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    • List of Articles Aristotle

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        1 - Ammonius Hermiae and the Historical Impact of his Thought
        Maryam  Salem
        Neo-Platonic philosophers, in addition to advocating Plato’s philosophical and theological school and commenting on his works, also paid attention to Aristotle and explored his philosophy and theology alongside his logic and ethics. This gave rise to the development of More
        Neo-Platonic philosophers, in addition to advocating Plato’s philosophical and theological school and commenting on his works, also paid attention to Aristotle and explored his philosophy and theology alongside his logic and ethics. This gave rise to the development of a tradition among some of them to try to reconcile the ideas of these two philosophers with each other and demonstrate that there is no internal and external inconsistency between them. One of the prominent philosophers involved in this practice was Ammonius, the son of Hermiae, who, in spite of his anonymity during his own time, managed to exercise a great influence over the philosophical schools which emerged after him. This influence is quite noticeable initially on Islamic philosophers, particularly on Farabi, and then on Christian theologians. This paper aims to briefly introduce his character and some of his ideas. Manuscript profile
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        2 - Development of the Concept of Malignity in the History of Philosophical Ethics in the Islamic World (with an Emphasis on Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi’s Philosophy)
        Hossein  Atrak Mohsen   Jahed
        Aristotle’s principle of middle term is commonly defined as avoiding excess and defect, which seems to be a quantitative concept at first sight. This interpretation has received some criticisms from the authorities in the field of ethics. Muslim thinkers have also taken More
        Aristotle’s principle of middle term is commonly defined as avoiding excess and defect, which seems to be a quantitative concept at first sight. This interpretation has received some criticisms from the authorities in the field of ethics. Muslim thinkers have also taken some steps to criticize, examine, and possibly improve this principle. Their most important attempt in this regard has been the introduction of the concept of malignity to philosophical ethics in the world of Islam. This concept pays attention to both quality in addition to quantity and remedies some of the defects of Aristotle’s principle of middle term. It is noteworthy that an accurate review of Aristotle’s texts also indicates the presence of the element of malignity in his ethical system. This concept was firstly introduced by Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi in some parts of Akhlaq-i nasiri, and later Qadi Izzuddin Iji placed it in a more logical section among ethical discussions. Following them, many Muslim experts in the field of ethics accepted their idea of this concept and discussed it in their works. The present paper aims to explore the historical development of the concept of malignity and examine its significance in the related fields. Manuscript profile
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        3 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
        Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
        The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of More
        The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript profile
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        4 - A Historical Study of the Origins of the Problem of Method in Western Philosophy and its Reflection on the Methodologies of Descartes and Spinoza
        Hossein  Saberi Varzaneh
        The present paper deals with the background and causes of the rise of the problem of method and its importance in the 17th century, particularly, in Descartes and Spinoza. The criticisms advanced against the different aspects of Aristotelian philosophy (such as the disc More
        The present paper deals with the background and causes of the rise of the problem of method and its importance in the 17th century, particularly, in Descartes and Spinoza. The criticisms advanced against the different aspects of Aristotelian philosophy (such as the discussion of the universals, the re-emergence of Pyrrhonian skepticism, functionalism in sciences, and the development of exact sciences) wavered the foundations of previous philosophical schools and gave rise to discussions regarding the criteria for the truth and the correct methods of thinking. As a result, some logicians such as Zabarella and Eutyches decided to revise Aristotelian logic and began speaking of methods of analysis and synthesis, definition processes, and the cohesion and coherence of matters of discussion. Following the same tradition and, of course, under the influence of Aristotle’s critics, Descartes and Spinoza advocated the geometric method of analysis and synthesis. In this way, they tried to provide a guarantee for the truth of their words and transform the infertility of the Aristotelian categorical syllogism into an invaluable, fertile, and methodic kind of thinking. Manuscript profile
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        5 - Ethical Doctrines in Aristotle and Ibn Miskawayh Razi
        Ali Mohammad  Sajedi Hajar  Darayitabar
        Different schools of ethics have presented different doctrines in the field of ethics. Ethical doctrines include the premises, criteria, and referents of ethical acts. The differences between schools of ethics in their doctrines are rooted in their philosophical princip More
