• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Ethical Doctrines in Aristotle and Ibn Miskawayh Razi
        Ali Mohammad  Sajedi Hajar  Darayitabar
        Different schools of ethics have presented different doctrines in the field of ethics. Ethical doctrines include the premises, criteria, and referents of ethical acts. The differences between schools of ethics in their doctrines are rooted in their philosophical princip Full Text
        Different schools of ethics have presented different doctrines in the field of ethics. Ethical doctrines include the premises, criteria, and referents of ethical acts. The differences between schools of ethics in their doctrines are rooted in their philosophical principles. The ethical schools of both Ibn Miskawayh and Aristotle are virtualistic. Ibn Miskawayh believes that the most important prerequisites for ethical acts are self-knowledge, education, and training. Both thinkers explain the criteria for ethical acts relying on the principles of free will, intellect, moderation, and religious laws and analyze their referents based on elements of virtue, joy, friendship, etc. However, given the different worldviews of these two philosophers, their ideas of any of the ethical elements and referents are also different. Unlike Aristotle, Ibn Miskawayh attaches great importance to Islamic laws in relation to his ethical views. Moreover, he is able to provide a more successful model of ethical doctrines based on his monotheistic worldview. Influenced by religious teachings, he also believes that religious training plays an influential and efficient role in ethical growth and development. This paper is intended to explore ethical doctrines by comparing the ideas of these two philosophers. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Marsilius of Padua and the Roots of Legal Secularism in the Middle Ages
        Yashar  Jeirani Mostafa  Younesie
        The present paper deals with the possibility of propounding the concept of “legal secularism” in the ideas of Marsilius of Padua. All commentators of Marsilius have detected a preliminary form of secularism, that is, institutionalized secularism, in his works and those Full Text
        The present paper deals with the possibility of propounding the concept of “legal secularism” in the ideas of Marsilius of Padua. All commentators of Marsilius have detected a preliminary form of secularism, that is, institutionalized secularism, in his works and those of his contemporary scholars. This kind of secularism is opposed to the interference of the institution of the church as such in the field of politics. However, the same commentators have refused confirming a more advanced form of secularism in his works which is called legal secularism that is, one which is opposed to the interference of theological ideas as an official source with the laws. All commentators believe that this kind of secularism is rooted in the political philosophy of the modern period and, particularly, John Locke’s philosophy and maintain that attributing it to Marsilius is a kind of interpretive anachronism. Unlike the common theories, this paper aims to contradict this historistic interpretation of Marsilius’ political philosophy and, through analyzing his writings, demonstrate that his interpretation of faith as an inner and private affair can lead us toward a preliminary but clear form of legal secularism in his works. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Philosophical Psychology in Islamic Kalam in the Sixth and Seventh Hijri Centuries
        Akbar  Faydei Sohrab  Haqiqat
        The philosophical psychology of Muslim thinkers in the sixth and seventh centuries (AH) was influenced by Ibn Sina’s discussions of the soul. However, the difference was that Ibn Sina tried to demonstrate only the immateriality of the rational faculty. Nevertheless, aft Full Text
        The philosophical psychology of Muslim thinkers in the sixth and seventh centuries (AH) was influenced by Ibn Sina’s discussions of the soul. However, the difference was that Ibn Sina tried to demonstrate only the immateriality of the rational faculty. Nevertheless, after him, some thinkers focused on interpreting the immateriality of all levels of perception in the soul. Following Ibn Sina, Nasir al-Din Tusi considered the rational soul to be a substance separate from matter as well as a simple and spiritually originated entity which, in the course of its development enjoys an administrative relation to the body. Based on the belief in the concomitance of immateriality and immortality, Tusi demonstrated the immateriality of all the perceptive levels and subsistence of rational souls by employing solid intellectual arguments. He also believes that the soul and body affect each other, and neither the corruption of the body nor any other factor can cause the annihilation of the simple and immaterial rational soul. However, Fakhr al-Din Razi has a dual theory of the nature of the soul and its relationship with the body. Sometimes, like Islamic philosophers, he views the soul as an immaterial substance drawing on Ibn Sina’s arguments in order to demonstrate its immateriality and, sometimes, like most Islamic mutakallimun, he introduces the soul as a subtle entity which dominates the body in the light of the power of Almighty God. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - A Study of Different Levels of Love in Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra’s Critique of his View
