List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - A Study of the Rise of Shi‘ite Gnosis in Ibn Sina’s Life and Works with an Emphasis on his Ideas in Namat al-‘arifin
      Fereshteh Nadry Abyaneh Nadry Abyaneh
      A gnostic’s method of unveiling entails the purification of the soul, self-refinement, and observation of divine traditions and duties. Islamic gnosis is divided into two theoretical and practical types. In Ibn Sina’s view, any opposition to gnosis and gnostics is due t Full Text
      A gnostic’s method of unveiling entails the purification of the soul, self-refinement, and observation of divine traditions and duties. Islamic gnosis is divided into two theoretical and practical types. In Ibn Sina’s view, any opposition to gnosis and gnostics is due to being ignorant of the station of gnostics. Similarly, any agreement with gnostics and respecting and appreciating them result from being cognizant of their supreme status. Naturally, people usually stand against and oppose what is unknown to them. After demonstrating the necessity of piety and worship as the necessary conditions for happiness, Ibn Sina maintains that they are not enough for attaining this goal and considers gnosis to be superior to the above qualities. However, he emphasizes that a gnostic is an individual who is not content even with attaining the status of being a true gnostic and prefers truth to gnosis. The Shi‘ite gnosis relies on a treasure of traditions and prayers in addition to Qura’nic verses. In the history of gnosis, Ibn Arabi (died in 638 AH) and Seyyed Haydar Amuli (died in 787 or 794 AH) are called the fathers of Islamic and Shi‘ite gnosis. Ibn Sina (died in 428 AH) enjoys great fame in the eye of the public in the fields of Peripatetic philosophy and medicine and has been called the new Aristotle; however, he has not developed a great name in the field of gnosis. Nevertheless, a study of his life and works prove the opposite. There is no doubt about his being a Shi‘ite Muslim; hence, this paper aims to demonstrate that the fundamental principles of the kind of gnosis he discusses in his works were developed under the influence of Shi‘ite gnosis (although the related references have not been directly mentioned in Ibn Sina’s works). Manuscript Document
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      2 - Muslims’ Knowledge of Buddhism: A Study of the Early Islamic Texts and some Evidence from the Pre-Islamic Period
      Muhammad Reza   ‘Adli
      In early Islamic texts, no accurate and clear description of Buddhist thoughts and teachings has been provided, and most of the related statements in such texts are very general and incomplete. In most sources, some beliefs or acts are attributed to Buddhists which are Full Text
      In early Islamic texts, no accurate and clear description of Buddhist thoughts and teachings has been provided, and most of the related statements in such texts are very general and incomplete. In most sources, some beliefs or acts are attributed to Buddhists which are either basically incorrect or not at all related to Buddhists but followed by other Indian religious sects. In order to find the reason behind this problem, one should refer to the pre-Islamic period and explore the dissemination of Buddhism in those regions which later turned to Islam. Apparently, a defective knowledge of Buddhist teachings is not restricted to the Islamic period; and it was also the same case at least in the western and central regions of Iran before Islam. However, in the eastern parts of Iran and alongside the Silk Route, there were some very important Buddhist centers. Nevertheless, after the rise of Islam, the Buddhist monasteries of these regions were gradually destroyed, and nothing remained from them except a vague memory. Accordingly, when Islamic historiographers decided to speak of Buddhism, they had access to no authentic sources. The present paper is intended to shed some light on the above issues. Manuscript Document
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      3 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir Full Text
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document
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      4 - Iranian Culture and Philosophy in the View Eudoxus of Cnidus
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Mohammad Sadiq  Rezaee
      Today, perhaps no one doubts the influence of Iranian thought and culture on Greek philosophy. This is because, apart from the existence of several historical documents and pieces of evidence in this regard, some extensive studies have also been conducted on this issue Full Text
      Today, perhaps no one doubts the influence of Iranian thought and culture on Greek philosophy. This is because, apart from the existence of several historical documents and pieces of evidence in this regard, some extensive studies have also been conducted on this issue during the last two centuries. All the inscriptions and objects discovered in archeological excavations and the ancient reports and writings of the Greeks and Iranians confirm this cultural exchange and influence. However, there are still some unanswered questions regarding the quality of this influence or adaptation and, particularly, the mediators playing a role in this process. Obviously, in historical studies, it is impossible or very difficult to have access to all the details. For example, it is not really easy to provide a straightforward idea concerning the relationship between the Pythagorean philosophy and Khosrawani wisdom and the quality of the interactions between Persian philosophers and early Greek philosophers, particularly regarding the meanings of words in particular fields. However, the few existing pieces of evidence, especially those which enjoy the necessary validity and authenticity, could still be illuminating. Eudoxus of Cnidus is one of the few prominent figures of the fourth century BC who was, on the one hand, familiar with the pre-Socratic wisdom and, on the other hand, because of his presence in Plato’s Academy and acquaintance with Aristotle, was aware of the classical philosophies developed after Socrates and Plato. He was a student of the Pythagorean School, thus he is mainly famous for his knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Nevertheless, this paper demonstrates that he not only was greatly interested in the fields of philosophy and cosmology but also functioned as the main reporter of the elements of Iranian culture and philosophy for the members of Academy and as the bridge connecting these two centers of civilization. Manuscript Document
