List of subject articles


    • Open Access Article

      1 - سخن سردبیر
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      2 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      3 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      4 - سخن سردبير
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      5 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      6 - سخن سردبير
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      7 - سخن سردبیر
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      8 - سخن سردبير
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      9 - Interdisciplinary Components of the Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Wisdom and Philosophy: Introducing a New method for Compiling the History of Philosophy and Reviewing the Present Method of Historiography in Iran
      Reza  Mahuzi Maryam  Soleimani Fard
      The Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Philosophy, affiliated with the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute and the Scientific Society of the History of Philosophy has brought a great number of researchers together since 2005 in order to compile a co Full Text
      The Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Philosophy, affiliated with the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute and the Scientific Society of the History of Philosophy has brought a great number of researchers together since 2005 in order to compile a comprehensive history of wisdom and philosophy in Iran and in the world in the light of cultural and social events and incidents. The general policy dominating the process of compiling the history of philosophy here dictates a collaborative and cooperative activity in which a number of professors and authorities in the fields of archaeology, linguistics, history, art, gnosis, religion, and philosophy are participating. The present paper firstly analyzes the rules and principles governing the interdisciplinary approach in the field of science and highlights its differences from the disciplinary approach. Then, based on the documents published by this Center, it presents a picture of researchers’ group work in conformity with the norms of the interdisciplinary approach and portrays and judges their present and future activities. Finally, based on the nature of this approach and the scientific expectations it arouses, the writers make some recommendations to the researchers and professors involved in this huge project. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      10 - سخن سردبیر
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
    • Open Access Article

      11 - Doxography Tradition of Ancient Greek Philosophers (with Reference to Hermann Diels’ View)
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Behnaz  Aqili Dehkordi
      In the sixth century BC, pre-Socratic philosophers introduced different research methods in the realms of science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific treatises, and presented the basic concepts in the process of deduction. However, we do not have access to any of Full Text
      In the sixth century BC, pre-Socratic philosophers introduced different research methods in the realms of science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific treatises, and presented the basic concepts in the process of deduction. However, we do not have access to any of their independent works except for some extracts which have been quoted in the works of post-Socratic scholars. Nevertheless, this method lacks the required efficiency in understanding and evaluating the words of pre-Socratic scientists at all times. Hermann Alexander Diels presented a new method of doxography in his book of Doxographi Graeci (Greek Doxographers). He returned the tradition of doxography to the one adopted in a book by Theophrastus, who was a student of Aristotle. Diels’ method was criticized by later scientists, such as Mansfield. Based on his critique, the effects of Sufists’ ideas, Aristotle’s theory of edited collections and books of principles, tradition of genealogy writing, and commentators’ glosses on the formation of doxographical texts have not been much appreciated in Diels’ method. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      12 - Explaining the Theory of Meta-History in Henry Corbin’s Philosophy
      Seyed Ali  Alamolhoda Marziyeh  Akhlaghi Naser  Mohamadi Hasan  Seyedarab
      Henry Corbin (1903-1978), the French philosopher, is the first western interpreter of Suhrawardi’s philosophy. His thoughts are focused on the fields of t’awil (esoteric interpretation), phenomenology, and the theory of meta-history. The present study aims to explain an Full Text
