List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - Origin in Shankara’s School
      Seyyed Zia al-Din  Hosseini Mohammad Reza  Asadi
      The present paper deals with Shankara’s view of the Origin. Many Indian thinkers and Indologists believe that Shankara is the greatest Indian philosopher. According to him, some of the Upanishads consider the Brahman as nirguna (unqualified), and some others consider it Full Text
      The present paper deals with Shankara’s view of the Origin. Many Indian thinkers and Indologists believe that Shankara is the greatest Indian philosopher. According to him, some of the Upanishads consider the Brahman as nirguna (unqualified), and some others consider it as saguna (qualified). Shankara himself maintains that Brahman is nirguna and considers it to be the main theme of the Upanishads. In the advaita sat-chit-ananda, Brahman is pure being, knowledge, and bliss. Nevertheless, in spite of this affirmative approach, we observe some negative arguments whereby the same attributes cannot be used to define the nature of Brahman deservedly. In this sense, Brahman is something beyond the mind and words. In Shankara’s system, Brahman is also referred to as Atman and the supreme self. It is also mentioned there that, in line with Maya’s teachings, there is in fact no existence and self except Brahman. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      2 - School of Vedanta and Non-Dualism
      Ali Naqi  Baqershahi
      Vedanta is the most original Indian philosophical school which has borrowed its basic principles from Upanishads and emphasizes non-dualism. Indian historians have divided the history of this school into three periods: Pre-Shankara, Shankara, and Post-Shankara. In the f Full Text
      Vedanta is the most original Indian philosophical school which has borrowed its basic principles from Upanishads and emphasizes non-dualism. Indian historians have divided the history of this school into three periods: Pre-Shankara, Shankara, and Post-Shankara. In the first period, some figures such as Badarayana and Gaudapada emerged and laid the foundation for Vedanta philosophy. In the second period, Shankara expanded this school and played a significant role in spreading and disseminating it. During the third period, Ramanuja presented a different interpretation of non-dualism and the notion of Ultimate Reality based on his own critical views and pushed the borderlines of this school even further. Generally speaking, each of the founders and interpreters of Vedanta philosophy explained and expanded this school based on their own philosophical tastes and views and tried to enrich it more than ever before. However, the important point here is that all of them were unanimous regarding the notion of non-dualism. Of course, they had some serious disagreements concerning certain issues, which can also be seen among their advocates. Some of the contemporary Indian thinkers, such as Rabindranath Tagore tried to reconcile their ideas with each other in some way. Vedanta has also influenced contemporary Indian philosophers and artists to such a great extent that their worldview has been completely affected by this school. In the present paper, the writer traces the historical development of the school of Vedanta and explores its relationship with non-dualism. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      3 - An Analysis of the Philosophical Principles of Anthropology in Ancient Egyptian Philosophy
      Mohammad Hossein Madad Elahee Hossein  Zamaniha
      The Greeks were familiar with Egyptian culture long before Thales in the 6th century BC and greatly benefitted from their teachings particularly in the field of mathematics. Recent studies in the realm of philosophy also indicate that Thales had a thorough knowledge of Full Text
      The Greeks were familiar with Egyptian culture long before Thales in the 6th century BC and greatly benefitted from their teachings particularly in the field of mathematics. Recent studies in the realm of philosophy also indicate that Thales had a thorough knowledge of ancient Egyptian philosophy and was influenced by it in developing his own philosophical views. In ancient Egyptian philosophy, in spite of resorting to myths in order to analyze and explain the truths of the world, there are also some traces of philosophical thought in its particular sense. For example, there are some traces of pure philosophical thought in the realms of ontology, politics, sociology, and anthropology. This kind of philosophical thought is formed based on the profound and multi-dimensional concept of ma’at. This word means order in the field of ontology, justice in the field of politics and sociology, and honesty in the field of anthropology. Within the domain of anthropology, ancient Egyptians specifically believed that Man’s existence has nine grades and dimensions which enjoy a kind of unity among themselves. What has led to the final emergence of such grades, particularly the last grade called thought, and, thus, Man’s eternity, is following ma’at or the laws governing the order of being. Accordingly, they establish a tight relationship between their ontology and anthropology. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      4 - China according to Muslim Travelers: First to Eighth Century AH