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      5 - Philosophy based on Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy
      Ali  Arshad Riyahi Somayeh  Malleki
      Thomas Aquinas’s system of philosophy is of such undeniable significance to Christian philosophers as is Mulla Sadra’s to Islamic philosophers. What is of prime importance to both of them is the notion of existence, while most western philosophers preceding Aquinas and Full Text
      Thomas Aquinas’s system of philosophy is of such undeniable significance to Christian philosophers as is Mulla Sadra’s to Islamic philosophers. What is of prime importance to both of them is the notion of existence, while most western philosophers preceding Aquinas and some of the Islamic philosophers before Mulla Sadra believed in quiddity. Aquinas completely acknowledged the priority of the act of existence to essence, and Mulla Sadra, too, advocated the principiality of existence. In this paper, the authors have tried to explore the possibility of Thomas Aquinas’ belief in the principiality of existence based on Mulla Sadra’s philosophy. They also inquire whether, as claimed by Étienne Gilson and other well-known commentators of Aquinas’ works and ideas, one can consider him to be an advocate of the principiality of existence. This problem is of great significance because, today, Aquinas is a thinker with the greatest number of supporters in the West, where we are witnessing the emergence of new schools of philosophy at all times. Therefore, the study of whether one of the most important interpretations of this thinker’s theories is false might increase the significance of the topic of this research. In doing so, following the library method and given the interpretations and analyses of the contents of the works of these two philosophers, the authors conclude that Aquinas has discussed nothing but the addition of existence to quiddity, which has also been propounded in Ibn Sina’s works. Therefore, he cannot be considered to be a supporter of the principiality of existence in comparison to Mulla Sadra. Manuscript Document
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      6 - Hermes in Manichaeism and its Impact on Suhrawardi’s Thoughts
      Seyyedeh Behnaz  Hosseini
      One of the most important consequences of the encounter of the two ancient Egyptian and Greek civilizations in Alexandria was the development of a rational school of thought called Hermeticism, which derives its name from the person to whom it is attributed. Later, this Full Text
      One of the most important consequences of the encounter of the two ancient Egyptian and Greek civilizations in Alexandria was the development of a rational school of thought called Hermeticism, which derives its name from the person to whom it is attributed. Later, this school managed to exercise a huge influence over the western world and then over the Islamic world. Some Islamic, Jewish, and Christian philosophers, particularly in the Middle Ages, believed that Hermes was the founder of all sciences. The number of thinkers and scholars who were influenced by Hermetic ideas was not small and, in fact, we must say that they were mostly affected by Hermeticism through their study of Islamic books. During the Renaissance, the western thinkers’ attention to this school of thought did not decline and, generally speaking, the Hermetic School, which promoted a particular philosophy concerning the world and nature, greatly influenced both western and Islamic civilizations. Accordingly, a study of the ideas and origins of this school could be illuminating in inferring the essential features of the intellectual life of the world of Islam and Christianity. The important effects of this rational school are also manifested in Islamic philosophy, particularly in Illuminationist philosophy. The belief in heavenly guidance, which is also called “Perfect Nature”, is the same ideas that we see in Manichean writings in China and the rest of them in the Coptic language. The Manicheans also believed in a truth similar to “Perfect Nature” and called it the “Great Vohu Mana”. Manuscript Document
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      7 - Anthropomorphism and Transcendence in Ibn Arabi and Spinoza
      Abdulrazzaq  Hessamifar Pedram  Pourmehran
      Anthropomorphism and transcendence are related to the quality of Man’s perception of Divine Names and Attributes. The roots of this discussion can be traced back in divine revelation and holy books. In the world of Islam, the anthropomorphic and transcendental verses of Full Text
      Anthropomorphism and transcendence are related to the quality of Man’s perception of Divine Names and Attributes. The roots of this discussion can be traced back in divine revelation and holy books. In the world of Islam, the anthropomorphic and transcendental verses of the Qur’an have provided the context for several discussions among Muslim mutikallimun. During the Christian Middle Ages, the Holy Book and the thoughts of the philosophers of that period concerning affirmative and negative methods of knowing God promoted some debates about the Divine Attributes. Ibn Arabi and Spinoza are two philosophers from two different philosophical traditions: one is an intuitive gnosis and the other is a rationalist philosopher; however, both of them deal with the knowledge of God and His Names and Attributes based on a monistic approach. Moreover, both of them follow the same approach to anthropomorphism and transcendence and believe in them. In the present paper, the writers initially present the ideas of Ibn Arabi and Spinoza about anthropomorphism and transcendence and then proceed to analyze and compare them. Manuscript Document
