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    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - ٍٍٍEditor's Note
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      در تقویم رسمی کشور، روز اول شهریورماه هر سال ببهانة پاسداشت دانش پزشکی و جمعیت پزشکان، و در ارتباط با مقام بلند دانشمند بزرگ عالم اسلام، حکیم ابوعلی سینا، به نام «روز پزشک» نامگذاری شده است. در همین زمینه، برغم شهرت ابن‌سینا به طبیبی زبردست و صاحب دائرة‌المعارفی همچون ک Full Text
      در تقویم رسمی کشور، روز اول شهریورماه هر سال ببهانة پاسداشت دانش پزشکی و جمعیت پزشکان، و در ارتباط با مقام بلند دانشمند بزرگ عالم اسلام، حکیم ابوعلی سینا، به نام «روز پزشک» نامگذاری شده است. در همین زمینه، برغم شهرت ابن‌سینا به طبیبی زبردست و صاحب دائرة‌المعارفی همچون کتاب قانون، بسیاری از مورخان و متتبعان در فلسفه و حتی افکار و فرهنگ عمومی کشورمان، نسبت به وجوه اصلی شخصیت این چهرة بزرگ علمی و فلسفی عالم بشریت، آگاهی چندانی ندارند. در میان ملل و اقوام جهان، سنت چنین بوده و هست که در معرفی و ترسیم چهره‌های کلیدی و اثرگذار خود، اهتمام خاص بعمل آورند و چه بسا در تعریف و تمجید و پاسداشت مقام آنان، به مبالغه و بزرگنمایی هم روی می‌آورند؛ چنانکه در ترسیم چهره‌های تاریخی کسانی همچون اسکندر مقدونی، ناپلئون بناپارت، آبراهام لینکلن و امثال آنها، از داستان‌پردازی و تخیلات هم بهره گرفته میشود. اما دریغ است که در سرزمین علم و عالم‌پرور ایران، با آن سابقة درخشان علمی، فرهنگی و تاریخی که حتی ستایش انبوهی از مستشرقان و ایران‌شناسان را برانگیخته است، نه‌تنها در معرفی و معارفه شایستة، میراث علمی و معنوی آن، تلاش جدی صورت نمیگیرد، بلکه گاه در نشان دادن جایگاه واقعی آن چهره و واقعیتهای تاریخی مربوط به میراث علمی‌مان، کاهلی و خطا نیز راه می‌یابد. در مقام و مرتبة علمی ابن‌سینا، بویژه در عرصة دانش پزشکی هیچ تردیدی نیست، اما قبل از این وجهه و صبغة مشهور و متداول، باید مقام و نقش ابن‌سینا در عرصة وجه عقلانی و صورت درخشان خرد ایرانی و اسلامی، مورد التفات و تأمل صاحبان و جویندگان علم قرار گیرد. دربارة اندیشه‌های فلسفی و ابواب مختلف حکمت سینوی، نوشته‌های فراوانی از قدیم و جدید در اختیار ماست؛ همچنین شروح و تعلیقات و تقریرهایی که از شفا و اشارات و نجات و دانشنامه علائی و تعلیقات و مباحثات و مانند اینها صورت گرفته، کمّاً و کیفاً قابل توجه و بعضاً درخشان است، لیکن دربارة خاستگاهها و مبادی نظری و نوآوریهای فلسفی و حکمی شیخ، بویژه دیدگاههای سنجشگران، او با لحاظ فلسفة مشائی و سنت ارسطویی، همچنان ناگفته‌های بسیاری وجود دارد. بلحاظ دسته‌بندیهای مسالک و مشارب فلسفی، قرار دادن ابن‌سینا در ذیل یا امتداد مکتب فلسفی مشاء، به اعتباری درست و به اعتباراتی نادرست است. به اعتبار اخذ و اقتباس بسیار فارابی و ابن‌سینا از عناصر فلسفه ارسطو و اتباع او و تصدیق برخی مبانی و روشها و نتایج این مشرب فلسفی، اندراج وی ذیل فیلسوفان مشاء درست است، اما در فاصله گرفتن آنها از فضای مسلک مشائی و نقدهای بسیاری که بر دیدگاههای هستی‌شناختی، معرفت‌شناختی، معادشناختی و علم‌النفس این سنت فلسفی وارد ساخته، هنوز پژوهش جامع و کاملی صورت نگرفته است. بگفتة خود ابن‌سینا، «حکمت مشرقی» وی مشتمل بر مبانی کاملاً متفاوت از سنت مشائی است و بنا بر گزارش ابوعبید جوزجانی، شاگرد او، تنها در کتاب الانصاف شیخ‌الرئیس، صدها ایراد بر دعاوی مشائی مطرح و گردآوری شده بود. همین عدم التفات جامع به فلسفة سینوی است که اسباب خطای بسیاری از خاورشناسان و مورخان فلسفة اسلامی را فراهم ساخته است: غفلت یا نادیده انگاشتن عناصر غیرمشائی حکمت سینوی از یکسو و عدم التفات به پیوستگی و استمرار تاریخی حیات فلسفة اسلامی، از سوی دیگر. قرار دادن متفکر و فیلسوف در گفتمان فلسفی عصر او و لحاظ تفکر تاریخی بمنظور یافتن مبادی و مبانی و پرسشهای محوری وی، امری بایسته است که اختصاص به ابن‌سینا ندارد. این رهیافت