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        1 - يادداشت سردبير
        Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
        در خلال کتابهای تاریخ ‌فلسفه، غالباً بخشی به دوران ترجمۀ متون فلسفی و علمی به زبانهای یونانی و سریانی اختصاص یافته است؛ در فاصلۀ قرنهای دوم و سوم هجری قمری در عالم اسلام و دوازدهم و سیزدهم میلادی در غرب لاتینی. امروزه آگاهی ما دربارۀ عناوین، مراکز، مترجمان و شرحها و تع More
        در خلال کتابهای تاریخ ‌فلسفه، غالباً بخشی به دوران ترجمۀ متون فلسفی و علمی به زبانهای یونانی و سریانی اختصاص یافته است؛ در فاصلۀ قرنهای دوم و سوم هجری قمری در عالم اسلام و دوازدهم و سیزدهم میلادی در غرب لاتینی. امروزه آگاهی ما دربارۀ عناوین، مراکز، مترجمان و شرحها و تعلیقه‌ها بر متون ترجمه شده در هر دو دوره، اندک نیست و ببرکت پژوهشهای اسنادی و کتابخانه‌یی متعدد، اکنون پژوهشها و فهرستهایی نسبتاً دقیق از همۀ موارد مذکور در اختیار ماست. از نمونه‌های اخیر این آثار، مجموعه‌یی است بویراستاری پیتر آدامسون و ریچارد تیلور، با مشخصات زیر: P. Adamson & R. Taylor, The Cambridge Campanion to Arabic Philosophy, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. کل کتاب و بویژه دو فصل آخر آن، اطلاعاتی نسبتاً دقیق از آنچه مربوط به ترجمۀ متون فلسفی در این دو مقطع تاریخی واقع شده است، در اختیار خواننده قرار میدهد. اما با وجود این، دو نکته در مواجهه با این تحقیقات قابل توجه است: نخست اینکه، پژوهشگران غربی ـ و عمدتاً مستشرقان ـ در توصیف و معرفی سنت فلسفی عالم اسلام، همچنان از عنوان «فلسفۀ عربی» بهره میجویند که پیش از این دربارۀ آن سخن گفتیم. این عنوان هم در صورت و هم در محتوا، خالی از اِشکال نیست. بکار بردن «فلسفۀ عربی» در قیاس با «فلسفۀ یونانی» یا «فلسفۀ اروپایی» بیوجه است، زیرا برای نمونه، وصف یونانی برای فلسفه، حاکی از سنخ خاصی از تفکر، روش یا دیدگاه بوده و هست که از دیگر تجارب فلسفی باستان متمایز میشود. همچنین روشن است که «فلسفۀ یونان» تنها بلحاظ زبان یونانی از دیگر مسلکها و نحله‌های فلسفی متمایز نمیشود، بلکه زبان یونانی بمثابه قالبی برای یک روح فرهنگی و معنوی خاص و کالبدی برای معرفی و ظهور آن بشمار رفته و میرود. دوم اینکه، در این پژوهشها، اشاره چندانی به متون پارسی و زبان کهن ایرانی ـ‌ حاوی آموزه‌ها و تعلیمات فلسفی ‌ـ نشده و عمدتاً بر متون یونانی و سریانی تأکید شده است. تردیدی نیست که متون کهن پارسی در جریان حوادث و سوانح گوناگون آسیب دیده یا بکلی از میان رفته‌اند، و از این جهت دست پژوهشگران در تحلیل و تبیین مضامین فلسفی آنها بسته‌ است، لیکن گزارشهای پراکنده و مدارک اندک موجود به زبانهای پهلوی و دَری که بر وجود نظامی از آموزه‌های جهان‌شناختی، کیهان‌شناختی و انسان‌شناختی دلالت دارند، هنوز آنچنان که شایسته است مورد بازخوانی قرار نگرفته‌اند. بیتردید آنچه در گفتار کسانی مانند شهاب‌الدین سهروردی، ابوعلی مسکویه، پولس فارسی و صاحبان تراجم، تحت عنوان حکمت نوریه، حکمت مشرقی، حکمای فُرس و حکمت خسروانی آمده است، نمیتواند صرفاً جنبۀ اساطیری و نمادین داشته باشد و جا دارد بطور وسیع و جامع، بدست زبان‌شناسان، باستان‌شناسان و اهل فلسفه، مورد خوانش جدید قرار گیرد. Manuscript profile
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        2 - An Interpretation of the Dialogue of Laws from the Viewpoint of Leo Strauss Based on Fārābī’s Treatise of Talkhīṣ al-Nawāmīs
        Havva Jami Seyed Mohammad  Hakkak Qazvini Ali Naghi  Baghershahi Shervin Moghimi Zanjani
        Presently, historicism is the dominant approach in interpreting philosophical traditions. This approach considers each science, particularly philosophy, to be in some way related to the specific lifetime of thinkers. Within this framework, historicist interpreters exami More
        Presently, historicism is the dominant approach in interpreting philosophical traditions. This approach considers each science, particularly philosophy, to be in some way related to the specific lifetime of thinkers. Within this framework, historicist interpreters examine Plato’s works in relation to four different periods, with the dialogue of Laws belonging to the latest period of his life, indicating a change in his approach. However, in opposition to any kind of historicist view, Leo Strauss disagrees with this division and believes that there is no change of direction in Plato’s overall philosophy – from the first to the last dialogue – and all of them address philosophical problems from a specific standpoint. We encounter this comprehensive approach also in Strauss’ reading of the dialogue of Laws. In fact, Strauss believes that, in order to grasp a real understanding of the dialogue of Laws, one must follow his method and consider Fārābī’s interpretation of this work in Talkhīṣ al-nawāmīs as a basis. Strauss also maintains that it is the only way through which one can go beyond the limits of historical interpretation. While providing a brief discussion of the historical interpretation of the Laws, the purpose of the present study is to examine Fārābī’s interpretation of the dialogue of Laws, Strauss’ critique and view of this interpretation, and the most distinctive features of Strauss’ innovative interpretation of this dialogue. Manuscript profile
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        3 - A Short History of Sharḥ al-Manẓūmah and its Use as a Textbook in Iran and in the World
        Mohammad Mahdi Kamali