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      8 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The Full Text
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript Document
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      9 - Happiness in the Views of Aristotle and Ibn Miskawayh Razi
      Ali Mohammad  Sajedi Hajar  Darayitabar
      The question of the concept and referent of “happiness” is rooted in Man’s nature. A comparison of the ideas of two authorities in this field, one from ancient Greece and the other from among the Islamic philosophers who were contemporary with Ibn Sina, is of great impo Full Text
      The question of the concept and referent of “happiness” is rooted in Man’s nature. A comparison of the ideas of two authorities in this field, one from ancient Greece and the other from among the Islamic philosophers who were contemporary with Ibn Sina, is of great importance in appreciating the innovations of Muslim thinkers in comparison to those of Greek thinkers in various fields of philosophy. This short paper, which is based on an analytic-comparative study, after explaining the philosophical and ethical principles of each of these two schools, inquires into the similarities and differences between their ideas concerning happiness. Aristotle defined the theory of virtue and happiness based on the concept of “golden mean” with reference to some components such as the intellect, joy, and friendship. However, given his non-monotheistic view of God and the world and heedlessness of resurrection, he was not capable of providing a successful model for the concept and referent of happiness. In contrast, Ibn Miskawayh tries to explain the same concepts on the basis of the knowledge of the soul, the intellect, and the divine rule in the light of his monotheistic worldview. He divides happiness into two worldly and other-worldly types and introduces divine proximity as the true referent of happiness. Both of them define happiness as the transcendent good (supreme good); however, since the basic principles of their ethical philosophies are different from each other, their philosophical concomitants are also different from each other. Manuscript Document
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      10 - Socrates’ Approach and Our Approach (Socrates’ Historical Views of Iran and Iranians)
      Seyyed Musa  Dibaj
      Previously, in a paper entitled Iranian Thought in Socratic Thought (presented in the “Conference on Commemorating Socrates, the Greek Philosopher”, Tehran, 2001), the writer of the present paper argued that in Plato’s dialogues, the rights of Iranians and the Iranian g Full Text
      Previously, in a paper entitled Iranian Thought in Socratic Thought (presented in the “Conference on Commemorating Socrates, the Greek Philosopher”, Tehran, 2001), the writer of the present paper argued that in Plato’s dialogues, the rights of Iranians and the Iranian government have not been clearly stipulated. Socrates, who expected Iranians to officially recognize the government of Athens, does not explicitly talk about the official or de facto recognition of the Achaemenid government. Plato has spoken about the poets, playwrights, and historiographers of other nations, particularly those of Iranians, more freely than other Greek thinkers and scholars. However, he does not believe that Athenians’ democratic rights are conditioned by protecting the rights of other nations, including Iranians and Egyptians, and recognizing the legitimacy of their governments. The present paper is intended to define and review the features of Athenian self-knowledge and Iranian self-knowledge and compare them with each other. As Socrates himself considers it justified, strangers can also discuss the nature of “terms”, including the description of the characteristics of the Greeks. As we know, once Phaedrus told Socrates, “Yes, Socrates, you can easily invent tales of Egypt, or of any other country.” In this paper, the writer does not intend to copy Socrates’ approach in this regard; neither does he intend to provide a mythical, narrative, or historical account of the conditions of Greece during the time of this philosopher. Rather, he seeks to extensively explain and interpret his political view of Iran, specifically with reference to Alcibiades and Laws dialogues. Manuscript Document
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      11 - A Critique and Study of the Zoroastrian Origin of Plato’s Doctrine of Ideas
      Zeinab  Shari‘atniya Nourisadat  Shahangian
      Some basic concepts such as the Ideas and farvahar hold a particular and precious place in Plato’s philosophy and the Zoroastrian religion. In Plato’s philosophy, the doctrine of Ideas introduces the origin of the forms of the material world through explaining the conce Full Text
      Some basic concepts such as the Ideas and farvahar hold a particular and precious place in Plato’s philosophy and the Zoroastrian religion. In Plato’s philosophy, the doctrine of Ideas introduces the origin of the forms of the material world through explaining the concept of being. Similarly, in the Zoroastrian worldview, the creation of the forms of this world has been considered to depend on their spiritual forms (farvahar). Because of certain similarities between these two key concepts, some believe that Plato modeled Zoroaster’s teachings and maintain that the doctrine of Ideas is indeed a Zoroastrian doctrine. This paper aims to verify this claim by comparing these two concepts and checking the differences and similarities between them in terms of their characteristics and functions. Apparently, the differences between them are too great to allow the easy acceptance of the modeling theory. Manuscript Document
