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  • About Journal

    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Editor's Note
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      دربارة روابط و مناسبات ایران و فرهنگ ایرانی با اسلام و فرهنگ اسلامی، نوشته‌ها و تحقیقات مختصر و مفصلی در زبانهای فارسی و اروپایی صورت گرفته و میگیرد و البته موضوعی است که نه تنها کهنه نشده و به حد اشباع نرسیده، بلکه همواره بدلایلی، مورد توجه شماری از خاورشناسان و اسلام‌ Full Text
      دربارة روابط و مناسبات ایران و فرهنگ ایرانی با اسلام و فرهنگ اسلامی، نوشته‌ها و تحقیقات مختصر و مفصلی در زبانهای فارسی و اروپایی صورت گرفته و میگیرد و البته موضوعی است که نه تنها کهنه نشده و به حد اشباع نرسیده، بلکه همواره بدلایلی، مورد توجه شماری از خاورشناسان و اسلام‌شناسان و ایران‌شناسان قرار دارد. گردآوری و سنجش و ارزیابی این آثار فی‌نفسه کاری است بزرگ و البته با توجه به حجم و دامنه آن، نه کار یک تن، بلکه تنها از عهدة گروهی از پژوهشگران برمی‌آید. در میان آثار مشهور در زبان فارسی، بیش از پنج دهه است که از زمان نگارش کتاب خدمات متقابل اسلام و ایران، نوشته استاد مرتضی مطهری میگذرد و هر چند اکنون نیازمند ویرایش و بروزرسانی، بویژه از جهت برخی داده‌های تاریخی است، اما بنوبة خود نشاندهندة دغدغه مهم یکی از اندیشمندان بزرگ معاصر است که به زوایایی از موضوع در زمان تصنیف آن پرتو افکنده است. بجز این اثر، آثار دیگری نیز در دهه‌های اخیر با رهیافتهایی متفاوت نگاشته شده‌اند که بطور خاص بر نقش تشیع و انقلاب اسلامی ایران در تحولات یک قرن اخیر جهان تمرکز دارند. آنچه در این میان برای پژوهشگران فلسفه اهمیت می‌یابد، وضعیت علوم عقلی در منطقه شرق عالم اسلام با محوریت ایران، در این بازة زمانی است. اکنون بی‌اعتباری این سخن برخی مستشرقان و مورخان فلسفه، دائر بر همزمانی مرگ فلسفه در عالم اسلام با مرگ ابن‌رشد، کاملاً روشن شده و کمتر کسی است که دربارة گسترش خیره‌کنندة فلسفه و علوم عقلی، حد فاصل قرن هفتم تا قرن یازدهم قمری و از آنزمان تا امروز یعنی چهارصد سال اخیر، در عالم اسلام و بویژه در قلمرو ایران و شعاع ایران فرهنگی، تردید کند. شاهد بر این معنا تألیف و تصنیف هزاران اثر در علوم عقلی و ظهور دهها مدرسه و مکتب فلسفی و حکمی در این پهنه و محدودة زمانی، با محوریت ایران و فرهنگ ایرانی است که صد البته جوهر معارف قرآنی و تعلیمات ائمه هدی را در خود جای داده و بمدد آن، به این مقام شامخ دست یافته است. همچنین سخن و تلاش برخی نویسندگان عرب‌زبان در پوشاندن یا حتی انکار سهم ايرانيان در فلسفه، با داعیه‌هایی چون عقل عربی و مانند آن، بیشتر از سر تعلقات ملی‌گرایانه یا اغراض سیاسی است که سستی و بیپایگی آن نیز روشن شده و تقریباً از گردونه گفتمان علمی معاصر خارج افتاده است. با نگاهی به وضعیت کنونی عالم و رویدادهای پرشتاب آن در تمامی سطوح، و بویژه مقایسه وضعیت علوم عقلی میان عمدة کشورهای اسلامی از یکسو و ایران از سوی دیگر، نتایج مهمی حاصل میشود که نزدیکترین این نتایج به زمینه‌های ظهور و بروز گرایشهای انحرافی و سلفی و تکفیری در برخی مناطق عالم اسلام بازمیگردد و به اذعان جمهور تحلیلگران سیاسی و اجتماعی، این گرایشها و متعاقب آن، رفتارهای خشونت‌بار و حتی غیر انسانی، عمدتاً در بستر انجماد فکری و در غیاب معارف عقلی و فلسفی شکل گرفته و میگیرد. از این جهت، سرزمین ایران هیچ استعدادی برای اینگونه گرایشهای افراطی و سلفی نداشته و ندارد. در دانشگاه هزار سالة الازهر، با آن سابقه درخشان علمی، اکنون نه از تعلیمات فلسفی خبری هست و نه حتی اجازه بحث فلسفی داده ميشود و در عوض، به جولانگاه افکار منجمد سلفی و تکفیری و صدور فتواهای آنچنانی بدل شده است. این وضعیت را باید با تحولات مدارس فلسفی شیراز و اصفهان و تهران در چند قرن اخیر و تعلیم و تدریس متون فاخر و اصلی حکمت در مدارس علمیه و دانشگاه‌های کشورمان مقایسه کرد. حاصل آنکه، در روح و ضمیر مردمان این سرزمین ویژگیهایی وجود داشته و دارد که همواره پذیرای خرد و عقلانیت و اجتناب از هر گونه جمود و تصلب نظری و عملی بوده است. با چنین ظرفیت و استعدادی که در اعماق تاریخ این سرزمین قابل جستجو و شناسایی است، اکنون بازخوانی سهم ایران و فرهنگ ایرانی در تاریخ جهان، فارغ از انگاره‌های میهن‌گرایانه و ناسیونالیستی، ضرورت می‌یابد، بویژه آنکه با ظهور انقلاب اسلامی ملت ایران، این مردمان بعنوان ملتی تأثیرگذار و نقش‌آفرین در تمامی سطوح در چهار دهة اخیر در کانون توجه محافل و مراکز علمی و سیاسی جهان قرار گرفته‌اند. این بازخوانی از جهتی ناظر به جستجو در مدارک و شواهد مکتوب و غیر مکتوب و پژوهشهای علمی و میدانی معاصر است و از جهتی ناظر به تأملات و انظار تحقیقی اهل نظر، تا زوایایی از این تأثیر و تأثر را که مغفول مانده است، روشن نمايند. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Outline of Ḥakīm Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī’s Works and Transition to the Neo-Peripatetic School (An Analytic Introduction to his Writings or Teachings)
      Mahmoud  Hedayatafza
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī became involved in religious wayfaring and purification of the soul after his preliminary studies and, finally, joined the classes of Ḥakīm Mīr Fendereski. Most biographers acknowledge Tabrīzī’s inward purification and mastery over physics, logic, and Full Text
      Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī became involved in religious wayfaring and purification of the soul after his preliminary studies and, finally, joined the classes of Ḥakīm Mīr Fendereski. Most biographers acknowledge Tabrīzī’s inward purification and mastery over physics, logic, and philosophy, and only a few of them, such as the writer of Riyāḍ al-‘ulamā and some of his students, have accused him of not having mastery over Arabic literature. Ḥakīm Tabrīzī, who lived about 30 years after Mullā Ṣadrā, was one of the serious critics of Sadrian thought. In doing so, he expanded the Peripatetic literature, reinterpreted some of its principles, and introduced a number of new terminology so that a cradle could be provided for the analysis of new problems within the framework of Neo-Peripateticism. However, he did not try to record all his teachings in writing and spent most of his time on individual wayfaring, teaching intellectual sciences, and training his students. Therefore, some of his knowledgeable students, particularly Pirzādeh, Qawām al-Dīn Rāzī, and Muḥammad Sa‘īd Ḥakīm, transcribed his teachings and scientific notes. The treatise of Ithbāt al-wājib, al-Uṣūl al-aṣfīyah, al-M‘arīf al-ilāhīyyah, Muṣannafāt-i Qawām al-Din Rāzī, and Sharḥ-i Tawḥīd Ṣadūq by Qāzī S‘aīd comprise the most important research sources on Ḥakim Tabrīzī’s neo-Peripatetic school of philosophy. The reports of translators and the ideas and theories of some contemporary editors and researchers have also been evaluated in this paper. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Analytic Philosophy and the Charge of Anti-Historicity
      Mohammad Saeid  Abdollahi Mohamad Ali  Abdollahi
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      According to some philosophers, not heeding historicity is one of the characteristics of analytic philosophy in comparison to other philosophical schools. That is why analytic philosophers are always being accused of ignoring historicity and blamed for this charge. Cont Full Text
      According to some philosophers, not heeding historicity is one of the characteristics of analytic philosophy in comparison to other philosophical schools. That is why analytic philosophers are always being accused of ignoring historicity and blamed for this charge. Continental and traditionalist philosophers are unanimous in this regard. However, the question is whether the critics of analytic philosophy can support this accusation with sufficient and convincing arguments, or whether not taking heed of history is a baseless claim rooted in an incorrect perception and insufficient knowledge of this philosophical movement. This paper is intended to explain the critic’s claims, arguments, and proofs as to historical ignorance in analytic philosophy, on the one hand, and to describe the attention and accuracy invested in analytic philosophers’ view of history of philosophy and their arguments. The authors emphasize that, firstly, one must distinguish between essential, instrumental, and weak types of historicity. Analytic philosophers might reject essential historicity but accept a kind of weak historicity. Secondly, an emphasis on the distinction of the history of philosophical problems from history of philosophy should not be understood in the sense of anti-historicity or equating the past and presence. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Historical-Analytic Deliberation over the Logical Meaning and Concomitants of the Principle of Possibility of the Nobler
      Seyyed Mohammad  Musawy Seyyed Abbas  Hakimzadeh Kherad Mohammad Reza  Gorgin
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      According to the principle of the possibility of the nobler, which is accepted by all Islamic philosophers, the priority of superior possible over lower possible in the system of making is necessary. Given the existing evidence in the history of the evolution of philoso Full Text
      According to the principle of the possibility of the nobler, which is accepted by all Islamic philosophers, the priority of superior possible over lower possible in the system of making is necessary. Given the existing evidence in the history of the evolution of philosophical thought in the world of Islam, Suhrawardi was the first Islamic philosopher who explained and demonstrated this principle and paid attention to its dimensions and concomitants, although there are some traces of the content of this principle in Aristotle’s words. After Suhrawardī, some other philosophers such as Mīr Dāmād and Mullā Ṣadrā in the philosophical school of Isfahan and ‘Allamāh Ṭabāṭabā’ī in the contemporary period presented some arguments to prove this principle and referred to several of its consequences. Here, the authors initially report the philosophers’ arguments for demonstrating this principle and then discuss its historical development. The noteworthy point of this analysis is that, although the main content of this principle has been correctly phrased and clearly corresponds with other philosophical principles, it cannot be considered a new principle in philosophy. It is, rather, another form of the principle of the commensurability of the cause and effect. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Fārābī and the Question of the Truth of Perception: A Critical Review of Mullā Ṣadrā’s View
      ghasem porhasan Ali Piri
