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        1 - Development of the Concept of Malignity in the History of Philosophical Ethics in the Islamic World (with an Emphasis on Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi’s Philosophy)
        Hossein  Atrak Mohsen   Jahed
        Aristotle’s principle of middle term is commonly defined as avoiding excess and defect, which seems to be a quantitative concept at first sight. This interpretation has received some criticisms from the authorities in the field of ethics. Muslim thinkers have also taken Full Text
        Aristotle’s principle of middle term is commonly defined as avoiding excess and defect, which seems to be a quantitative concept at first sight. This interpretation has received some criticisms from the authorities in the field of ethics. Muslim thinkers have also taken some steps to criticize, examine, and possibly improve this principle. Their most important attempt in this regard has been the introduction of the concept of malignity to philosophical ethics in the world of Islam. This concept pays attention to both quality in addition to quantity and remedies some of the defects of Aristotle’s principle of middle term. It is noteworthy that an accurate review of Aristotle’s texts also indicates the presence of the element of malignity in his ethical system. This concept was firstly introduced by Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi in some parts of Akhlaq-i nasiri, and later Qadi Izzuddin Iji placed it in a more logical section among ethical discussions. Following them, many Muslim experts in the field of ethics accepted their idea of this concept and discussed it in their works. The present paper aims to explore the historical development of the concept of malignity and examine its significance in the related fields. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Tusi’s Innovations concerning the Theory of Moderation
        Hossein  Atrak
        The theory of moderation is one of the common ethical theories among Muslim philosophers. According to this theory, all ethical virtues enjoy middle term, and all moral vices are rooted in going to extremes. Although the scholars of Islamic ethics were influenced by Pla Full Text
        The theory of moderation is one of the common ethical theories among Muslim philosophers. According to this theory, all ethical virtues enjoy middle term, and all moral vices are rooted in going to extremes. Although the scholars of Islamic ethics were influenced by Plato and Aristotle in posing their theory of moderation, they also presented several innovations in this regard. Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi can be considered one of the innovators of this theory. His innovation in psychology consists of the four-fold classification of the faculties of the soul and designating justice as a virtue and as a function of the practical wisdom. However, his important contribution concerning the theory of moderation paved the way for presenting a new interpretation of the principle of moderation, adding the criterion of quality to it, and defining the concept of “malignity”. His other important innovation is determining three supreme genera of excess, neglect, and malignity for the vice, which, given the three faculties of the soul, will increase to nine in the number of supreme genera. It is worth mentioning that these novel contributions of Tusi greatly affected his succeeding philosophers. Manuscript Document