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      12 - Foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Comperative Philosophy
      Comperative Philosophy Manuscript Document
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      13 - A Critical Analysis of Henry Corbin’s Thoughts on the Comparison of Suhrawardī’s Philosophy with Greek Philosophy
      Hasan Seyedarab seyedali Alamolhoda Alireza parsa Akhlaghi Marzie
      Henry Corbin is a western commentator of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy. His thoughts in relation to interpreting this philosophy are based on t’awīl (hermeneutics), phenomenology, metahistory, and comparative philosophy. The present paper is the first attempt Full Text
      Henry Corbin is a western commentator of Suhrawardī’s Illuminationist philosophy. His thoughts in relation to interpreting this philosophy are based on t’awīl (hermeneutics), phenomenology, metahistory, and comparative philosophy. The present paper is the first attempt at addressing this subject, and it is intended to critically investigate Corbin’s thoughts regarding the comparison of Suhrawardī’s philosophy with those of Plato, Aristotle, and neo-Platonists. Here, the authors have explored Suhrawardī’s innovative ideas so that the differences between them and the thoughts of the above-mentioned philosophers are disclosed. They have also presented a general critique of Corbin’s methodology and its defects in the conclusion. Comparative philosophy, which is sometimes called intercultural philosophy, requires philosophers to deal with various cultural, linguistic, and philosophical trends with an emphasis on the fundamental principles underlying the philosophers’ thoughts and to study the differences and similarities among their views. In Corbin’s view, comparative philosophy has functioned as the gateway of the correct perception of philosophical thoughts in the history of philosophy, and that is why he has compared Illuminationist philosophy with the philosophical views of Plato and Aristotle. He believes that Suhrawardī’s philosophy has been derived from Plato’s views, which seems to have its roots in his idea that the origin of philosophy is Greece. Corbin considers him as the Plato of the world of Islam; however, he ignores Suhrawardī’s innovations, the differences between his philosophy and that of Plato, and his criticism of Aristotle. Manuscript Document
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      14 - The Concept and Place of Bahman in Avestan and Pahlavi Texts as the “First Emanated” in Illuminationist Philosophy
      Hasan  Bolkhari Qehi
      The statement, “Reason was the first thing that God created”, which has been mentioned in several Islamic texts and has been quoted and emphasized by some great philosophers such as Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā (in Sharḥ-i uṣūl al-kāfī), is a well-known narration in Islam Full Text
      The statement, “Reason was the first thing that God created”, which has been mentioned in several Islamic texts and has been quoted and emphasized by some great philosophers such as Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā (in Sharḥ-i uṣūl al-kāfī), is a well-known narration in Islamic ḥadīths. A similar statement with a clearer meaning is: “The Glorious God created the intellect, which was the first heavenly created”. Such statements gain more significance when we compare them with similar statements regarding the place of the intellect, which is equal to being, in Greek philosophy. As the master of all Iluminationist philosophers, Suhrawardī, as he has emphasized in his treatise of Fī ḥaqīqat al-‘ishq (On the Truth of Love) (p. 268), was well-aware of this famous narration. Given Suhrawardī’s explicit reference to this statement and his clear indication in Ḥikmat al-ishrāq, in which he calls himself the reviver of ancient Iranian philosophy (or at least introduces the wisdom of ancient Iranian philosophers (fahlavīūn) as one of the main sources of his own philosophy), this study aims to provide an answer to the question of how we can trace the effects of ancient Iranian wisdom in Suhrawardī’s philosophy. One of the most important factors linking his philosophy to ancient Iranian philosophy is his reference to the place of such Amesha Spenta as Bahman or Urdībihišt in Avestan and Pahlavi texts and considering them as the pillars of the nūrī (illuminative) and ontological system in his philosophy. Here, based on the principle of “Nothing is emanated from the one but one”, he calls the first-emanated from the light of lights (al-nūr al-anwār) the closest light (al-nūr al-aqrab) and, based on ancient Iranian philosophy, he calls it Bahman. However, one might inquire about the relationship between Bahman and the first-emanated, particularly if the first-emanated in Islamic philosophy is the intellect. Following a historical and analytic approach, this paper investigates the philosophy of choosing Bahman as the first-emanated in Suhrawardī’s philosophy and examines his particular choice of Bahman as the god of wisdom and knowledge as tantamount to the intellect in Islamic ḥadīths, which demonstrates Suhrawardī’s profound knowledge of ancient Iranian wisdom. Manuscript Document
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      15 - A Comparison of Perfect Nature in Islamic Philosophy with Fravashī in Khosravani Wisdom
      Maryam  Asadian Babak Alikhani Alikhani
      The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and lib Full Text