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      One of the most important and accurate problems in Fārābī’s epistemological philosophy is the question of perception and its relationship with the soul, reason, and ontological promotion. In sharp contrast to Aristotle, Fārābī challenges the theory of the passivity of t Full Text
      One of the most important and accurate problems in Fārābī’s epistemological philosophy is the question of perception and its relationship with the soul, reason, and ontological promotion. In sharp contrast to Aristotle, Fārābī challenges the theory of the passivity of the soul in perception, considers the soul to be the creator of perception and, in this way, founds the theory of the soul as an active agent. This theory has influenced the ideas of all the philosophers after him in the field of Islamic philosophy, from Ibn Sīnā to ‘Allamāh Ṭabāṭabā’ī. Fārābī connects perception with manifestation and presence, which are mainly discussed in the philosophical schools of Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā and defends it from the view point of ontology. Some of Fārābī’s innovations include acknowledging the creativity of the soul in perception, granting a graded nature to perception and knowledge, paying attention to the emergent and ontological mode of knowledge, understanding the generous and giving nature of knowledge alongside attaching fundamental importance to sense perception, criticizing non-certain types of knowledge and presenting a fundamental view regarding certain knowledge and, finally, introducing perception as a process. Following a comparative approach, the present study examines the problem of perception and its nature in Fārābī’s philosophy, while considering the views of other Muslim philosophers, and portrays the significance of his theory of perception. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Value of Philosophia Prima in Kant and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī
      Armin Mansouri Abbas Izadpanah
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      The present study investigates the scientific value of philosophia prima from the epistemological perspectives of Kant and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī. As a philosopher whose standpoints were under the influence of other sciences and, due to the conditions of his time, he sided Full Text
      The present study investigates the scientific value of philosophia prima from the epistemological perspectives of Kant and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī. As a philosopher whose standpoints were under the influence of other sciences and, due to the conditions of his time, he sided with both empiricism and rationalism, Kant tried to solve the conflicts between these two schools relying on apriori synthetic propositions. Finally, he argued that, firstly, knowledge is acquired through sense perception and, secondly, it is limited to phenomena. Hence, he concluded that, while metaphysics cannot be denied, the existence of scientific propositions of philosophia prima are not epistemologically possible. Nevertheless, based on the ideas that, apart from sensible knowledge, pure rational knowledge can also be demonstrated, and that knowledge includes not only phenomenon but also essence, ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī believed that philosophia prima enjoys epistemological value in terms of its demonstrative method, subject, and problems. He places it on the top of all human sciences and considers all of its propositions and achievement to be certain and scientific. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Ontological Analysis of Different Types of Resurrection and their Relationship with Death in the View of Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī
      Fatemeh Kookaram Abdullah Salavati Einollah Khademi
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      Resurrection commonly refers to objective resurrection, the details of which have been explained in divine religions. However, some gnostics such as Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī have presented and elucidated different types of resurrection based on spiritual and subjective inter Full Text
      Resurrection commonly refers to objective resurrection, the details of which have been explained in divine religions. However, some gnostics such as Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī have presented and elucidated different types of resurrection based on spiritual and subjective interpretations of this concept. He refers to some resurrections which are mostly connected with voluntary death. This study mainly focuses on the question of what the relationships between death and different types of resurrection are. The findings of the investigation indicate that Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī divides resurrection into objective and subjective types and then divides each into two formal and spiritual categories. Later he classifies each formal and spiritual form into minor, middle, and major types and; hence, refers to 12 types of resurrection. In other, words, in his view, resurrection is of various types, most of which are related to voluntary death. He maintains that Man should die a voluntary death in order to witness different forms of resurrection. The findings of this study also show that the death Āmulī discusses leads to Man’s continuity; frees them from the limits of this-worldly life; expands their worldview; opens new horizons before them, and grants depth to their life, their selves, and their insight. A human being who does not seek a voluntary death and lives a worldly life is, in a sense, a dwarf or insignificant person. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - An Evaluation of Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī’s Criticisms of Ibn Sīnā’s Argument Regarding the Finitude of Dimensions
