلي دست‌كم از دو جهت چشمگير و بلكه يگانه و بيهمتاست: 1. آنگونه كه در تراجم آمده است، خواجه در عنفوان جواني، فلسفه را در نيشابور با آثار شيخ‌الرئيس فرا گرفت و تا بدانجا پيش رفت كه يكي از معروفترين شروح و تعليقات را بر اشارات و تنبيهات ابن‌سينا نگاشت كه اكنون با گذشت پيش از هفت قرن از زمان نگارش آن، همچنان بعنوان يكي از منابع و مآخذ مهم علوم عقلي و حكمت سينوي بشمار ميرود. شرح و تعليقه خواجه نوشته‌يي همعرض ساير تعليقات نيست، از اين جهت كه از يكسو مشكلات و غوامض متن فشردة شيخ‌الرئيس را باز ميكند و از سويي ديگر حملات و نقدهاي گزنده فخر رازي، بنمايندگي از گروه كثيري از متكلمان متصلّب و عقل‌‌ستيز را پاسخ ميدهد؛ آنهم در زمانه‌يي كه چراغ حكمت و فلسفه كم‌فروغ يا حتي بيفروغ بود و دفاع از عقل و علوم عقلي به قيمت جان آدمي تمام ميشد! اهتمام خواجه به علوم عقلي محدود و منحصر به شرح اشارات نيست؛ در ساير نوشته‌هاي علمي او نيز روش استدلالي و برهاني غلبه يافته و گويي وي خود را مكلّف به تجديد حيات فلسفه و روش عقلي در زمانه غربت آن ميدانسته است. 2. اگرچه دربارة مذهب كلامي خواجه ـ آنهم با عنايت به ارتباط وي با اسماعيليان‌ ـ اظهار نظرهاي مختلفي شده است، ليكن آنچه مسلّم است، نگارش اثري مانند تجريد الاعتقاد از يكسو و پرورش دانشمندان و عالمان بزرگي چون علامه حلّي و ابن‌ميثم بحراني (شارح نهج‌البلاغه) از سويي ديگر نميتواند در تعيين سمت و سوي اعتقادي خواجه بي‌اثر باشد؛ گذشته از آن شيوة نگارش و پردازش آراء و عقايد كلامي اماميه در تجريد الاعتقاد و دفاع كم‌نظير خواجه از عقايد مذهب حقّه بروش برهاني و استدلالي، جاي هيچگونه ترديدي در تشخيص تعلق خاطر نويسنده باقي نميگذارد. از اينرو بجرئت ميتوان گفت خواجه قهرماني بيبديل و احياگر سنت فلسفي و حكمي عالم اسلام در قرن هفتم و آموزگاري بزرگ در انتقال آموزه‌هاي اعتقادي شيعه اثني عشري است. اين معنا در حكم كلياتي است براي پژوهشهاي تفصيلي در تاريخ علوم و دانشهاي ايران و عالم اسلام كه اميد است پژوهشگران جوان با همت خود افقها و داده‌هاي جديدي را در اين زمينه عرضه بدارند. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Resolving Zeno’s Paradoxes Based on the Theory of the “Linear Analytic Summation” and Evaluation of Evolution of Responsesa
      Reza Shakeri Ali Abedi Shahroodi
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      Zeno challenged the problem of motion following his master Parmenides and presented his criticisms of the theory of motion based on four arguments that in fact introduced the paradoxes of this theory. These paradoxes, which contradict an evident problem (motion), provok More
      Zeno challenged the problem of motion following his master Parmenides and presented his criticisms of the theory of motion based on four arguments that in fact introduced the paradoxes of this theory. These paradoxes, which contradict an evident problem (motion), provoked some reactions. This paper initially refers to two of Zeno’s paradoxes and then presents the responses provided by some thinkers of different periods. In his response to Zeno’s paradoxes, Aristotle separated the actual and potential runs of motion and, following a mathematical approach, resorted to the concept of infinitely small sizes. Kant has also referred to this problem in his antinomies. Secondly, the authors explain the theory of linear analytic summation, which consists of two elements: 1) The distance between two points of transfer can be divided infinitely; however, the absolute value of the subsequent distance is always smaller than the absolute value of the previous distance; 2) since the infinitude of the division is of an analytic rather than a synthetic nature, the summation limit of these distances will be equal to the initial distance. Based on this theory, as motion is not free of direction and continuous limits, an integral limit of distance is traversed at each moment, and the analytic, successive, and infinite limits of distance are determined. The final section of this paper is intended to evaluate the responses given to the paradoxes. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Etymology of Fourth Dimension in the View of Muslim Mutikallimūn (Abū Isḥāq Naẓẓām, Ibn al-Rāwandī, Abū Sahl ‘Abbād, and Muḥaqiq Ṭūsī)
      Mahdi Assadi
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      The fourth dimension is one of the problems that have left the borderlines of philosophy behind and are now among the main concerns of physicists. However, the accurate background and history of this view are still clouded. The roots of the fourth dimension can be trace More
      The fourth dimension is one of the problems that have left the borderlines of philosophy behind and are now among the main concerns of physicists. However, the accurate background and history of this view are still clouded. The roots of the fourth dimension can be traced back to the works and ideas of some thinkers of the Middle Ages, such as Anselm, in Western philosophy, although there is no explicit reference in this regard in their works. The roots of the fourth dimension have also been found in the works of Mullā Ṣadrā in Iranian philosophical society. This paper aims to demonstrate that there are some clearly explicit statements about the fourth dimension in the works of Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī in the Islamic world before Mullā Ṣadrā. The author has found no direct statement in this respect in first-hand sources; however, some ideas have been attributed in second-hand sources to some of the mutikallimūn of the Islamic world, including Naẓẓām, Ibn Rāwandī, and ‘Abbād, that focus on four-dimensionalism. Following a historical approach, this paper has compiled the views of these thinkers and analyzed them based on a rational approach. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Study of Mīr Dāmād’s Approach to Suhrawardī’s View of Referring Temporal Priority to Natural Priority