      Henry Corbin (1903-1978), the French philosopher, is the first western interpreter of Suhrawardi’s philosophy. His thoughts are focused on the fields of t’awil (esoteric interpretation), phenomenology, and the theory of meta-history. The present study aims to explain and examine this theory and its impact on Corbin’s study of Iranian-Islamic philosophy and gnosis. In the realm of theoretical studies of history, the philosophy of history derives from philosophical studies and, accordingly, investigates history and historical events and incidents. In Corbin’s view, it is not possible to investigate the reporting of the history of philosophy based on the theory of the philosophy of history because one cannot describe historical events based on cause-effect relationships. Corbin’s view in this regard is rooted in theology. In fact, he has employed a theological approach in order to interpret the relationship between history and human beings; the philosophical periods of ancient Iran; Islamic philosophy and, particularly, the philosophical school of Suhrawardi (540-587 AH), and gnosis. He has attributed the issues related to the mentioned fields to the world of Ideas. Corbin benefitted from the theories of Edmund Husserl (1859-1928) and Martin Heidegger (1889-1996) in order to pose the theory of meta-history. The present paper is a first attempt at examining and analyzing Henry Corbin’s theory of meta-history. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      13 - An Introduction to the Philosophy of History of Philosophy
      Masoud  Omid
      Although the discipline of history of philosophy and the related questions existed in the past, they have greatly occupied the minds of philosophers during the last two centuries. Some of the important questions in the field of the history of philosophy include the foll Full Text
      Although the discipline of history of philosophy and the related questions existed in the past, they have greatly occupied the minds of philosophers during the last two centuries. Some of the important questions in the field of the history of philosophy include the following: what is the meaning and nature of history of philosophy? What is its station of confirmation and demonstration? Is history of philosophy a perfect field or it is still in the process of development and expansion? What is the relationship between us and history of philosophy or what should it be like? Is this field the same as history or philosophy or of the type of philosophy? What is the difference between the history of philosophy and the history of science, religion, art, or the like? Due to the increasing attention to the problems related to the history of philosophy (in Iran and in the world), the present paper is intended to deal with some issues in relation to history of philosophy while discussing it in a framework entitled the philosophy of history of philosophy. In the past, philosophers referred to the theoretical philosophy of history and the philosophy of the science of history; however, it seems that it is now the right time to discuss the philosophy of the history of philosophy. The most fundamental themes which are propounded in this paper regarding this field include the place of philosophy of history of philosophy in various schools of philosophy and the possibility, necessity, and desirability of this field of knowledge. Finally, it appears that the philosophy of history of philosophy can be considered to be a branch of related philosophical fields, and it can even be offered as a new course at universities. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      14 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      This paper contains some notes on academic researches.
      This paper contains some notes on academic researches. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      15 - History of Philosophy and its Models
      Masoud  Omid
      Could the history of philosophy be viewed in the light of models? The author of this paper believes that a deliberation over the history of philosophy can reveal the traces of certain models for philosophizing. A model for philosophizing in its general sense indicates a Full Text
      Could the history of philosophy be viewed in the light of models? The author of this paper believes that a deliberation over the history of philosophy can reveal the traces of certain models for philosophizing. A model for philosophizing in its general sense indicates an allegorical mould based on which and within the framework of which a philosopher formulates his philosophy and his method of philosophizing. Accordingly, one can provide a general classification for all models of history of philosophy and then explain each of them. Based on the trend of the development of history of philosophy and the activities of philosophers, the models of philosophizing can be divided into three neutral, positivist, and negativist groups in general. The mirror (reflective) and narrative (iterative) models can be placed in the neutral category. However, the positivist models themselves can be divided into two mechanical and organic groups. The encyclopedic models fall under the first group, while the mathematical-tree (Descartes) models, mathematical-geometrical (Spinoza), puzzle-like models (Hume), architectural models (Kant), dialectic architectural models (Hegel), universalist organic architectural models (Schopenhauer), phenomenological architectural models (Heidegger in Being and Time) and logical architectural models (early Wittgenstein) belong to the second group. The therapeutic model (late Wittgenstein) and post-modern philosophies can be categorized under negativist models. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      16 - foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Iranian culture, History, philosophy of history.