      Mahmoud  Saidiy
      Issue 4 , Volume 11 , Spring 2021
      The finitude of dimensions is one of the oldest problems of natural philosophy, the consequences of which have entered the realm of divine philosophy. The question is whether the dimensions of the world and each natural body is finite and limited or infinite and limitle Full Text
      The finitude of dimensions is one of the oldest problems of natural philosophy, the consequences of which have entered the realm of divine philosophy. The question is whether the dimensions of the world and each natural body is finite and limited or infinite and limitless. Aristotle was the first philosopher who studied this problem in the history of philosophy and ruled out the infinity of the dimensions of bodies and the natural world. In the same view, Ibn Sīnā maintained that the dimensions of body are finite and presented the three-fold arguments of correspondence, parallelism, and hierarchy in order to demonstrate this theory. Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī, who is the most important critic of Ibn Sīnā in the history of philosophy, advanced some criticisms against this theory of Ibn Sīnā. This study proves that most of Fakhr al-Rāzī’s misconceptions in this regard originate in mixing the mind with the outside and the principles of the nine-fold categories with the category of quantity. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Issue 3 , Volume 8 , Winter 2021
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech Full Text
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Issue 1 , Volume 8 , Summer 2021
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek Full Text
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript Document

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      3 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Issue 1 , Volume 6 , Summer 2021
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir Full Text
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document

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      4 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Issue 4 , Volume 6 , Spring 2021
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged Full Text
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Reflection of the Philosophy of Amesha Spenta in Suhrawardi’s Theory of Archetypes
      Nadia  Maftouni Morteza  Darrudi Jawan
      Issue 4 , Volume 8 , Spring 2021
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta Full Text
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bandhesh, and other scientific and analytic texts, the authors have searched for them in Suhrawardi’s works. They have extracted and enumerated all the cases in which explicit references have been made to amesha spenta and their general and specific features. After calculating the frequency of the features and signs of each amesha spenta, they have provided a content and conceptual analysis for them. Among the findings of this study are determining the number of explicit references to amesha spenta and the relative order of the frequency of the signs based on the order of amesha spenta, referring to the five-fold amesha spenta as accidental intellects based on their archetypal functions, providing a collection of the strongest signs in Persian texts, and reminiscing about Iranian mythical heroes. Manuscript Document

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      6 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Issue 4 , Volume 5 , Spring 2021
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The Full Text
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Issue 3 , Volume 6 , Winter 2021
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Full Text
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Issue 3 , Volume 8 , Winter 2021
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei Full Text
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript Document

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      9 - Farabi and a Philosophical Reading of al-Huruf
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 2 , Volume 7 , Autumn 2021
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important ph Full Text