        Different schools of ethics have presented different doctrines in the field of ethics. Ethical doctrines include the premises, criteria, and referents of ethical acts. The differences between schools of ethics in their doctrines are rooted in their philosophical principles. The ethical schools of both Ibn Miskawayh and Aristotle are virtualistic. Ibn Miskawayh believes that the most important prerequisites for ethical acts are self-knowledge, education, and training. Both thinkers explain the criteria for ethical acts relying on the principles of free will, intellect, moderation, and religious laws and analyze their referents based on elements of virtue, joy, friendship, etc. However, given the different worldviews of these two philosophers, their ideas of any of the ethical elements and referents are also different. Unlike Aristotle, Ibn Miskawayh attaches great importance to Islamic laws in relation to his ethical views. Moreover, he is able to provide a more successful model of ethical doctrines based on his monotheistic worldview. Influenced by religious teachings, he also believes that religious training plays an influential and efficient role in ethical growth and development. This paper is intended to explore ethical doctrines by comparing the ideas of these two philosophers. Manuscript profile
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        6 - Principle of the Identity of Quiddity and Existence in the Truth in Islamic Tradition and Greek Philosophy
        Huda  Habibimanesh Shamsollah  Seraj
        The problem of the identity of existence and quiddity in Almighty Necessary has been referred to as the identity of existence and quiddity in the Truth in the works of Muslim philosophers and is dealt with as a philosophical principle. The great figures of Islamic philo More
        The problem of the identity of existence and quiddity in Almighty Necessary has been referred to as the identity of existence and quiddity in the Truth in the works of Muslim philosophers and is dealt with as a philosophical principle. The great figures of Islamic philosophy have provided different interpretations of this principle and derived various consequences from it. Undoubtedly, the ideas of Greek philosophers and the teachings of Islam have played a significant role in the development of this principle by Muslim philosophers. The present paper intends to analyze the roots and origins of this principle, and it appears that a conceptual analysis of the technical terms used there could help researchers to derive better and more profound conclusions from this principle. Manuscript profile
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        7 - Iranian Culture and Philosophy in the View Eudoxus of Cnidus
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Mohammad Sadiq  Rezaee
        Today, perhaps no one doubts the influence of Iranian thought and culture on Greek philosophy. This is because, apart from the existence of several historical documents and pieces of evidence in this regard, some extensive studies have also been conducted on this issue More
        Today, perhaps no one doubts the influence of Iranian thought and culture on Greek philosophy. This is because, apart from the existence of several historical documents and pieces of evidence in this regard, some extensive studies have also been conducted on this issue during the last two centuries. All the inscriptions and objects discovered in archeological excavations and the ancient reports and writings of the Greeks and Iranians confirm this cultural exchange and influence. However, there are still some unanswered questions regarding the quality of this influence or adaptation and, particularly, the mediators playing a role in this process. Obviously, in historical studies, it is impossible or very difficult to have access to all the details. For example, it is not really easy to provide a straightforward idea concerning the relationship between the Pythagorean philosophy and Khosrawani wisdom and the quality of the interactions between Persian philosophers and early Greek philosophers, particularly regarding the meanings of words in particular fields. However, the few existing pieces of evidence, especially those which enjoy the necessary validity and authenticity, could still be illuminating. Eudoxus of Cnidus is one of the few prominent figures of the fourth century BC who was, on the one hand, familiar with the pre-Socratic wisdom and, on the other hand, because of his presence in Plato’s Academy and acquaintance with Aristotle, was aware of the classical philosophies developed after Socrates and Plato. He was a student of the Pythagorean School, thus he is mainly famous for his knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Nevertheless, this paper demonstrates that he not only was greatly interested in the fields of philosophy and cosmology but also functioned as the main reporter of the elements of Iranian culture and philosophy for the members of Academy and as the bridge connecting these two centers of civilization. Manuscript profile
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        8 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
        Asghar  Salimi Naveh
        The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The More
        The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript profile
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        9 - Psychology in Ibn Sina and Ibn Miskawayah
        Seyyed Ahmad  Hosseinee Maryam  Gomari
        The most important basis of Ibn Miskawayah’s philosophy of ethics is his psychology. In his discussions of ethics, he intends to introduce the exclusive characteristic of human beings; he demonstrates that there exists in Man something superior to the corporeal body, na More
