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        1 - Worlds of Intellect and Beyond-Intellect in Ayn al-Qudat
        Seyyed Mustafa  Shahraeini Nahid  Najafpoor
        As a science representing rationality and intellection, philosophy can liberate human beings from the sensible world, which is the abode of darkness and ignorance, through teaching them the correct method of using their thinking ability. In Ayn al-Qudat’s view, the sens Full Text
        As a science representing rationality and intellection, philosophy can liberate human beings from the sensible world, which is the abode of darkness and ignorance, through teaching them the correct method of using their thinking ability. In Ayn al-Qudat’s view, the sensible world is the world of those people who look like human beings but are deprived of the truth of humanity. This is because they are ignorant and live in an animal world which is void of wisdom and thinking. He believes that, by benefitting from rationality, Man can leave the sensible world behind and step into the world of the intellect and thinking. In other words, they can begin the learning of philosophical sciences and other useful disciplines and develop wisdom and intelligence. Moreover, through even greater use of their intellect, they can step beyond the world of the intellect and enter another world which Ayn al-Qudat calls the “beyond-intellect world”. He argues that it is possible to attain this station in two ways: A) intellectual ascetic practice, in the sense that Man should become involved in the acquisition of theoretical sciences such as philosophy; B) training of the will, in the sense that Man should purify their inner reality from unpleasant conduct and behavior and socialize with the people of taste (dhawq). In this paper, by casting a glance at the three worlds of the sense, the intellect, and the beyond-intellect in Ayn al-Qudat’s view, the writers have discussed the role of philosophy and intellection in reaching the world of the beyond-intellect and attaining insight and knowledge, which lead to other-worldly happiness. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Anthropological Principles of Hobbes and Spinoza on Government (A Historical Overview)
        Bayan Karimy Seyyed Mustafa  Shahraeini
        Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their v Full Text
        Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their views are clearly different from those of their predecessors and even from those of Descartes, who is almost contemporary with them. Spinoza has been influenced by Hobbes in some respects; however, because of the differences between the logic and general philosophy of each of them, there are some noteworthy differences between these two philosophers’ anthropological interpretations and the functions of their political philosophy. The main purpose of the present paper is to highlight the historical background of political philosophy in ancient Greece, particularly during the Middle Ages. While challenging this historical background, it also aims to discover the explicit and implicit metaphysical and anthropological principles and assumptions underlying the views of Hobbes and Spinoza regarding a desirable government and report the differences and similarities between them. The authors intend to demonstrate that Spinoza’s political philosophy is based on ethics and reason. The distinctive feature of his philosophy is its love of human beings and reason. On the other hand, Hobbes’ political philosophy is based on the senses, and its distinctive feature is having a pessimistic view of human beings and presenting a material interpretation of their nature. Accordingly, the principle of preserving the essence in Hobbes’ view is limited to preserving the body, and a superior government means absolute monarchy, the sole purpose of which is protecting the lives of its citizens and establishing security in society. Nevertheless, in Spinoza’s view, protecting the essence is beyond the protection of the body and extends to reason, perhaps even more than the body, because human essence mainly depends on their reason rather than their body. Hence a superior government in Spinoza’s view is of a democratic nature. He also emphasizes the role of government in promoting the human culture and the necessity of educational and ethical policy-making. Manuscript Document