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of Farabi, and most of the studies conducted on this book emphasize that it is merely a commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. That is why Farabi’s innovations have been disregarded there. This book is of great importance not only because of its focus on linguistic principles but also because of its discussing the relationships between language and philosophy, religion and philosophy, and everyday language and philosophical language. Here, the writer also reveals the nature of the 200-year conflicts between kalam, philosophy, syntax, and logic in the world of Islam. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze two fundamental principles and evaluate the related views. Therefore, the writer initially attends to the general and philosophical status and writing style of al-Huruf and explains the related ideas. This book is, first and foremost, a reaction to the enemies of philosophy and rationalist trends in understanding religion. Farabi begins the book with linguistic discussions and, then, in the light of his introduction, spells out the intricacies of logical and epistemological theories, and finally clarifies the nature of ontological thoughts. In this book, he discusses how ignoring fundamental linguistic principles could harm ontological and epistemological discussions. He also illustrates how linguistic studies could demystify philosophical principles and grant them more depth and essence. Second, in addition to examining the structure of al-Huruf, the writer tries to explore Farabi’s fundamental doctrine of reconciliation. In doing so, he begins with an analysis of the two schools of Kufa and Basrah and then reviews the mentioned doctrine. In the second part of this book, Farabi demonstrates in two chapters on the unity of philosophy and religion (al-Silah bayn al-falsafah wal millah) that there is no choice but to defend the doctrine of reconciliation. He emphasizes that an irrational religion is nothing but fantasy and maintains that the fundamental principles of religion are based on the intellect and reasoning. In his view, neither Abu Bishr nor Abu Saeid had grasped the significance of this view. Matta Ibn Yunus was not merely a representative of logic and wisdom; rather, he and his companions and advocates relied only on autonomous reasoning, which Farabi found insufficient. In contrast, Abu Saeid was not merely a representative of syntax as advocated by the School of Baghdad, but, in company with several people who defended a purely religious approach, he opposed the role of reason in understanding and justifying religious beliefs. In this book Farabi tries to pose and develop a third theory based on analyzing these two approaches. Manuscript Document

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      10 - Farabi and his Distinction between Existence and Quiddity
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 3 , Volume 5 , Winter 2021
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn S Full Text
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn Sina, because of their epistemological rupture with Greek tradition, sought to understand being differently from Aristotle and, in a way, abstained from reducing the question of being to the question of the whatness of objects. In addition to a conceptual and logical distinction, Farabi managed to develop and present an ontological distinction in the field of philosophy. Ibn Sina expanded it so vastly that some might consider this theory as one of his own philosophical achievements. After the problem of the evidence and principliality of existence, the quality of the relationship between existence and quiddity turned out to be one of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy. At the beginning, under the influence of dividing being into necessary and possible types, Muslim philosophers tried to explain the fundamental difference between them through explaining the relationship between quiddity and existence. As a result, they considered two propositions as the basis of two interpretations of existence and the explanation of its relationship with quiddity. The theory of the synthetic nature of quiddative existents in terms of their existence and quiddity, the existence’s being superadded or accidental to quiddity, and the distinction between existence and quiddity in existents are the views that emerged in Islamic philosophy with Farabi and gradually came to the fore as the most important discussions concerning existence. Furthermore, Farabi’s discussion concerning the individuation of quiddities and the criterion for individuation, which was later accepted by all Islamic philosophers and emphasized by them, was developed under the influence of the above theories. In this paper, the writer has initially tried to provide a correct understanding of the theory of distinction through clarifying its fundamental bases. Then he has clarified its ontological and philosophical consequences and highlighted the importance of this theory in Islamic philosophy. Such an explanation necessitates an extensive investigation of Farabi’s ideas about existence, the meaning of existence, and the existence-quiddity relation. Manuscript Document
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