      The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and liberation from intermediate and immaterial worlds. This view, which was also shared by Abu’l-Brakāt al-Baghdādī and some others before Suhrawardī, was explained and interpreted by Mullā Ṣadrā and his students. Mullā Ṣadrā believed that perfect nature is a single intellectual form and the highest level of Man’s existence which enjoys the highest degree of immateriality. He called this level the “Holy Spirit” and emphasized that there is no difference between the soul and perfect nature and, basically, the whole identity of the human soil originates in their perfect nature. Although perfect nature is closely related to Hermetic teachings, one cannot ignore its Khosravani roots. In Mazdayasnan teachings, reference has been made to the states and modes of the soul, the most supreme of which is Fravashī or Farvahar. Fravashī is the heavenly essence or an aspect of Mīnuy-e Xerad (or spirit of wisdom) which reveals itself to ascetics and teaches them religious principles. In the present paper, after examining the views of Islamic philosophers regarding perfect nature, the authors have tried to demonstrate that this concept is rooted in the pre-eternal essence of wisdom, which, in conformity with Suhrawardī’s etymology of both Eastern (Khosravani) and Western (Hermetic) branches of philosophy, is among the most fundamental principles of epistemology. In fact, in order to attain his own illuminationist purpose, which is to revive the pre-eternal substance through posing the concept of perfect nature, Suhrawardī has brought Khosravani and Hermetic philosophies together. Mullā Ṣadrā has also advocated him in this regard. Manuscript Document
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      16 - Impact of Zoroastrian Wisdom on Pre-Socratic Philosophers and Plato
      Reza  Amiri
      There are several similarities among the philosophical thoughts of pre-Socratic sages and the preceding Zoroaster’s teachings. Such similarities indicate the familiarity of Greek philosophers with Zoroaster’s teachings through their contacts with eastern nations, partic Full Text
      There are several similarities among the philosophical thoughts of pre-Socratic sages and the preceding Zoroaster’s teachings. Such similarities indicate the familiarity of Greek philosophers with Zoroaster’s teachings through their contacts with eastern nations, particularly Iranians. In this paper, following a comparative method, the author intends to provide an answer to the question of how Zoroaster’s teachings influenced pre-Socratic philosophies. The findings of this study demonstrate that some thinkers such as Thales, Pythagoras, Empedocles, and, particularly, Plato developed their views under the influence of Iranian philosophical thoughts. In this regard, reference can be made to some concepts including partnership, duality, Plato’s king-sage, and Pythagoras’ views regarding spirit and numbers. Manuscript Document
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      17 - The Belief in the Other World in Pre-Historic Iran (A Philosophical Analysis based on Archeological Proofs)
      Atousa  Moemeni
      Following the growth of human sciences, archeology, as one of the materialist and spiritual branches of human sciences, has recently been seeking to learn about the quality of the formation, continuity, and change of early societies. It has been doing so on the basis of Full Text
      Following the growth of human sciences, archeology, as one of the materialist and spiritual branches of human sciences, has recently been seeking to learn about the quality of the formation, continuity, and change of early societies. It has been doing so on the basis of tangible and intangible proofs and through investigating the development of thoughts, cultures, traditions, and beliefs of such societies. Moreover, archeologists aim to perceive this process of change and development alongside rational and logical findings in relation to human worldviews as an everlasting treasure which has lingered since pre-history until now. Death and its life-related and ontological dimensions in different cultures and societies have always been among the most fundamental problems attracting the attention of human beings all over the world. In fact, humans are essentially living beings who are always thinking about death and have continually kept their connection with this concept in the course of history. Archeological proofs represent the most tangible legacy of death-related thoughts and demonstrate people’s attention and sensitivity to death, which are themselves rooted in their philosophy of the other world. In the present paper, the author has tried to deal with the philosophy of death and Man’s thanatoptic nature during the second and first millennia BC based on some archeological diggings in an Iron Age cemetery (which represents a specific age and a region with a rich ancient history and culture). She has also sought to particularly study burial traditions and their changes along with their underlying ideological foundations. In this way, with references to certain archeological studies and discovered artifacts in field excavations, the author hopes to shed some light on Man’s awareness of death and their beliefs in relation to the world after death and analyze the transfer of such thoughts and all their evolving dimensions to the next generations based on rational and logical principles. Manuscript Document
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      18 - An Analytic Account of the Rules and Position of Kingship in Mirṣād al-‘Ibād based on Khosrawani Wisdom
      Somayeh  Assadi
      According to the teachings of Zoroastrianism and Ahuramazda, the position of kingship in ancient Iran enjoys two aspects of religiousness and leadership or wisdom and government, which were both granted to the king in the light of divine power (farr-e īzadī). In Illumin Full Text