      Hamidreza  Khademi
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      The problem of time and the quality of existence of priority and posteriority of its components are among the important issues in Islamic philosophy. In Ibn Sīnā’s view, the existing priority and posteriority among the components of time are of a temporal type; however, More
      The problem of time and the quality of existence of priority and posteriority of its components are among the important issues in Islamic philosophy. In Ibn Sīnā’s view, the existing priority and posteriority among the components of time are of a temporal type; however, Suhrawardī believes that they are of a natural type. Mīr Dāmād has adopted a critical approach regarding Suhrawardī’s view by presenting two criticisms and finally trying to provide another view of natural priority and posteriority as components of time in addition to temporal priority and posteriority. The quiddative unity of the components of time and the consideration of external separation in temporal priority and posteriority comprise the essence of Mīr Dāmād’s criticism. He believes that the impossibility of the gathering of elements of time with each other confirms the truth of temporal priority and posteriority, and the need of some elements of time to some others and their dependence on them confirms the truth of natural priority and posteriority. This paper firstly explains Suhrawardī’s view in this regard and, then, after an accurate analysis and investigation of Mīr Dāmād’s criticisms, critically examines a part of his approach to the problem based on an analytic comparative method. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Revisiting and Validating the Normative Approach to Sciences in the View of Islamic Philosophers
      Ahmad  Shahgoli Fardin Jamshidi Mehr
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      This study was conducted to clarify the view of Islamic philosophers regarding the graded approach to sciences and the dimensions and outcomes of this problem. One of the principles dominating the worldview of Islamic philosophers is the graded conception of affairs. Th More
      This study was conducted to clarify the view of Islamic philosophers regarding the graded approach to sciences and the dimensions and outcomes of this problem. One of the principles dominating the worldview of Islamic philosophers is the graded conception of affairs. This view also exists in relation to sciences and stipulates that sciences are of different levels and grades with respect to their value. In other words, some of them are more valuable, while some others are less valuable. Philosophers believe that philosophy is the noblest of all sciences and have provided some criteria and arguments in support of this claim. The purpose of this paper is to explain and revisit this approach and its epistemological effects based on a descriptive-analytic and critical method. Therefore, the authors have first introduced the basic principles and approaches of philosophers concerning this problem and then clarified their effects and consequences in other realms. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Study of the Principles of the Impossibility of Developing a Preference and Preponderance Without a Preponderant in Epicurean and Stoic Philosophers
      Samane  Qanbari Varnusfaderani Hassan Fathi Majid  Sadremajles Morteza  Shajari
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      The principles of the impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant and the impossibility of developing a preference are among the most important principles of Islamic philosophy that have been widely discussed. Since the related debates have provoked several co More