      Iranian culture, History, philosophy of history. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      17 - Kant and History of Philosophy: Perspectives and Main Points
      Masoud  Omid
      Investigating the history of philosophy and philosophers’ views of it are of great significance because the most important source of philosophy and philosophizing is the same field of the history of philosophy. The trend of modern philosophy, whether in the mould of rat Full Text
      Investigating the history of philosophy and philosophers’ views of it are of great significance because the most important source of philosophy and philosophizing is the same field of the history of philosophy. The trend of modern philosophy, whether in the mould of rationalism or empiricism, has generally been developed without acknowledging the need for history of philosophy, without making it the center of discussion, and without having a particular historical perspective in this respect. For example, in order to develop his philosophy, Descartes merely focused on the thinker’s capacity and the endless world. Empiricists have also tried to have a share of the knowledge of human nature and the world of qualities and quantities through experimentation. However, when it comes to Kant, at the beginning of his book, Critique of Pure Reason, he focuses on the possibilities of human knowledge, while he finishes this work with a section entitled “History of Pure Reason”. Even the opening section and some of his words in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics reflect certain perspectives and points concerning the history of philosophy. Therefore, it can be said that he was, to some extent, interested in the history of philosophy and even believed that he owed the development and consolidation of his philosophy to perceiving the nature and history of metaphysics and the related sciences and teachings. Kant found out that it would be impossible to understand the nature of philosophy or conduct philosophical inquiries and discoveries without first studying the history of metaphysics and other philosophical and empirical sciences. The rise of subject and its transcendental nature would have also been impossible without considering the history of philosophy and sciences and following a historical approach regarding systematic human sciences. However, Kant did not deal with the history of philosophy by itself; rather, he focused on the history of philosophical studies. Moreover, even at this point, the relation of the history of philosophical studies or a historical approach to the definition, restriction, and specification of subject is not of a constitutive knowledge-producing type; rather, it can be of a regulatory functional type. The history of philosophical studies could function as a guiding principle for philosophical understanding and work and highlight the signs and traces of the subject. Nevertheless, it cannot, by itself, define or create the subject, for Kantian subject has a historical aspect but is not a historical entity. In other words, the subject is a historian, perspectivist, and history-bound but is not of a historical nature. The history of philosophy is the occurrence condition of the subject and not its transcendental condition. The transcendental conditions of the subject are internal and included in its definition rather than being external, historical, and accidental. The present paper examines Kantian views of the history of philosophy in order to reveal this neglected and hidden aspect of his philosophy. In doing so, it explores some problems such as the meaning and definition of history of philosophy, history of interest in philosophy, end of history of philosophy, difference and similarity between history of philosophy and history of science, classification of history of philosophy, the relationship between philosophy and history of philosophy, the relationship between the philosophy of history and history of philosophy, and the like from Kant’s point of view. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      18 - Foreword
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Islamic Philosophy, Arabic Philosophy, Orientalism
      Islamic Philosophy, Arabic Philosophy, Orientalism Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      19 - Editor's Notes
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Student's Thesis Research on Basically Problems
      Student's Thesis Research on Basically Problems Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      20 - On the Translation of Aristotle’s Ousia as Substance
      Hamid Khosravani Hamidreza  Mahboobi Arani Seyyed Mohammad Ali Hodjati
      Aristotle’s discussion of the Ousia are diverse and confusing since there are various definition of the term especially in Metaphysics, Physics and Categories. He refers to it sometimes as the underlying layer, sometimes he means something similar to the meaning of bein Full Text
      Aristotle’s discussion of the Ousia are diverse and confusing since there are various definition of the term especially in Metaphysics, Physics and Categories. He refers to it sometimes as the underlying layer, sometimes he means something similar to the meaning of being, and sometimes as essence and quiddity. Hence, the difficulty and disagreement among the translators and interpreters on the best equivalent for Ousia in other languages. In the present paper, after a short historical discussion about Ousia, I examine some common equivalents for the Ousia in Latin and English and attempt to discuss the different reasons for and against each equivalent. My argument, in general, goes for the term Substance, and I will bring 8 reasons to establish the argument. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      21 - Editor's Note