      According to the teachings of Zoroastrianism and Ahuramazda, the position of kingship in ancient Iran enjoys two aspects of religiousness and leadership or wisdom and government, which were both granted to the king in the light of divine power (farr-e īzadī). In Illuminationist philosophy, too, the light of all lights (al-nūr al-anwār), which illuminates all worlds, is the same khurneh in Avesta, which is referred to as farr (glory) in today’s Persian. In the light of farr, which is an īzadī and divine gift, the blessed person qualifies for the position of kingship. If any knowledgeable and just king deviated from the path of justice, he was deprived of this blessing and glory. Najm al-Dīn Rāzī’s view in Mirṣād al-‘ibād regarding the position of leaders and kings and their duties are very close to ancient Iranian thoughts, Zoroastrian teachings, and Khosrawani wisdom. He calls the king as God’s vicegerent on earth and, through assimilating the king to homā (a fabulous bird of good omen), he confirms God’s attention to this rank and position. Therefore, it can be said that what is called farr-e kiyānī (divine light) in Khosrawani wisdom and Illuminationist philosophy has appeared in Mirṣād al-‘ibād as divine power and heavenly confirmation. Accordingly, Rāzī refers to some specific features for kings which match those appearing in ancient religions and Khosrawani wisdom. The present study aimed to list the features of kings in Mirṣād al-‘ibād while considering the elements of kingship in ancient schools of philosophy, particularly Khosrawani wisdom, and then explain the similarities and differences between the thoughts of Najm al-Dīn Rāzī and the basic principles of Khosrawani wisdom regarding the necessary qualities and features of a king. The findings of the study demonstrate that, given the place of his own gnostic interpretation and the Illuminationist and Zahirite meaning of Khosrawani wisdom, Rāzī considered kingship to be the same as divine guardianship and the philosophical concept of “king philosopher” or, in other words, a wayfarer who has attained God and is now at the stage of “for the created through the Truth”. This individual is a “particular king” who has been granted the position of “people’s king” or the authority to rule people in the light of such characteristics. Manuscript Document
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      19 - An Approach to the Concept of Knowledge in Pahlavi Texts and its Connection with Morality and Education
      Sheyda  Riyazi Heravi Masud  Safaei Moghaddm Mohammad Jafar  Pakseresht Shahram  Jalilian
      Knowledge has been manifested in Pahlavi texts, such as Avesta, in the word “wisdom”. In such texts, Ahura Mazda is the origin of wisdom and knowledge and controls the beginning and end of creation in the light of His Omniscient wisdom. In Pahlavi texts, Bahman or good Full Text
      Knowledge has been manifested in Pahlavi texts, such as Avesta, in the word “wisdom”. In such texts, Ahura Mazda is the origin of wisdom and knowledge and controls the beginning and end of creation in the light of His Omniscient wisdom. In Pahlavi texts, Bahman or good thought is the first Amoša Spenta that Ahura Mazda created and, in this way, actualized His role in creation. Moreover, Bahman is the symbol and manifestation or Ahura Mazda’s Omniscient wisdom of His created things through which Man attains the knowledge of religion and Ahura Mazda Himself. Additionally, moral life, as the ultimate goal in Zoroastrianism is realized in Pahlavi texts in the word pledge or moderation. This moral virtue is based on knowledge. In Pahlavi texts, training is also the foundation of developing asn kherad (intrinsic wisdom), wisdom, and adopting moral virtues; therefore, it is considered to be one of the different types of perennial wisdom). Following a descriptive-analytic method, the present study investigates the concept of knowledge and its different types in Pahlavi texts and analyzes the quality of its unity with morality and education. Manuscript Document
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      20 - Socio-political Roots and Consequences of Gandhi’s View of God and God’s Relationship with Truth
      Ali Naqi  Baqershahi
      The present paper investigates the socio-political roots and consequences of Gandhi’s view of God and God’s relationship with truth. His idea of God and truth is rooted in Vedanta School of philosophy, Vaishnavism, and his studies of Islam and Christianity. Based on Ved Full Text
      The present paper investigates the socio-political roots and consequences of Gandhi’s view of God and God’s relationship with truth. His idea of God and truth is rooted in Vedanta School of philosophy, Vaishnavism, and his studies of Islam and Christianity. Based on Vedanta philosophy, truth is discussed at two levels of nirguna (a truth without attributes or station of essence) and saguna (a truth with attributes or the station of names and attributes). In Vaishnavism, reference is made to Vishnu, who is one of the Vedic deities, as a personal God and the preserver of the world. Because of his philosophical interest in Vedanta and his family belief in Vaishnavism, Gandhi believed in both impersonal (Vedantic) God and personal (Vishnu) God. At the beginning of developing his philosophical thoughts, for several reasons, he concluded that God is the same as the truth for he believed that one can only refer to God as the truth. In his view, truth is not an attribute of God and is, rather, the same as God. In Indian philosophical texts, the term satya is used to refer to the truth. The root of this word is /sat/ (is) meaning that God is the same as the truth and being. Later Gandhi decided that, instead of saying, “God is the truth”, he should say, “the truth is God”. In his view there is a subtle difference between these two statements. Gandhi states that the only way through which one can attain the truth is ahimsā (non-violence) and, in order to clarify this term, he refers to the concept of satyagrah (holding to the truth), which, he believes, is the technique of using ahimsā. This mainly focuses on the great influence of Gandhi’s approach to God and the truth over the quality of his socio-political campaigns against British colonists. Manuscript Document