        The most important basis of Ibn Miskawayah’s philosophy of ethics is his psychology. In his discussions of ethics, he intends to introduce the exclusive characteristic of human beings; he demonstrates that there exists in Man something superior to the corporeal body, namely, the soul. By means of their rational soul, human beings can attain a transcendent life as befits the station of being a human. In order to present his view of the quality of Man’s access to happiness, Ibn Miskawayah initially proves the existence of the immaterial human soul and then explains its exclusive features. However, since a comparative study contributes to a better understanding of philosophical theories, the writers have introduced Ibn Miskawayah’s psychological theories in comparison to those of Ibn Sina. The present paper examines the concept of the soul in the views of these two distinguished philosophers and also refers to the whatness of the soul, existence, origination, the soul-body relation, and the faculties and subsistence of the soul. Manuscript profile
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        10 - Aristotelian Model of Defining Science
        Mehdi  Nazemi Ardakani Hamed  Mustafawi Fard
        Thematic distinction is the oldest method of distinguishing sciences from each other, so that some believe that it is the only method used for this purpose. Taftazani and Lahiji claim that mutikallimun are unanimous that different sciences can be essentially distinguish More
        Thematic distinction is the oldest method of distinguishing sciences from each other, so that some believe that it is the only method used for this purpose. Taftazani and Lahiji claim that mutikallimun are unanimous that different sciences can be essentially distinguished from each other based on their subject matters. Accordingly, they believe that the distinctions among sciences arise from the distinctions among their subjects, and by attaining aspects, they mean the aspects of the subject’s preparedness for accepting the predicate. However, in a more accurate sense, philosophers argue that, in the field of exact and demonstrative sciences, what consolidates the unity of a science is its subject matter. In the same way, ‘Allamah Tabataba’i explicitly states that the distinction criterion for exact and demonstrative sciences in their subject, and for mentally-posited sciences it is their end and purpose. In contrast, in the view of the critics of the model of “thematic distinction of sciences”, research findings indicate that sciences consist of a few propositions that have been completed over time. Therefore, their subjects were not even known to their founders and, that is why they were not capable of discussing their states. They argue that, even if we accept the Aristotelian model, we should say that many of the debates regarding the distinctions among sciences originate in confusing exact and mentally-posited sciences with each other and generalizing the principles of exact sciences to mentally-posited ones. Manuscript profile
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        11 - Aristotelian Golden Mean in Abu Nasr Farabi
        Zohreh  Tavaziany
        From among the views propounded in the field of ethics, Aristotle’s theory of golden mean has attracted the greatest attention of Muslim philosophers, including Farabi, who is considered to be the founder of Islamic philosophy. The problem here is whether Farabi himself More
        From among the views propounded in the field of ethics, Aristotle’s theory of golden mean has attracted the greatest attention of Muslim philosophers, including Farabi, who is considered to be the founder of Islamic philosophy. The problem here is whether Farabi himself was merely content with a pure imitation, explanation, and expansion of Aristotle’s theory in designing his ethical system or developed his independent view in the realm of ethics. Through presenting a documented report of Farabi’s views in ethics, the present paper intends to demonstrate that, in spite of Aristotle’s undeniable influence on his thoughts in the development of some of his philosophical principles in the field of ethics, such as considering happiness to be the ultimate goal and resorting to the theory of the mean in explaining virtues and posing Aristotle’s four-fold virtues, Farabi was never content with a mere explanation of Aristotle’s ideas in this regard and, on the contrary, presented his own specific theories. Clearly, Farabi promotes happiness from the level of a purely ethical concept with an individualistic bent to the level of a social concept and considers it to be the foundation of the political systems that are based on virtue. He also enters some purely religious features into this field and clearly explains them. However, his ideas in this regard are not immune to criticism. What places Farabi with regard to his ethical theories in the same line with Aristotelians is the problem of proposing the mean as the criterion for determining moral virtues. Through emphasizing this problem, this paper intends to demonstrate how Farabi has organized his ethical system based on the elements he has borrowed from Aristotle. Manuscript profile
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        12 - A Study of Heidegger’s Interpretation of Dialectic in Plato’s Dialog of the Sophist
        Sadiqah  Moosazadeh N‘alband
        The term dialectic has a Greek root and enjoys a historical background as long as that of philosophy itself. This term has been employed by most philosophers at all times and has undergone some changes in terms of meaning in line with the differences in the views of di More