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
      Classic Science Modern Science
      Classic Science Modern Science Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      22 - Substance and Essence of Aristotle’s Ousia and its Translation into Substance and Reality
      Hamid Khosravani Hamidreza  Mahboobi Arani
      Aristotle’s ousia suffered the same fate it had in the West when it arrived in ancient Iran and the world of Islam. Among all the existing appropriate equivalents, the term “substance” was chosen as its nearest equivalent in western philosophical texts. Similarly, the t Full Text
      Aristotle’s ousia suffered the same fate it had in the West when it arrived in ancient Iran and the world of Islam. Among all the existing appropriate equivalents, the term “substance” was chosen as its nearest equivalent in western philosophical texts. Similarly, the term “jawhar”, which is the Arabic for “gawhar” in Persian and a close equivalent for substance, was accepted by all philosophers in the world of Islam. In previous translated works before and after the translation movement in Baghdad’s Dar al-Tarjumah (Translation House), there were some words such as ayn, inniyyat, huwiyyat, and budish which implied almost the true meaning of ousia as intended by Aristotle. This was because this term has been derived from the verb to be and basically means existent, essence, or being; however, jawhar and substance were the ultimate choices of translators. The dominance of this substantialist view, both in the West and in the East, was partly because of the early translations of Aristotle’s works. This paper aims to, firstly, examine the fate of Aristotles’s ousia upon its arrival in Iran and the world of Islam and, then, discuss the relationships between the meanings of the chosen equivalents in the Islamic world with those of their western equivalents. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      23 - A Critical-Historical Review of Abharī’s Analysis of the Elements and Typology of Denotation Based on the Distinction of two Models: Free Will-Speaker and Meaning-Interlocutor
      Hashem  Ghorbani Abbas Bakhshandeh Bali
      The present study provides a critical-historical review of semiotics in Abharī’s view and aims to explain his encounter with the problems of the realm of semantics and his standpoints in this regard. Here, the authors have tried to evaluate and analyze some descriptions Full Text
      The present study provides a critical-historical review of semiotics in Abharī’s view and aims to explain his encounter with the problems of the realm of semantics and his standpoints in this regard. Here, the authors have tried to evaluate and analyze some descriptions of denotation and its typology. Accordingly, relying on Abharī’s conception of the nature of denotation, his analysis of its typology, and an evaluation of his view as to the inefficiency of denotation of implication, the authors provide a critical account of this philosopher’s view while employing certain elements, such as the speaker’s will in transferring meaning, the role of interlocutor’s understanding in the correct construction of meaning, and thought structure. Logicians believe that denotation depends on context and have considered contextual awareness as a necessary condition. The authors have also explained that, in addition to this criterion, some other elements in the realm of meaning, the speaker, and the interlocutor affect the creation of denotation. Through moving the concept of denotation beyond the domain of single words and its vast application to sentences and, particularly, propositions and also following a non-quiddative approach in dealing with the specification of the concepts of the field of denotation, Abharī connects semiotics with semantic discussions. Here, Abharī’s views regarding semiotics have been presented in comparison to other thinkers. Some of his endeavors in this realm include redefining denotation based on the meaning-interlocutor model, providing two different interpretations of the place of context in the typology of denotation, criticizing Fakhr al-Dīn’s analysis of similar denotations and their distinction from the other two types of denotation through adopting a dependent or independent subject and considering evaluation-centeredness, criticizing the analysis of Khunaji and Kashi of the metaphorical nature of inclusion and implication denotation, criticizing Suhrawardī’s and Rāzī’s description of implicative-corresponding relations, and criticizing the inefficient approaches to implication denotation, and designing an image based on misunderstanding based on the plurality of mental transfers. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      24 - A Glance at A Century of the Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosopher from Before Christ until the 20th Century)
      Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
      During the last century, we have witnessed the second movement of the translation of Western philosophical works in Iran. This bibliography provides a list of the works of 40 famous philosophers of the West from before Christ until the 19th century which have been trans Full Text