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      21 - Principle of the One in the View of ‘Alī Qulī Ibn Qarachāqāy Khān
      Mansour Nasiri Yousef Daneshvar Nilu Mahdi Askari
      The al-Wahid principle has been constantly drawing attention from Muslim philosophers and theologians throughout the history of Islamic thought, while some have sought to substantiate this principle and some others have attempted to criticize and reject it. It was not o Full Text
      The al-Wahid principle has been constantly drawing attention from Muslim philosophers and theologians throughout the history of Islamic thought, while some have sought to substantiate this principle and some others have attempted to criticize and reject it. It was not only theologians who challenged the principle, it also did not sit well with some philosophers who were critical of it. One of these philosophers was Aliquli Bin Qarachghai Khan Torkamani, a Safavid era philosopher and pupil to Mulla Rajabali Tabrizi. He challenges Ibn Sina’s arguments for the al-Wahid, believing that if we consider the Necessary Existent as a pure simple entity that is aware of oneself and others and is also able to create others, then, knowing that knowledge and power are identical with His essence, we can say that the emanation of the multiple from the Necessary Existent will not require existence of multiple aspects within Him. Accordingly, we can accept the emanation of the multiple from the one. In this article we undertake an explication and critique of Aliquli Bin Qarachghai Khan’s view of the al-Wahid principle. In brief, this article argues that although to some degree his critiques of Ibn Sina’s proofs are successful, he fails to take an all-inclusive approach to the issue. Manuscript Document
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      22 - Avestan Sīmurgh, Ishraqi Sīmurgh (A Historical Etymology of Sīmurgh in Islamic-Iranian Philosophy)
      Hasan  Bolkhari Qehi
      Undoubtedly, Sīmurgh is one of the most important and attractive Ishraqi (Illuminationist) and gnostic symbols in the Islamic-Iranian civilization. The traces of this mythical bird can also be found in Avestan and Pahlavi texts as a near-stationed and heaven-residing bi Full Text
      Undoubtedly, Sīmurgh is one of the most important and attractive Ishraqi (Illuminationist) and gnostic symbols in the Islamic-Iranian civilization. The traces of this mythical bird can also be found in Avestan and Pahlavi texts as a near-stationed and heaven-residing bird as well as the name of a prominent philosopher in Zoroastrian philosophy. The correct pronunciation of the world Sīmurgh is mərəyō saēnō in Avesta, sēnmurw and saeno muruk in Pahlavi language, and siræng in some Persian texts. Orientalists have translated this word into eagle and royal falcon in English. Perhaps the translation of Sīmurgh into eagle is rooted in translations’ focus on the word syena in Sanskrit, which means eagle in this language. Admittedly, this Sanskrit word is quite similar to the Avestan saena. Suhrawardī has talked about sīmurgh in different parts of his works such as in the treatises of Ṣafīr-i Sīmurgh, ‘Aql-i surkh, and Fī ḥālat al-ṭufullīyah. In ‘Aql-i surkh, following an innovative approach and method of interpretation, he discusses sīmurgh’s support of Rostam in his war with Esfandiar; in Ṣafīr-i sīmurgh he explains the virtues of sīmurgh in the Introduction to the treatise, and in the last treatise he elaborates on sīmurgh’s living in heaven. Suhrawardī’s method of discussion in these works reveals the place and holiness of this bird in his mind and language and, most importantly, the depth of his knowledge of ancient Iranian philosophy. In this paper, the author discusses the place of sīmurgh in Avestan and Pahlavi texts and Illuminationist philosophy. Manuscript Document
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      23 - graduteness in whatness a critical study of Mirqavamuddin Razi's view
      Mahdi Askari Mansour Nasiri
      Muslim philosophers consider any contingent being to be a combination of nature and existence. Since Mirdamad, the question has been raised as to which of the two is the fundamental/objective (Asill). Following the discussion of the fundamentality of the existence and w Full Text
      Muslim philosophers consider any contingent being to be a combination of nature and existence. Since Mirdamad, the question has been raised as to which of the two is the fundamental/objective (Asill). Following the discussion of the fundamentality of the existence and whatness, the question of Graduate, the question was whether the existence is graduated or the whatness. Those who believed in the fundamentality of existence believed that graduteness is of that existence. On the other hand, those who believed in the fundamentality of whatness believed that graduteness is of that whateness. In the meantime, Mir Qawam al-Din Razi has taken a third promise. He believes that graduteness in whatness means inherent presuppositions are impossible and in transverse presuppositions whose derivation is not documented in the essence and essence of the subject is also impossible, but in transverse presuppositions whose derivation is documented in the essence and essence of the subject, graduteness occurs. The main issue of this article is to examine Mir Qawamuddin Razi's view on graduteness in transverse shipments. The purpose of this study is to show the third promise in this issue that has been neglected so far and the research method is descriptive-analytical and to some extent with a historical approach. The conclusion of this study is that the words of Mir Qawamuddin Razi can be correct and defensible according to the words of Mashaei philosophers such as Aristotle. Manuscript Document