        The term dialectic has a Greek root and enjoys a historical background as long as that of philosophy itself. This term has been employed by most philosophers at all times and has undergone some changes in terms of meaning in line with the differences in the views of different philosophers. The present paper aims to recount, examine, and evaluate Heidegger’s interpretation of the word “dialectic” as used by Plato. Heidegger’s interpretation of Plato’s dialectic is other than the common interpretations provided by most interpreters. While examining the interpretations given by the philosophers preceding him, Heidegger enters a dialog with them and believes that he has observed the norms of justice in this dialog while granting some freshness and beauty to their interpretations through employing a specific composing style and arrangement of ideas. At the same time, he has remained loyal to the interpreted text. In fact, while having a dialog with philosophers (particularly, Plato and Aristotle) and interpreting their views, Heidegger tries to remain objective and portray a new and unprecedented picture of their thoughts. In this paper, the writers have evaluated Heidegger’s loyalty to the thoughts of his intended philosopher (Plato) and, while exploring Platonic dialectic in the light of Heidegger’s philosophy, review the latter’s interpretation of this particular idea. Manuscript profile
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        13 - A Critical Analysis of Henry Corbin’s Thoughts on the Comparison of Suhrawardī’s Philosophy with Greek Philosophy
        Hasan Seyedarab seyedali Alamolhoda Alireza parsa Akhlaghi Marzie
        Henry Corbin is a western commentator of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy. His thoughts in relation to interpreting this philosophy are based on t’awīl (hermeneutics), phenomenology, metahistory, and comparative philosophy. The present paper is the first attempt More
        Henry Corbin is a western commentator of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy. His thoughts in relation to interpreting this philosophy are based on t’awīl (hermeneutics), phenomenology, metahistory, and comparative philosophy. The present paper is the first attempt at addressing this subject, and it is intended to critically investigate Corbin’s thoughts regarding the comparison of Suhrawardī’s philosophy with those of Plato, Aristotle, and neo-Platonists. Here, the authors have explored Suhrawardī’s innovative ideas so that the differences between them and the thoughts of the above-mentioned philosophers are disclosed. They have also presented a general critique of Corbin’s methodology and its defects in the conclusion. Comparative philosophy, which is sometimes called intercultural philosophy, requires philosophers to deal with various cultural, linguistic, and philosophical trends with an emphasis on the fundamental principles underlying the philosophers’ thoughts and to study the differences and similarities among their views. In Corbin’s view, comparative philosophy has functioned as the gateway of the correct perception of philosophical thoughts in the history of philosophy, and that is why he has compared Illuminationist philosophy with the philosophical views of Plato and Aristotle. He believes that Suhrawardī’s philosophy has been derived from Plato’s views, which seems to have its roots in his idea that the origin of philosophy is Greece. Corbin considers him as the Plato of the world of Islam; however, he ignores Suhrawardī’s innovations, the differences between his philosophy and that of Plato, and his criticism of Aristotle. Manuscript profile
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        14 - The Relationship between Weakness of Will and Ethical Life in Aristotle: A Glance at Socrates’ View and Aristotle’s Critique of Weakness of Will
        Simin Kheirabadi Ali Akbar  Abdol Abadi
        “Weakness of will” is one of the fundamental concepts in Aristotle’s ethics, a thorough understanding of which requires an understanding of its meaning and use in his views. In this paper, following a descriptive-analytic method, the authors initially refer to the lexic More
        “Weakness of will” is one of the fundamental concepts in Aristotle’s ethics, a thorough understanding of which requires an understanding of its meaning and use in his views. In this paper, following a descriptive-analytic method, the authors initially refer to the lexical roots of the expression of “weakness of will” in Greek and, then, try to explain Socrates’ idea of weakness of will and Aristotle’s critique of this view. Next, given some of the referents of the concept of weakness of will in Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics, they seek to demonstrate why human beings sometimes act against their ethical knowledge. Later they provide Aristotle’s analysis of the phenomenon of weakness of will as one of the obstacles to living an ethical life and argue that sometimes it stands in contrast to rationality. As a result, while being aware that something is ethically wrong or right, an individual, under the influence of their misplaced desires, might act unethically or cease to act ethically. In Aristotle’s view, a necessary condition for the rationality of ethical necessity is for human beings to benefit from “practical wisdom”. He also believes that if the intellect leads the other human faculties at the level of act, individuals will certainly choose and do the right thing. Manuscript profile
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        15 - Ibn Sina and the Problem of the Immortality of the Soul
        Ghasem  Purhassan
        Unlike the prevailing idea, Ibn Sina is neither a loyal advocate of Aristotle nor a mere commentator of his ideas. He is an independent, distinguished, and Muslim Iranian philosopher. In the light of the criticisms targeted at Greek philosophy and Aristotle’s ideas, Ibn More