      During the last century, we have witnessed the second movement of the translation of Western philosophical works in Iran. This bibliography provides a list of the works of 40 famous philosophers of the West from before Christ until the 19th century which have been translated into Persian. The translators who have rendered classic works of philosophy into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and have specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manouchehr Bozorgmehr has mainly been interested in George Berkeley, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi in Plato and Plotinus, Daryush Ashuri in Friedrich Nietzsche, Ziba Jebelli in Marx, and Manuchehr Sanei in Kant. The works of some philosophers have also been translated several times; for example, the book of Thus spoke Zarathustra: A Book for all and None holds the record with 14 different translations. In certain cases, none of the books of some famous Western philosophers, such as Nicolas Malebranche, Dans Scotus, Bonaventure, and William of Ockham, has been translated into Persian. In this bibliography, the authors have introduced the works of the following philosophers: Thomas Aquinas, Augustino of Hippo, Anselm of Canterbury, Epictetus, Epicure, Aristotle, Herbert Spencer, Baruch Spinoza, Plato, Plotinus, Friedrich Engles, Marcus Aurelius, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon, Blaise Pascal, Pre-Socratic Philosophers, Descartes, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich von Schiller, Ludwig Feuerbach, Johan Gottlieb Fichte, Kant, Auguste Comte, Soren Kierkegaard, John Locke, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Lucretius, Marx Niccolo Machiavelli, Montesquieu, George Edward Moore, John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Thomas Hobbes, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and David Hume. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      25 - A Glance at one Century of Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosophers from the Beginning of the 20th Century until Now)
      Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
      The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the la Full Text
      The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the later years and the large number of the prominent philosophers in various fields of philosophy, this list only contains the names of 40 of the most influential philosophers of this period in Iran. The translators who have rendered the works of these philosophers into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manuchehr Sanei Darrehbidi has mainly focused on Wilhelm Dilthey, Yadollah Moaghan on Ernst Cassirer, Malek Hosseini on Wittgenstein, and Mohammad Hassan Lotfi on Jaspers. The works of some philosophers have been translated several times, for instance, Nietzsche and Philosophy by Gilles Deleuze; Political Ideas, Why I Am Not A Christian, Power: A New Social Analysis, and Marriage and Morals by Bertrand Russell; Existentialism is a Humanism and The Words by Jean-Paul Sartre; The Myth of Sisyphus and Notebooks (3 volumes) by Albert Camus; The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn; Logical-Philosophical Treatise by Wittgenstein, and Being and Time by Martin Heidegger have been translated at least four times. Among them Russell’s Power: A New Social Analysis ranks first with six retranslations. This bibliography introduces the works of the following 40 philosophers: Theodor W. Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Alfred Jules Ayer, Henry Bergson, Karl Raimund Popper, William James, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Dilthey, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, John Bordley Rawls, Richard McKay Rorty, Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur, Jean Paul Sartre, John Rogers Searle, Paul Karl Feyerabend, Friedrich Ludwig GottlobFrege, Paul-Michel Foucault, Rudolf Carnap, Ernst Alfred Cassirer, Albert Camus, Saul Aaron Kripke, Willard Van Orman Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-François Lyotard, Gabriel Honoré Marcel, Herbert Marcuse, Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty, George Edward Moore, Alfred North Whitehead, Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Jürgen Habermas, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich August von Hayek, and Karl Theodor Jaspers. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      26 - Foundations of Denying the Trans-Substantial Motion in the Philosophy of Ḥakīm Mullā Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī
      Zeinab Azad Moghaddam Abbas  Javareshkian Seied Morteza  Hoseini Shahrudi
      Mullā Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī was one of the philosophers of Isfahan School of Philosophy and a contemporary of Mullā Ṣadrā. His thoughts, originated in a school which was almost in contrast to Sadrian philosophy, clearly show the strengths and weak points of Islamic philosop Full Text
      Mullā Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī was one of the philosophers of Isfahan School of Philosophy and a contemporary of Mullā Ṣadrā. His thoughts, originated in a school which was almost in contrast to Sadrian philosophy, clearly show the strengths and weak points of Islamic philosophy. The purpose of the present study was to examine the roots of Mullā Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī’s thoughts regarding the trans-substantial motion. Since he believed in the principiality of quiddity as opposed to the principiality of existence, he considered motion to be disconnected and of the type of generation and corruption and maintained that gradual and trans-substantial motion was impossible. In addition to the lack of a subsistent subject and the mortality of the species in the trans-substantial motion, the belief in certain philosophical principles has resulted in the rejection of the trans-substantial motion as a philosophical principle by some philosophers such as Mullā Rajab‘alī Tabrīzī. Manuscript Document