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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Substance in Modern Empiricism
        Alireza   Javanmardi Adib Mohammad  Akvan
        The epistemological approach to Empiricism in the Modern era is opposed to the rationalist approach of Descartes and his followers, who believed in the existence of certain innate ideas prior to experience in Man’s mind. The thinkers advocating this approach explored ra Full Text
        The epistemological approach to Empiricism in the Modern era is opposed to the rationalist approach of Descartes and his followers, who believed in the existence of certain innate ideas prior to experience in Man’s mind. The thinkers advocating this approach explored rationalists’ metaphysical problems through denying innate ideas and considering sense experience as the source of knowledge. The results of such investigations had nothing to say, even at their peak, about substance except when trying to deny it. Accordingly, given the process of the development of empiricism by the pioneers of this approach and its consequences, the authors of this paper have tried to deal with the following basic question: After accepting the specific reading of some empiricists such as Locke, Berkeley, and Hume from the process of attaining knowledge, would it be possible to accept the existence of substance? Here, the writers respond that, based on their studies of the above thinkers’ views of substance, the acceptance of substance is not consistent with empiricism. This is because substance is a meta-empirical entity which sense experience cannot grasp. What follows sense experience in the end is nothing but a collection of impressions which can never explain the existence of substance. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Place of the Prophet in Ibn Sina’s Ideal City
        Mohammad  Akvan Fatemeh  Mohammad
        As a divine philosopher, Ibn Sina has dealt with politics in his metaphysical discussions. Apparently, he has not written an independent work on politics and has considered it to be a part of practical wisdom. In his view, the prophet represents the “ideal ruler” and re Full Text
        As a divine philosopher, Ibn Sina has dealt with politics in his metaphysical discussions. Apparently, he has not written an independent work on politics and has considered it to be a part of practical wisdom. In his view, the prophet represents the “ideal ruler” and revelation and tradition represent the law. Since, before him, Farabi has discussed politics extensively in his al-Siyasah al-madaniyyah (Civil Politics), Ibn Sina does not see any need to provide more explanations in this regard and deals with this field in short without presenting the details. However, he has discussed the quality of choosing a leader and devising laws for his utopia extensively. In fact, he has completed the same prophetic politics that Farabi had initiated previously. The present paper briefly deals with Ibn Sina’s political system in order to clarify the place of the prophet in the hierarchy of his utopia. In this way, the quality of establishing a utopia based on the “definitive text” as the best method of electing a ruler is clearly illustrated. Moreover, the authors demonstrate how the nature of Ibn Sina’s view of the caliphate and the Prophet’s successor bring him closer to the Imamiyyah political philosophy. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Epistemological Functions of Mimesis in Thomas Aquinas
        Afra Khakzad Hadi Rabiei Mohammad  Akvan
        Thomas Aquinas, who was inspired with Aristotle’s philosophy in developing some of his views, followed his path in considering art as a kind of imitation. However, the concept of imitation for him was not a purely Aristotelian one; rather, it was also influenced by the Full Text
        Thomas Aquinas, who was inspired with Aristotle’s philosophy in developing some of his views, followed his path in considering art as a kind of imitation. However, the concept of imitation for him was not a purely Aristotelian one; rather, it was also influenced by the viewpoints of some thinkers such as Augustine and Pseudo-Dionysios the Areopagite. He employed mimesis in the texture of Christian theological discussions as well as in relation to the issues related to the metaphorical language of holy texts. Therefore, the concept of mimesis in Aquinas’ view was faced with an epistemological dilemma. On the one hand, it could result in both anxiety and relaxation in addressees or perhaps, through affecting their imagination, distract them from the path of rationality. On the other hand, it seems that the language of the Holy Book, which has been written for leading its addressees to the path of intellection and religiosity, shares the same features of the language of artistic works. Different types of mimesis have been used in the Holy Book and, more importantly, the relationship between the world of being and God is explained there on the basis of the concept of mimesis or imitation. In this paper, through analyzing the views of Aquinas and his references to such philosophers as Aristotle, Augustine, and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, the authors try to provide a clear explanation of the concept of mimesis and the epistemological functions of artistic imitation in Thomism. Manuscript Document