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        1 - Historical look at the phrase “Political by nature” in the Middle Ages of the Islamic world
        Sajjad Hejri Azartash Azarnoush
        Being political for/Politicalness of human beings is one of the topics which philosophers have been discussing from ancient times until now, and it is the basis/foundation of some branches of practical philosophy, especially the philosophical principles of social scien Full Text
        Being political for/Politicalness of human beings is one of the topics which philosophers have been discussing from ancient times until now, and it is the basis/foundation of some branches of practical philosophy, especially the philosophical principles of social sciences. Although the necessity of "social life" or Being political/Politicalness for all human beings is more or less obvious; it was Greeks who scrutinized this phenomenon in their philosophical works, and what we know as being political by nature (of/about human beings) from the past to the present in the Islamic world has its roots in Greece and the age of translation. This phrase was created/emerged/coined by Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn’s translation of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics in the third lunar century in the Islamic world, and the ground for its development was laid by Miskawayh’s Ethics. Although most contemporary translators of Aristotle's ethics into Persian and Arabic did not use this phrase, it's still prominent. The doctrine of Being political for/Politicalness of human beings became the basis/foundation of the demonstration of philosophers like Avicenna/ Ibn Sina to prove prophecy, and Fakhr al-Din Rāzi introduced it, which later became known as the way of philosophers, into theological works. By inquiring/studying/looking into available Persian and Arabic written heritage, this article tries to follow the development/pathway of the phrase “Political by nature”, which has turned into a term and model/form in the Islamic world, in middle ages and is still used today and in some aspects/somehow fill the gap of historical inquire about it in current literature. Manuscript Document