• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
        A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
        Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir Full Text
        Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Origin of Islamic Philosophy
        Ghasem  Purhassan
        The question of the nature of Islamic philosophy has triggered an extremely important conflict over a very long time. The quality of dealing with this question can play a determining role in our approach towards Islamic philosophy. Generally speaking, there are three ap Full Text
        The question of the nature of Islamic philosophy has triggered an extremely important conflict over a very long time. The quality of dealing with this question can play a determining role in our approach towards Islamic philosophy. Generally speaking, there are three approaches in this regard each deserving due attention and critical analysis. The first approach emphasizes the Greek origin of Islamic philosophy and considers it to be the extension of a philosophy which is called the Greek tradition. Advocates of this approach claim that all the philosophical trends in all periods have originated in or been influenced by Greek philosophy and must be studied in the light of the theory of linear continuity. According to this view, the assumption that rational thought has its origins in Iran, India, or China and also Babylon and Mesopotamia or Egypt is not much valid. The second approach insists that Islamic philosophy has no referent at all. The followers of this approach believe that, basically, all religious philosophies lack any kind of referent. They maintain that if we believe in Islamic philosophy, we will encounter some intricacies such as sacredness, contradiction, text interpretation, and the lack of growth and expansion of philosophy. This group claims that if we support the existence of Islamic philosophy, it would necessarily entail sacredness, and then any criticism of this kind of philosophy would be equal to a criticism of religion. However, this necessity is false. Regarding the problem of contradiction, it is claimed that it is not possible to reconcile the Qur’anic and traditional view of philosophy with that of the Greeks. Hence, the Greek view of happiness is in contrast to the Qur’anic one. The third approach emphasizes that Islamic philosophy is the expansion of Greek philosophy, and if we fail to provide a correct interpretation of their commensurability, we can never present a correct explanation of the nature of Islamic philosophy and its essential differences from Greek philosophy. That the number of philosophical problems in Greece was limited to 200 but increased to 700 during the Islamic period does not by itself provide a correct description of the nature of Islamic philosophy. Neither can it justify the Islamic nature of this kind of philosophy or defend it convincingly. The main point here is that the origin of Islamic philosophy is not Greek philosophy; rather, it is rooted in the Qur’anic verses, prophetic traditions, and religious prayers and texts. One cannot discuss the religious origin of Islamic philosophy based on the theory of the expansion of philosophical problems. There is a fundamental difference between a theory which considers Islamic philosophy to be rooted in Greece and limits the efforts of Muslim philosophers merely to increasing the number of philosophical topics and problems or adding variety to the related arguments or modifying or increasing them and a theory which asserts that Muslims, before becoming familiar with Greek philosophy, had already turned to rational thought. In doing so, they gradually set out to benefit from the philosophical knowledge of other nations and countries, particularly and mainly from that of Iranians, Indians, and Greeks. Therefore, the present paper intends to demonstrate that Islamic philosophy is rooted in the Qur’an and traditions. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Theory of Continuity in Stoic Physics
        Mohammad Javad  Esmaeili Sina  Masheyekhi
        This paper investigates the theory of continuity in Stoic physics based on some concepts such as pneuma (the soul), hexis (disposition), and tonos (tension) and refers to its consequences. Moreover, it demonstrates that Stoic philosophers have provided an organized anal Full Text
        This paper investigates the theory of continuity in Stoic physics based on some concepts such as pneuma (the soul), hexis (disposition), and tonos (tension) and refers to its consequences. Moreover, it demonstrates that Stoic philosophers have provided an organized analysis of the relationships among the animate and inanimate components of nature. This issue in Stoic physics is based on the theory of lack of vacuum in nature and its component parts. This theory connects the active elements in nature – God and the rational faculty – with the passive elements – non-organic nature. Therefore, through an analysis of the natural principles of Stoic philosophy, this paper initially explains the active element in physics, i.e. pneuma, and its various forms in nature including: a) its highest form or the rational faculty in human beings; b) its weaker form or hexis in the non-organic nature. Then it deals with the concept of continuity based on pneuma and demonstrates it empirically. Finally, it compares the theory of continuity based on Muslim philosophers’ interpretation of Stoic philosophy. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Iranian Culture and Philosophy in the View Eudoxus of Cnidus
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Mohammad Sadiq  Rezaee
        Today, perhaps no one doubts the influence of Iranian thought and culture on Greek philosophy. This is because, apart from the existence of several historical documents and pieces of evidence in this regard, some extensive studies have also been conducted on this issue Full Text