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      24 - Ontological Analysis of Different Types of Resurrection and their Relationship with Death in the View of Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī
      Fatemeh Kookaram Abdullah Salavati Einollah Khademi
      Resurrection commonly refers to objective resurrection, the details of which have been explained in divine religions. However, some gnostics such as Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī have presented and elucidated different types of resurrection based on spiritual and subjective inter Full Text
      Resurrection commonly refers to objective resurrection, the details of which have been explained in divine religions. However, some gnostics such as Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī have presented and elucidated different types of resurrection based on spiritual and subjective interpretations of this concept. He refers to some resurrections which are mostly connected with voluntary death. This study mainly focuses on the question of what the relationships between death and different types of resurrection are. The findings of the investigation indicate that Sayyid Ḥaydar Āmulī divides resurrection into objective and subjective types and then divides each into two formal and spiritual categories. Later he classifies each formal and spiritual form into minor, middle, and major types and; hence, refers to 12 types of resurrection. In other, words, in his view, resurrection is of various types, most of which are related to voluntary death. He maintains that Man should die a voluntary death in order to witness different forms of resurrection. The findings of this study also show that the death Āmulī discusses leads to Man’s continuity; frees them from the limits of this-worldly life; expands their worldview; opens new horizons before them, and grants depth to their life, their selves, and their insight. A human being who does not seek a voluntary death and lives a worldly life is, in a sense, a dwarf or insignificant person. Manuscript Document
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      25 - Explaining Fārābī’s Teleological View of Music
      Mohsen  Habibi Seyed Mohsen Mousavi
      Fārābī’s specific view of music reveals the teleological importance of music for him. In his philosophy, music is connected with logical thought and political philosophy, and this connection plays an effective role in his musical system. The relationship between music, Full Text
      Fārābī’s specific view of music reveals the teleological importance of music for him. In his philosophy, music is connected with logical thought and political philosophy, and this connection plays an effective role in his musical system. The relationship between music, logic, and politics is established through the end of music. That is, the genre of poetry, as a part of logic, determines the end of music and also develops a relationship with civil philosophy (politics) in the course of this relation in the view of Fārābī. The reflection of such relationships can be seen in the definition of music, specifying its principles and source of its formation, types of music, and the classification and ranking of musical instruments. Given the final cause of music and its principles, which mathematics is not capable of explaining, Fārābī distances himself from mathematics when analyzing music. He equates the final cause of music with that of poetry, which is the same provoking of imagination to attain happiness for all. In this way, he emphasizes the imitative aspect of music and defines it as something more than a tool for entertainment. The teleological view yields some consequences for Fārābī’s general approach to music, which are the focal points of this paper. Manuscript Document
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      26 - Fārābī and the Question of the Truth of Perception: A Critical Review of Mullā Ṣadrā’s View
      Ghasem Purhasan Ali Piri
      One of the most important and accurate problems in Fārābī’s epistemological philosophy is the question of perception and its relationship with the soul, reason, and ontological promotion. In sharp contrast to Aristotle, Fārābī challenges the theory of the passivity of t Full Text
      One of the most important and accurate problems in Fārābī’s epistemological philosophy is the question of perception and its relationship with the soul, reason, and ontological promotion. In sharp contrast to Aristotle, Fārābī challenges the theory of the passivity of the soul in perception, considers the soul to be the creator of perception and, in this way, founds the theory of the soul as an active agent. This theory has influenced the ideas of all the philosophers after him in the field of Islamic philosophy, from Ibn Sīnā to ‘Allamāh Ṭabāṭabā’ī. Fārābī connects perception with manifestation and presence, which are mainly discussed in the philosophical schools of Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā and defends it from the view point of ontology. Some of Fārābī’s innovations include acknowledging the creativity of the soul in perception, granting a graded nature to perception and knowledge, paying attention to the emergent and ontological mode of knowledge, understanding the generous and giving nature of knowledge alongside attaching fundamental importance to sense perception, criticizing non-certain types of knowledge and presenting a fundamental view regarding certain knowledge and, finally, introducing perception as a process. Following a comparative approach, the present study examines the problem of perception and its nature in Fārābī’s philosophy, while considering the views of other Muslim philosophers, and portrays the significance of his theory of perception. Manuscript Document