        It is more than 200 years since the monumental book of Sharḥ al-manẓūmah was written by Mullā Hādī Sabziwārī, the prominent philosopher in the field of the Transcendent Philosophy. During these 200 years, this book has always functioned as one of the most important text More
        It is more than 200 years since the monumental book of Sharḥ al-manẓūmah was written by Mullā Hādī Sabziwārī, the prominent philosopher in the field of the Transcendent Philosophy. During these 200 years, this book has always functioned as one of the most important texts in various seminaries and philosophy centers in Iran and in the world, and no other work, whether in the style of Sharḥ al-manẓūmah itself or in another style, has ever been able to replace it. What has resulted in the fame and endurance of this book is, firstly, the supreme scientific and spiritual character of its writer and, secondly, its expression of content in the poetic style for the first time; its comprehensiveness in terms of various philosophical problems and views; its innovative style; its concise but precise nature; its frequent use as a textbook by its writer; the existence of various glosses and commentaries on this work, and its being used as a textbook by several prominent teachers over time. In this paper, while dealing with the place of Sharḥ al-manẓūmah among similar works and its advantages and reasons for longevity in academic centers, the authors have provided a report of the history of this book, the quality of its teaching in Iran and in the whole world, and introduced its distinguished teachers during different periods in different educational centers. Manuscript profile
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        4 - Mīr Dāmād’s Philosophy in India from the Mid-11th Century to the end of the 12th Century (AH): With an Emphasis on Textual Traditions
        Hossein Najafi Davood Hosseini
        From the middle of the fifth century to the fourteenth century (AH), the works and views of Iranian philosophers have had a noteworthy presence in the scientific centers of the Indian sub-continent. Mīr Dāmād’s philosophical thoughts created the turning point in this hi More
        From the middle of the fifth century to the fourteenth century (AH), the works and views of Iranian philosophers have had a noteworthy presence in the scientific centers of the Indian sub-continent. Mīr Dāmād’s philosophical thoughts created the turning point in this historical presence. After their transfer to India, his works and views were disseminated all over the sub-continent through textual traditions. The spread of his writings and thoughts, in addition to the turmoil it created in academic centers, divided Indian philosophical figures into two groups of opponents and proponents of Mīr Dāmād and led to some extensive discussions among them based on the book al-Ufuq al-mubīn, including the notions of simple creation of quiddity, origination through perpetual duration, types of simple questions, the liar paradox, etc. In this paper, while providing a brief account of textual traditions in India, the authors will demonstrate that seminary philosophy in this land was in close interaction with Mīr Dāmād’s philosophical thoughts from the mid-11th century to the end of the 12th century (AH). In doing so, some of the prominent philosophers of India during these two centuries are introduced; their station in textual traditions is clarified; their relationship with Mīr Dāmād’s thoughts regarding various philosophical subjects are explained and, finally, the geographical spread of Mīr Dāmād’s thoughts across the subcontinent are analyzed. Next, they will show that the spread of this presence in the subcontinent is much larger than it has been imagined in the contemporary period. Here, by India, the subcontinent, and South Asia, the authors mean the historical borders of this land before 1947 AD, which entailed the present geographical area of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and some regions in Afghanistan. Manuscript profile
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        5 - Labyrinth of the World: Deconstruction of Nicolaus Cusanus’ Perception of Substance Based on the Views of Meister Eckhart and Ibn Sīnā
        Ebrahim  Ranjbar Mohammadreza Asadi
        Nicolaus Cusanus, the German Philosopher and theologian, tried to revise the metaphysical views of his time in his works. He tried to present his philosophical approach systematically by posing a number of innovative theories about creation, Man’s relationship with the More