        Unlike the prevailing idea, Ibn Sina is neither a loyal advocate of Aristotle nor a mere commentator of his ideas. He is an independent, distinguished, and Muslim Iranian philosopher. In the light of the criticisms targeted at Greek philosophy and Aristotle’s ideas, Ibn Sina intended to develop a new form of epistemology and lay the foundations of oriental philosophy. One of the controversial issues among thinkers is the problem of the soul and its trans-substantiality, immateriality, and immortality. Ibn Sina considers Aristotle’s ideas in this regard to be inadequate and contaminated with defects, mistakes, and confusion. Through criticizing Aristotle’s definition of the soul, Ibn Sina tries to introduce a novel approach to the problem of the soul, while rejecting the arguments of survival and finally devising a new theory concerning the immortality of the soul. The purpose of the present paper is to explore Aristotle’s ideas and Ibn Sina’s objections to them and also reveal the latter philosopher’s innovative ideas concerning the problem of the soul. The writer tries to demonstrate that Ibn Sina’s achievement regarding the issue of the soul and body is, in fact, a new solution to this problem. He also aims to show that it is a mistake to assume that Islamic philosophers still continue to follow Aristotle’s ideas. Ibn Sina must be considered as a pioneer in fundamental arguments on the subject of the soul and its immateriality. Manuscript profile
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        16 - Humanism in Sophists and Great Greek Philosophers:A Study of their Common and Different Ideas
        Hasan  Bolkhari Qahi Mina  Muhammedi Vakil
        The Sophists were the first ancient thinkers who considered the issue of man as the main subject of philosophy. They were the first to change the direction of philosophical research from phusis to nomos. Almost at the same time and a short while after the rise of the So More
        The Sophists were the first ancient thinkers who considered the issue of man as the main subject of philosophy. They were the first to change the direction of philosophical research from phusis to nomos. Almost at the same time and a short while after the rise of the Sophists, in spite of their disagreements with and fundamental oppositions to these thinkers, Socrates, Plato, and also Aristotle introduced man as the primary concern of philosophical theories. This was the main commonality between the views of the Sophists and ancient philosophers. On the other hand, there is also a kind of formal proximity between Socrates and the Sophists in terms of their method of dialectics and discourse. However, since Socrates considers a fixed criterion for knowledge which is free from sense impressions, he criticizes Protagoras’ statement as to “Man is the measure of all things”, and argues that Protagoras focuses on individual man and considers the truth to be relative. In this way, a comparative study of the ideas of the Sophists and philosophers reveals that both groups followed the same subject and method but had different purposes. The Sophists’ purpose was teaching, while philosophers sought their end in knowing the truth. This paper aims to discover the differences and similarities between these two approaches. In doing so, it initially deliberates accurately over their distinctive ideas and then clearly explains that some of the philosophical findings of the Sophists, in spite of their historical notoriety, have exercised some lasting effects on contemporary philosophy. In other words, by changing the direction of philosophy’s attention to the problem of man, in a sense, they developed the basis for modern philosophy. Manuscript profile
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        17 - Duality of Mind-Body in Homer, Plato, and Aristotle
        Yashar Jeirani
        The present paper explores the mind-body problem in Homer, Plato, and Aristotle. Here, the writers claim that the opposing ideas of Plato and Aristotle concerning the ontology of body and soul is ultimately rooted in the dualist interpretation of the ontology of the sou More
        The present paper explores the mind-body problem in Homer, Plato, and Aristotle. Here, the writers claim that the opposing ideas of Plato and Aristotle concerning the ontology of body and soul is ultimately rooted in the dualist interpretation of the ontology of the soul in the mythical era, particularly in Homer’s period. In other words, the philosophical opposition between Plato and Aristotle concerning the ontology of the soul and body has its origin in Homerian dual and opposing interpretation of the concept of the soul. In addition, by substantiating this view, the writers have tried to take a small step towards understanding the relationship between the mythical legacy of ancient Greece and its period of humanistic philosophy, particularly that of Plato and Aristotle. Manuscript profile
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        18 - The Relationship between Platonic and Aristotelian Philosophies in Alexandrian (Ammonian) Philosophy
        Roohollah Fadaei Ahmad Asgari
        Since the first century BC, Platonic philosophy has always been in conflict with Peripatetic philosophy. Here, the main trend which tried to reconcile these two schools with each other reached its culmination in Ammonius Saccas’ philosophy. The same idea was fully reali More