      The principles of the impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant and the impossibility of developing a preference are among the most important principles of Islamic philosophy that have been widely discussed. Since the related debates have provoked several contradictory ideas, their study aims to clarify many of the problems in Islamic philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the principles of the impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant and developing a preference in Epicurean and Stoic philosophies. These two principles play extremely diverse functions in these two schools of philosophy and are utilized in ethical, epistemological, and physical discussions. Stoics have completely accepted the principle of the impossibility of developing a preference. They also agree with the principle of the impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant but believe that it is based on the principle of the impossibility of making a preference. Stoics maintain that preponderance without a preponderant leads to motion without a cause. Epicureans agree with the principle of the impossibility of developing a preference at a macroscopic scale or in the realm of bodies and events. However, they reject it in the microscopic realm of atoms at least in the case of their diversion. Epicureans accept the principle of the impossibility of preponderance without a preponderant and believe that it is generally possible. However, they acknowledge that it is discreditable in some cases and allowed in some others. They hold that preponderance without a preponderant is a supreme example of Man’s free will. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Place of Music in Mīr Findiriskī’s Risālah Ṣanāiyyah
      Sahand Soltandoost Mehdi Keshavarz Afshar Asghar Fahimifar
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      Mīr Abulqāsim Mīr Findiriskī (1562-1640), Iranian Philosopher of the Safavid era, has presented some discussions on theoretical music in his most famous work entitled Risālah Ṣanāiyyah, which has made him unique among the philosophers of this period. However, unlike the More
      Mīr Abulqāsim Mīr Findiriskī (1562-1640), Iranian Philosopher of the Safavid era, has presented some discussions on theoretical music in his most famous work entitled Risālah Ṣanāiyyah, which has made him unique among the philosophers of this period. However, unlike the philosophers of early Islamic period, Mīr Findiriskī uses the example of theoretical music in order to explain different types of profession rather than teach music based on written texts. The present paper aims to investigate Mīr Findiriskī’s philosophical views in relation to music as a profession following the qualitative method of content analysis and using historical and library resources. Here, while providing a brief historical review of Mīr Findiriskī’s life, works, and thoughts, the authors have explained the theoretical foundations of the treatise and the technical terms used there in order to clarify the writer’s intention of resorting to the example of theoretical music. The most important implication of music-related discussions in this work is that, during this period, scholars made a clearly explicit distinction between the knowledge and practice of music. In fact, it was possible for prominent religious scholars to have complete mastery over theoretical music but avoid listening to music, teaching it, or practically dealing with it and warn their seminary students against any practical involvement with music. This fact can be considered as one of the clear signs of the separation of the knowledge and practice of music during the Safavid era. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - An Evaluation of Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī’s Criticisms of Ibn Sīnā’s Arguments on the Falsity of Vacuum
      Mahmud  Seidy
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2022
      One of the problems that has always been discussed during the history of Islamic philosophy is the possibility or impossibility of vacuum. The problem is whether one can imagine a place or space in which there is no body. Aristotle was one of the philosophers that criti More
      One of the problems that has always been discussed during the history of Islamic philosophy is the possibility or impossibility of vacuum. The problem is whether one can imagine a place or space in which there is no body. Aristotle was one of the philosophers that criticized the theory of vacuum and presented some arguments in this regard. Following Aristotle, Ibn Sīnā discussed this problem and provided some arguments in support of his views. These arguments have been adduced on the equality or sameness of the dimensions of vacuum, mobility of bodies in vacuum, forcible motion in open air, and non-temporality of physical motion in vacuum. Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī has referred to several defects of these arguments, which are critically investigated in this paper. Manuscript profile
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech More
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2017
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek More
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 6 , Summer 2015
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir More
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 6 , Spring 2016
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged More
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei More