        Mohsen  Habibi Hossein  Ataie
        The problem of love has attracted the attention of philosophers since the beginning of its dawn. For example, in Greece, particularly in Plato’s works, the types and angles of this problem have been philosophically explored to a large extent. In the world of Islam, the Full Text
        The problem of love has attracted the attention of philosophers since the beginning of its dawn. For example, in Greece, particularly in Plato’s works, the types and angles of this problem have been philosophically explored to a large extent. In the world of Islam, the study of this theme, like other philosophical subjects, has undergone some changes in terms of its meaning and scope. Previously, the word love merely referred to the existence of great passion between two human beings. However, Islamic philosophers have changed it in their works into a vast concept which flows all over the world of being and permeates all existents. Ibn Sina has also paid particular attention to this problem in his works. In his view, any existent enjoys a level of love in accordance with its existential level ranging from hyle, which is pure potency, to the Essence of the Necessary Being, Who is pure perfection. After Ibn Sina, Mulla Sadra also dealt with the problem of love. Although he agrees with Ibn Sina regarding the overall flow of love all over the world of being, he considers the existence of life and knowledge to be a prerequisite for the realization of love. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the different types and levels of love in Ibn Sina’s view. A secondary goal here is to cast a glance at Mulla Sadra’s ideas and criticisms of Ibn Sina in this regard Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Classification of Sciences in Ikhwan al-Safa and Farabi
        Seyyed Ahmad  Hosseinee Mehdi  Amiri
        Although many philosophers have spoken of the classification of sciences, none have referred to a single one agreed upon by all. Here, both the source of division and the divisions are different from each other in each classification, when classifying sciences, Ikhwan a Full Text
        Although many philosophers have spoken of the classification of sciences, none have referred to a single one agreed upon by all. Here, both the source of division and the divisions are different from each other in each classification, when classifying sciences, Ikhwan al-Safa consider pure types of knowledge and, initially, divide them into two theoretical and practical arts. However, Farabi divides scientific rather than pure types of knowledge and classifies them into two instrumental and non-instrumental sciences based on their functions. In the classification of Ikhwan al-Safa, drawing on the neo-Platonic approach, the place of the soul, politics, logic, and ethics are different from that in the classification of the Peripatetics, such as Farabi. The most important basis for classification of sciences in the view of Ikhwan al-Safa is the end. Nevertheless, similar to Aristotle, Farabi relies on two main criteria for the classification of sciences: end and subject. This paper, in addition to examining the differences between Ikhwan al-Safa and Farabi in their classification of sciences, discusses the specific place of some of sciences from their points of view. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Principle of the Identity of Quiddity and Existence in the Truth in Islamic Tradition and Greek Philosophy
        Huda  Habibimanesh Shamsollah  Seraj
        The problem of the identity of existence and quiddity in Almighty Necessary has been referred to as the identity of existence and quiddity in the Truth in the works of Muslim philosophers and is dealt with as a philosophical principle. The great figures of Islamic philo Full Text
        The problem of the identity of existence and quiddity in Almighty Necessary has been referred to as the identity of existence and quiddity in the Truth in the works of Muslim philosophers and is dealt with as a philosophical principle. The great figures of Islamic philosophy have provided different interpretations of this principle and derived various consequences from it. Undoubtedly, the ideas of Greek philosophers and the teachings of Islam have played a significant role in the development of this principle by Muslim philosophers. The present paper intends to analyze the roots and origins of this principle, and it appears that a conceptual analysis of the technical terms used there could help researchers to derive better and more profound conclusions from this principle. Manuscript Document