        Since the first century BC, Platonic philosophy has always been in conflict with Peripatetic philosophy. Here, the main trend which tried to reconcile these two schools with each other reached its culmination in Ammonius Saccas’ philosophy. The same idea was fully realized in Porphyry’s school, following which Platonic philosophers devoted particular attention to reconciling the views of Plato and Aristotle. However, Sureyanus and Proclus did not agree with this trend and criticized Aristotle with respect to some important issues. They also maintained that some of his views were in contrast to those of Plato. According to Proclus, Aristotle had denied the world of Ideas and had failed to grasp the concept of the Divine efficient cause, thus limiting His agency to the final cause. He also maintained that Aristotle had promoted the intellect to the level of the first origin and absolute one, which was by itself an unforgivable mistake and diversion. In contrast, in the light of the efforts made by Ammonius Hermiae and his students, the Alexandrian School of Philosophy was developed. This School aimed to reconcile the philosophical Schools of Plato and Aristotle with each other following a systematic process and, finally, managed to do so in the best way possible. As one of the most prominent philosophers of this field, Simplicus, under the influence of Ammonius Hermiae, interpreted what Proclus deemed as the points of departure between the views of Aristotle and Plato in a way that they turned into their points of agreement. He did this not because of his personal preferences but due to the existing philosophical necessities. Manuscript profile
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        19 - Epistemological Functions of Mimesis in Thomas Aquinas
        Afra Khakzad Hadi Rabiei Mohammad  Akvan
        Thomas Aquinas, who was inspired with Aristotle’s philosophy in developing some of his views, followed his path in considering art as a kind of imitation. However, the concept of imitation for him was not a purely Aristotelian one; rather, it was also influenced by the More
        Thomas Aquinas, who was inspired with Aristotle’s philosophy in developing some of his views, followed his path in considering art as a kind of imitation. However, the concept of imitation for him was not a purely Aristotelian one; rather, it was also influenced by the viewpoints of some thinkers such as Augustine and Pseudo-Dionysios the Areopagite. He employed mimesis in the texture of Christian theological discussions as well as in relation to the issues related to the metaphorical language of holy texts. Therefore, the concept of mimesis in Aquinas’ view was faced with an epistemological dilemma. On the one hand, it could result in both anxiety and relaxation in addressees or perhaps, through affecting their imagination, distract them from the path of rationality. On the other hand, it seems that the language of the Holy Book, which has been written for leading its addressees to the path of intellection and religiosity, shares the same features of the language of artistic works. Different types of mimesis have been used in the Holy Book and, more importantly, the relationship between the world of being and God is explained there on the basis of the concept of mimesis or imitation. In this paper, through analyzing the views of Aquinas and his references to such philosophers as Aristotle, Augustine, and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, the authors try to provide a clear explanation of the concept of mimesis and the epistemological functions of artistic imitation in Thomism. Manuscript profile
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        20 - Historical look at the phrase “Political by nature” in the Middle Ages of the Islamic world
        Sajjad Hejri Azartash Azarnoush
        Being political for/Politicalness of human beings is one of the topics which philosophers have been discussing from ancient times until now, and it is the basis/foundation of some branches of practical philosophy, especially the philosophical principles of social scien More
        Being political for/Politicalness of human beings is one of the topics which philosophers have been discussing from ancient times until now, and it is the basis/foundation of some branches of practical philosophy, especially the philosophical principles of social sciences. Although the necessity of "social life" or Being political/Politicalness for all human beings is more or less obvious; it was Greeks who scrutinized this phenomenon in their philosophical works, and what we know as being political by nature (of/about human beings) from the past to the present in the Islamic world has its roots in Greece and the age of translation. This phrase was created/emerged/coined by Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn’s translation of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics in the third lunar century in the Islamic world, and the ground for its development was laid by Miskawayh’s Ethics. Although most contemporary translators of Aristotle's ethics into Persian and Arabic did not use this phrase, it's still prominent. The doctrine of Being political for/Politicalness of human beings became the basis/foundation of the demonstration of philosophers like Avicenna/ Ibn Sina to prove prophecy, and Fakhr al-Din Rāzi introduced it, which later became known as the way of philosophers, into theological works. By inquiring/studying/looking into available Persian and Arabic written heritage, this article tries to follow the development/pathway of the phrase “Political by nature”, which has turned into a term and model/form in the Islamic world, in middle ages and is still used today and in some aspects/somehow fill the gap of historical inquire about it in current literature. Manuscript profile
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        21 - Challenges of two genres of tragedy and comedy from Avicenna's point of view according to Aristotle's poetic view
        Farideh Daliri Esmail BaniArdalan Amir Maziyar