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 5 , Spring 2014
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The More
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Reflection of the Philosophy of Amesha Spenta in Suhrawardi’s Theory of Archetypes
      Nadia  Maftouni Morteza  Darrudi Jawan
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 8 , Spring 2018
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta More
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bandhesh, and other scientific and analytic texts, the authors have searched for them in Suhrawardi’s works. They have extracted and enumerated all the cases in which explicit references have been made to amesha spenta and their general and specific features. After calculating the frequency of the features and signs of each amesha spenta, they have provided a content and conceptual analysis for them. Among the findings of this study are determining the number of explicit references to amesha spenta and the relative order of the frequency of the signs based on the order of amesha spenta, referring to the five-fold amesha spenta as accidental intellects based on their archetypal functions, providing a collection of the strongest signs in Persian texts, and reminiscing about Iranian mythical heroes. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Place of Justice in Plato and Farabi’s Utopia
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Parviz  Hajizadeh
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2014
      Justice is the key term by which Farabi has managed to explicate the foundations of the genetic system of the world. Moreover, based on the same concept and following Plato, he has entered it into the structure of utopia and justified the system of individual ethics acc More
      Justice is the key term by which Farabi has managed to explicate the foundations of the genetic system of the world. Moreover, based on the same concept and following Plato, he has entered it into the structure of utopia and justified the system of individual ethics accordingly. Here, the writers maintain that it is only through matching the system of divine legislation to creation and using it as a model in establishing individual and social relationships that Man can attain happiness, which is the ultimate end of Plato and Farabi’s utopia. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Farabi and his Distinction between Existence and Quiddity
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 5 , Winter 2015
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn S More
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn Sina, because of their epistemological rupture with Greek tradition, sought to understand being differently from Aristotle and, in a way, abstained from reducing the question of being to the question of the whatness of objects. In addition to a conceptual and logical distinction, Farabi managed to develop and present an ontological distinction in the field of philosophy. Ibn Sina expanded it so vastly that some might consider this theory as one of his own philosophical achievements. After the problem of the evidence and principliality of existence, the quality of the relationship between existence and quiddity turned out to be one of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy. At the beginning, under the influence of dividing being into necessary and possible types, Muslim philosophers tried to explain the fundamental difference between them through explaining the relationship between quiddity and existence. As a result, they considered two propositions as the basis of two interpretations of existence and the explanation of its relationship with quiddity. The theory of the synthetic nature of quiddative existents in terms of their existence and quiddity, the existence’s being superadded or accidental to quiddity, and the distinction between existence and quiddity in existents are the views that emerged in Islamic philosophy with Farabi and gradually came to the fore as the most important discussions concerning existence. Furthermore, Farabi’s discussion concerning the individuation of quiddities and the criterion for individuation, which was later accepted by all Islamic philosophers and emphasized by them, was developed under the influence of the above theories. In this paper, the writer has initially tried to provide a correct understanding of the theory of distinction through clarifying its fundamental bases. Then he has clarified its ontological and philosophical consequences and highlighted the importance of this theory in Islamic philosophy. Such an explanation necessitates an extensive investigation of Farabi’s ideas about existence, the meaning of existence, and the existence-quiddity relation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 6 , Winter 2016
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of More
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript profile
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