      Maryam  Soleimani Fard
      Muslim’s relationships with China have a very long background. These relationships have been established through Muslims’ journeys to that region for various commercial, economic, political, and religious motives. Available evidence suggests that Muslims travelled to th Full Text
      Muslim’s relationships with China have a very long background. These relationships have been established through Muslims’ journeys to that region for various commercial, economic, political, and religious motives. Available evidence suggests that Muslims travelled to this land when the first signs of cultural and political life appeared there. As a result of these journeys, Muslim geographers have accumulated some valuable information in various areas such as natural geography, including the geographical realm of China, its cities, and the distances between them, and economic, cultural, and educational fields, including artistic, scientific, social, and industrial achievements. This paper intends to explore and analyze the picture of China as portrayed and described by Muslims from the first century AH until the time of Hafiz Abru in the eighth century. As a result, it can function as an introduction to and an analysis of Islamic orientalism in which the reports of scientists and travelers of a great political and cultural power in the Far East form the basis of journeys, relationships, and wars between countries and the transfer of philosophical and cultural legacies from one place to another. The writer believes that the importance of these reports and descriptions lies in the fact that they have been at the service of expanding Islamic culture and religion. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      5 - Genealogy and Identity of the World of Suspended Ideas in Illuminationist Philosophy
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      The theory of suspended ideas is one of Suhrawardī’s most important philosophical innovations. Several challenging queries have been ventured regarding this theory; for example, questions have been raised about the identity of this world in the hierarchy of the realms o Full Text
      The theory of suspended ideas is one of Suhrawardī’s most important philosophical innovations. Several challenging queries have been ventured regarding this theory; for example, questions have been raised about the identity of this world in the hierarchy of the realms of being. This question, in its Illuminationist sense, has been posed as follows: Is the identity of this world of the type of light, darkness, or a combination of both of them? Another question asks whether this theory is related to the legacy of Islamic philosophy, wisdom, and kalām, and to which views it leads in its genealogical sense in the history of these three disciplines. The findings of the present study indicate that the discussions of the faculty of imagination in Fārābī’s philosophy, imagination and spherical souls in Ibn Sīnā’s philosophy, the belief in Purgatory in Islamic kalām, and the theory of allegory in gnosis are the philosophical and ideological legacies which have influenced the explanation of this theory. On the other hand, resorting to Suhrawardī’s principles and arguments to explain this theory and the identity of the world of Ideas indicates that the existents of the world possess collective modal ideas and both luminous and dark identities. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Study of the Rule of the One from the Viewpoint of Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī
      Rohollah Adineh Fatemeh Babaeiy Adeleh Fallah
      The rule of the one or al-wāḥid (nothing proceeds from the one, but one) is one of the most fundamental rules which is referred to in philosophy and, particularly, in discussions on the quality of the creation of the world. This principle has provoked several debates in Full Text
      The rule of the one or al-wāḥid (nothing proceeds from the one, but one) is one of the most fundamental rules which is referred to in philosophy and, particularly, in discussions on the quality of the creation of the world. This principle has provoked several debates in the history of philosophy, and many philosophers have resorted to it when explaining their own cosmological views. However, some philosophers have found it completely inconsistent with the absolute power and will of Almighty Truth and harshly criticized it. Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī is one of the scholars, who, in spite of being a well-known philosopher and presenting a great number of innovative ideas, has not received the attention that he truly deserves. He studied the “rule of the one” extensively and intended to demonstrate it based on several rational and traditional arguments and through resorting to various Qur’anic verses and narrations. Following a descriptive-analytic method and based on several historical documents, the present study initially explores the origin of the rule of the one and its historical development among philosophers. Next, it presents the view of Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī regarding the rule of the one and analyzes and examines his rational and traditional arguments. Manuscript Document