        Aristotle's theory of poetry entered the realm of Iranian thought with the theme that the genres of tragedy and comedy seek to imitate and mimesis virtues and vices. Aristotle's treatise on poetry, despite its role in shaping Western theater, had no effect on the worl More
        Aristotle's theory of poetry entered the realm of Iranian thought with the theme that the genres of tragedy and comedy seek to imitate and mimesis virtues and vices. Aristotle's treatise on poetry, despite its role in shaping Western theater, had no effect on the world of Persian poetry. It is necessary that the theater comes from the heart of Greek ontology is a reminder of the need for Iranian drama to have a poetic outlook on Iranian culture. This book has been translated and adapted many times as a reference treatise, and one of the most prominent adaptations is Avicenna's poetry. Although the Avicenna's poetry is a report on Aristotle's poetry, he did not merely suffice to summarize it. The fundamental feature of his work is dealing with the essence of poetry, imitation or imagination. His poetry has new features, points and theories. The fundamental motive of this research is to read Avicenna's approach to the Greek sage Poetics and to study his poetry based on the main genres of Aristotle's Poetics treatise. The passage to this goal with an analytical-descriptive approach and data collection method is a library in which the researcher has achieved the theories of two Greek and Iranian scholars with the intention of Avicenna in writing iranian poetry poetics Manuscript profile
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        22 - A Comparative Study of Poetics of Aristotle and Ibn Sīnā Regarding the Nature of Poetry
        Farideh Daliri Esmail BaniArdalan Amir Maziyar
        The nature and definition of poetry has always attracted the attention of literary thinkers in the field of philosophy. Aristotle’s Poetics is one of the greatest works on the content and structural criticisms of poetry. Given his Greek culture, Aristotle believes that More
        The nature and definition of poetry has always attracted the attention of literary thinkers in the field of philosophy. Aristotle’s Poetics is one of the greatest works on the content and structural criticisms of poetry. Given his Greek culture, Aristotle believes that tragedy is an imitation of an action and a kind of dramatic art which results in catharsis. In Islamic tradition, the familiarity with Aristotle’s Poetics began from the third and fourth centuries (AH) through the related translations and abridged versions. During the same century, Fārābī and then Ibn Sīnā began analyzing and commenting on Poetics in order to explore Aristotle’s views in the realm of poetry. The most important abridgement of this treatise and commentary on it were made by Ibn Sīnā under the influence of Fārābī. In Ibn Sīnā’s treatise the concept of poetry is different from that in the field of conventional poetry. Imitation is the essence of poetry whereby imagination has an efficient presence. While trying to compare the nature of poetry in the Poetics section of Ibn Sīnā’s al-Shifā and Aristotle’s Poetics, this study aims to explain Ibn Sīnā’s view of poetry and his definition of poetry and its components and demonstrate the proximity between his standpoints in this regard with those of Aristotle. The authors have employed an analytic-descriptive and comparative approach to conduct this study. Manuscript profile
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        23 - Priority of Sophia to Phronesis and its Significance in Aristotle’s Philosophy of Ethics
        Ali Nazemi Ardakani Reza Davari Ardakani Malek Hosseini
        The relationship between phronesis or practical wisdom and Sophia or theoretical wisdom and, at another level, the relationship between ethical virtues and intellectual virtues are among the important subjects in Aristotle’s philosophy of ethics. Their importance is due More
        The relationship between phronesis or practical wisdom and Sophia or theoretical wisdom and, at another level, the relationship between ethical virtues and intellectual virtues are among the important subjects in Aristotle’s philosophy of ethics. Their importance is due to the fact that not only in case of the priority of phronesis to sophia, contradiction will arise between Aristotle’s teachings in Metaphysics and Nichomachean Ethics, but also because it seems that such a priority will eventually lead to a kind of diversion from prime philosophy and, hence, considering human being as the noblest subject in philosophy. Of course, Aristotle himself disagrees with this position. This paper mainly inquires whether in Aristotle’s philosophy priority belongs to sophia or phronesis, and what the significance and consequences of the priority of one over the other is. The authors argue that, although phronesis has a supreme place in his philosophy, it is sophia which enjoys fundamental priority. On the other hand, in Aristotle’s system of thought, eudaimonia or the highest human good cannot be attained unless through possessing phronesis and Sophia at the same time. Hence, it seems that, in order to learn about the ultimate goal of philosophy, it is necessary to further deliberate over the concepts of sophia and phronesis and their relationships with each other and with other virtues. Manuscript profile
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        24 - Concept of Ethos in Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy and its Historical Reflection
        Mohammad Hashemi Amir Maziyar
        In Aristotle’s view, an ideal tragic hero must be neither a villain nor a virtuous man but a character who stands between these two extremes based on a conscious process of choice. In order to explain ethos, the study inquires about the roles of conscious ethical choice More