        Today, perhaps no one doubts the influence of Iranian thought and culture on Greek philosophy. This is because, apart from the existence of several historical documents and pieces of evidence in this regard, some extensive studies have also been conducted on this issue during the last two centuries. All the inscriptions and objects discovered in archeological excavations and the ancient reports and writings of the Greeks and Iranians confirm this cultural exchange and influence. However, there are still some unanswered questions regarding the quality of this influence or adaptation and, particularly, the mediators playing a role in this process. Obviously, in historical studies, it is impossible or very difficult to have access to all the details. For example, it is not really easy to provide a straightforward idea concerning the relationship between the Pythagorean philosophy and Khosrawani wisdom and the quality of the interactions between Persian philosophers and early Greek philosophers, particularly regarding the meanings of words in particular fields. However, the few existing pieces of evidence, especially those which enjoy the necessary validity and authenticity, could still be illuminating. Eudoxus of Cnidus is one of the few prominent figures of the fourth century BC who was, on the one hand, familiar with the pre-Socratic wisdom and, on the other hand, because of his presence in Plato’s Academy and acquaintance with Aristotle, was aware of the classical philosophies developed after Socrates and Plato. He was a student of the Pythagorean School, thus he is mainly famous for his knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Nevertheless, this paper demonstrates that he not only was greatly interested in the fields of philosophy and cosmology but also functioned as the main reporter of the elements of Iranian culture and philosophy for the members of Academy and as the bridge connecting these two centers of civilization. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Place of the Prophet in Ibn Sina’s Ideal City
        Mohammad  Akvan Fatemeh  Mohammad
        As a divine philosopher, Ibn Sina has dealt with politics in his metaphysical discussions. Apparently, he has not written an independent work on politics and has considered it to be a part of practical wisdom. In his view, the prophet represents the “ideal ruler” and re Full Text
        As a divine philosopher, Ibn Sina has dealt with politics in his metaphysical discussions. Apparently, he has not written an independent work on politics and has considered it to be a part of practical wisdom. In his view, the prophet represents the “ideal ruler” and revelation and tradition represent the law. Since, before him, Farabi has discussed politics extensively in his al-Siyasah al-madaniyyah (Civil Politics), Ibn Sina does not see any need to provide more explanations in this regard and deals with this field in short without presenting the details. However, he has discussed the quality of choosing a leader and devising laws for his utopia extensively. In fact, he has completed the same prophetic politics that Farabi had initiated previously. The present paper briefly deals with Ibn Sina’s political system in order to clarify the place of the prophet in the hierarchy of his utopia. In this way, the quality of establishing a utopia based on the “definitive text” as the best method of electing a ruler is clearly illustrated. Moreover, the authors demonstrate how the nature of Ibn Sina’s view of the caliphate and the Prophet’s successor bring him closer to the Imamiyyah political philosophy. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Philosophy based on Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy
        Ali  Arshad Riyahi Somayeh  Malleki
        Thomas Aquinas’s system of philosophy is of such undeniable significance to Christian philosophers as is Mulla Sadra’s to Islamic philosophers. What is of prime importance to both of them is the notion of existence, while most western philosophers preceding Aquinas and Full Text
        Thomas Aquinas’s system of philosophy is of such undeniable significance to Christian philosophers as is Mulla Sadra’s to Islamic philosophers. What is of prime importance to both of them is the notion of existence, while most western philosophers preceding Aquinas and some of the Islamic philosophers before Mulla Sadra believed in quiddity. Aquinas completely acknowledged the priority of the act of existence to essence, and Mulla Sadra, too, advocated the principiality of existence. In this paper, the authors have tried to explore the possibility of Thomas Aquinas’ belief in the principiality of existence based on Mulla Sadra’s philosophy. They also inquire whether, as claimed by Étienne Gilson and other well-known commentators of Aquinas’ works and ideas, one can consider him to be an advocate of the principiality of existence. This problem is of great significance because, today, Aquinas is a thinker with the greatest number of supporters in the West, where we are witnessing the emergence of new schools of philosophy at all times. Therefore, the study of whether one of the most important interpretations of this thinker’s theories is false might increase the significance of the topic of this research. In doing so, following the library method and given the interpretations and analyses of the contents of the works of these two philosophers, the authors conclude that Aquinas has discussed nothing but the addition of existence to quiddity, which has also been propounded in Ibn Sina’s works. Therefore, he cannot be considered to be a supporter of the principiality of existence in comparison to Mulla Sadra. Manuscript Document