        Nicolaus Cusanus, the German Philosopher and theologian, tried to revise the metaphysical views of his time in his works. He tried to present his philosophical approach systematically by posing a number of innovative theories about creation, Man’s relationship with the infinite affair, motion, and knowledge, as well as by revising the common religious views regarding such theorems as the first sin and creation out of nothing. Here, the authors have initially tried to examine Cusanus’ important views about the relationship between Man and the infinite affair, and through which reveal that, from this point of view, there is only one substance in the world, and anything other than that is among its necessary accidents. Next, they propound the concepts of unfolding and folding and introduce a category called the trans-substantial motion in Cusanus’ specific reading. After discussing his views, the background of the formation of his approach are deconstructed. In doing so, Meister Eckhart’s interpretation of some sections of the Holy Book and some of Ibn Sīnā’s fundamental metaphysical views are presented. Then the authors argue that Ibn Sīnā’s innovative approaches and Meister Eckhart’s novel interpretations pave the context for postulating a new metaphysics that is different from the traditional one. This can introduce new perspectives for philosophical studies and shed a new light on the history of philosophical thought. Manuscript profile
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        6 - A Critique of the Theory of Transmigration and Shahrzūrī’s Demonstrative Arguments Based on Ibn Sīnā’s Principles
        Mahmud Saidiy
        The theory of the transmigration of the soul is one of the oldest views that has been propounded in the history of thought in order to explain the quality of reward or punishment of human beings and the nature of the eternity of the human soul. Shahrzūrī is one of the m More
        The theory of the transmigration of the soul is one of the oldest views that has been propounded in the history of thought in order to explain the quality of reward or punishment of human beings and the nature of the eternity of the human soul. Shahrzūrī is one of the most prominent Illuminationist philosophers, who has presented a coherent theory for the demonstration of ascending and descending transmigration. He has initially criticized Ibn Sīnā’s arguments on refuting the theory of transmigration and, then, provides some reasons to prove it. The present study demonstrates that Shahrzūrī’s criticisms of Ibn Sīnā’s arguments are wrong because, given the capability of the body, the active intellect grants the soul to the body. To prevent the soul’s lingering for doing acts, there must be a temporal concurrence and equality between the numbers of previous and new between-body states of the soul. Shahrzūrī’s arguments for proving the theory of transmigration are defective because the problems of the inhibition of the gathering of two souls in a body and the lack of concurrence and equality between the previous body of the soul and its next body still remain to be solved. Manuscript profile
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        7 - A Critical Study of the Views of ‘Alī Qulī Khān Qarchoghāi Khān on Acquired and Presential Types of Knowledge
        Hamid Reza  Khademi
        ‘Alī Qulī Khān Qarchoghāi Khān was one of the philosophers of the Safavid era, many of whose works have remained unknown. However, his book Revival of Wisdom, which contains many of his philosophical ideas, has been edited and published. Among the innovative accomplishm More
        ‘Alī Qulī Khān Qarchoghāi Khān was one of the philosophers of the Safavid era, many of whose works have remained unknown. However, his book Revival of Wisdom, which contains many of his philosophical ideas, has been edited and published. Among the innovative accomplishments of this philosopher, reference can be made to his novel classifications and interpretations of acquired and presential types of knowledge. When describing his approach in this regard, while presenting the views of early philosophers regarding the truth of knowledge, prior to explaining the two types of true knowledge – essential knowledge and accidental knowledge – he introduces acquired and presential types of knowledge as subcategories of accidental knowledge. On the one hand, some of his classifications of acquired knowledge and presential knowledge are unprecedented in the history of Islamic philosophy. On the other hand, he maintains that the truth of knowledge is an accidental affair that is added to the rational soul. In fact, through his analysis of the problem of the union of the intellect and intelligible, ‘Alī Qulī Khān views knowledge as a quality that has occurred to the qualified. Here, his approach has been studied at four stages: examining different types of acquired knowledge and presential knowledge, investigating the incompleteness of his first argument about the accidental nature of presential knowledge and acquired knowledge, revealing the shortcomings of the second and third arguments, and illustrating the insufficiency of his view regarding the union of the intellect and intelligent. In this paper, the author has initially tried to provide an accurate explanation of ‘Alī Qulī Khān’s innovative view on acquired and presential types of knowledge and, then, to examine and criticize this view following an analytic-descriptive method. Manuscript profile