        In Aristotle’s view, an ideal tragic hero must be neither a villain nor a virtuous man but a character who stands between these two extremes based on a conscious process of choice. In order to explain ethos, the study inquires about the roles of conscious ethical choice, external virtues, and the similarities between the hero and the addressee in the unity of action and hero in Aristotle’s view. Moreover, it asks about the basis upon which the historical reflection of this unity can be studied. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between Aristotle’s theory of tragedy and philosophy of ethics and its historical reflection relying on the relationship between act and moral character in his Poetics and the related sections in his other treatises. Here, the author demonstrates that action and hero in a tragedy together present some imitations of the essence and ethical nature of the world. The historical reflection of Aristotle’s ethical approach to tragedy can be studied based on the theories related to the principiality of ethics and the relationship between art and ethics. This qualitative study has been conducted following a descriptive-analytic method. Manuscript profile
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        25 - Nature in the Views of Greek and Muslim Philosophers
        داود محمدیانی
        Undoubtedly, nature has always attracted the attention of scientists and philosophers as the loci of the genesis and growth of natural existents and its current. Scientists working in the field of empirical sciences mainly seek the knowledge of natural existents and law More
        Undoubtedly, nature has always attracted the attention of scientists and philosophers as the loci of the genesis and growth of natural existents and its current. Scientists working in the field of empirical sciences mainly seek the knowledge of natural existents and laws of nature, while philosophers basically deal with the knowledge of nature itself and its structure and try to provide an answer to the questions of what the meaning of nature is, what its structure is, what relationship exists between existents and nature, whether nature is the primary source of the appearance of existents in the world, and whether nature, as matter and form, is a cradle for the appearance of various forms of existents. Greek philosophers and, later, Muslim philosophers have provided various responses to these questions. In ancient Greek philosophy, physis or nature means growth, living, and life. This meaning, which had provided the basis for pre-Socratic philosophy, changed into the “content of the world” and “maker of things” in Stoic philosophy. Plato also defined physis as the origin of the appearance of all things. He used the words technē (art) and archē (origin) to explain the emergence of the world and considered the creation of the world as an artistic innovation. Aristotle, who viewed the world synonymous with the whole nature, believed that nature is the source of motion and change in things; however, Muslim thinkers have provided various ideas about nature. Ikhwān al-Ṣafā maintained that nature is the fifth level of the levels of being and the “active” aspect of the world, with matter as its passive aspect. Ibn Sīnā considered nature and the interactions therein as God’s act and believed that nature is the cause of the appearance of corporeal substance by synthesizing matter and form. Unlike the Peripatetics, who believed that archetypes are the same as the nature of things, Suhrawardī rejected archetypes and replaced them with luminary nature. Finally, Mullā Ṣadrā viewed the world of nature identical with renewal and change and maintained that the nature of substance enjoys permanent motion and flow. Manuscript profile
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        26 - Resolving Zeno’s Paradoxes Based on the Theory of the “Linear Analytic Summation” and Evaluation of Evolution of Responsesa
        Reza Shakeri Ali Abedi Shahroodi
        Zeno challenged the problem of motion following his master Parmenides and presented his criticisms of the theory of motion based on four arguments that in fact introduced the paradoxes of this theory. These paradoxes, which contradict an evident problem (motion), provok More
        Zeno challenged the problem of motion following his master Parmenides and presented his criticisms of the theory of motion based on four arguments that in fact introduced the paradoxes of this theory. These paradoxes, which contradict an evident problem (motion), provoked some reactions. This paper initially refers to two of Zeno’s paradoxes and then presents the responses provided by some thinkers of different periods. In his response to Zeno’s paradoxes, Aristotle separated the actual and potential runs of motion and, following a mathematical approach, resorted to the concept of infinitely small sizes. Kant has also referred to this problem in his antinomies. Secondly, the authors explain the theory of linear analytic summation, which consists of two elements: 1) The distance between two points of transfer can be divided infinitely; however, the absolute value of the subsequent distance is always smaller than the absolute value of the previous distance; 2) since the infinitude of the division is of an analytic rather than a synthetic nature, the summation limit of these distances will be equal to the initial distance. Based on this theory, as motion is not free of direction and continuous limits, an integral limit of distance is traversed at each moment, and the analytic, successive, and infinite limits of distance are determined. The final section of this paper is intended to evaluate the responses given to the paradoxes. Manuscript profile