در سنت تاریخ‌نگاری فلسفة غرب پیشینة نسبتاً زیادی دارد و ازاینرو مورخان فلسفه عموماً، نسبتها و پیوستگیهای فکری و فرهنگی را از نظر دور نمیدارند. اکنون بازخوانی مختصات تاریخی و جغرافیايی عصر ابن‌سینا و پرسشها و چالشهایی که بویژه در نسبت با فلسفة شایع با آنها مواجه بوده است، احتمالاً راه را برای درک و معرفی دقیق صورت عقلانیت سینوی هموار میکند؛ عقلانیتی که پیش‌فرض آن به‌اندازة تمایز وجود از ماهیت و امکان از وجوب، اهمیت داشته و یقیناً نتایج و دستاوردهایی متفاوت از فلسفة مشاء و اتباع آن دربرخواهد داشت. بهمین اندازه دربارة تأثیر نگاه و رهیافت غیرمشائی ابن‌سینا در ادوار بعدی و حتی نقش وی در تاریخ فلسفة غرب نیز نیاز به بازخوانی احساس میشود؛ از آن جمله است چرايی اقبال تفکر اواخر قرون وسطی و دورة جدید به شیوة تفکر ابن‌رشد و ابن‌رشدیان و دور شدن از تفکر ابن‌سینا و بطور خاص، فاصلة وی از سنت مشائی و مکتب ارسطو. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Genealogy and Identity of the World of Suspended Ideas in Illuminationist Philosophy
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      The theory of suspended ideas is one of Suhrawardī’s most important philosophical innovations. Several challenging queries have been ventured regarding this theory; for example, questions have been raised about the identity of this world in the hierarchy of the realms o Full Text
      The theory of suspended ideas is one of Suhrawardī’s most important philosophical innovations. Several challenging queries have been ventured regarding this theory; for example, questions have been raised about the identity of this world in the hierarchy of the realms of being. This question, in its Illuminationist sense, has been posed as follows: Is the identity of this world of the type of light, darkness, or a combination of both of them? Another question asks whether this theory is related to the legacy of Islamic philosophy, wisdom, and kalām, and to which views it leads in its genealogical sense in the history of these three disciplines. The findings of the present study indicate that the discussions of the faculty of imagination in Fārābī’s philosophy, imagination and spherical souls in Ibn Sīnā’s philosophy, the belief in Purgatory in Islamic kalām, and the theory of allegory in gnosis are the philosophical and ideological legacies which have influenced the explanation of this theory. On the other hand, resorting to Suhrawardī’s principles and arguments to explain this theory and the identity of the world of Ideas indicates that the existents of the world possess collective modal ideas and both luminous and dark identities. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - A Critique of Innate Ideas in Descartes’ Philosophy Based on Sadrian Principles
      Maryam  Samadieh عبدالرزاق  حسامی فر
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      Descartes believed in the existence of innate ideas in human beings. He maintained that the idea of God is the most important of such ideas which He, similar to a dexterous craftsman, has imprinted on our primordial nature (fitrah). The interpreters of Cartesian philoso Full Text
      Descartes believed in the existence of innate ideas in human beings. He maintained that the idea of God is the most important of such ideas which He, similar to a dexterous craftsman, has imprinted on our primordial nature (fitrah). The interpreters of Cartesian philosophy have adopted various methods to interpret the place of innate ideas in Descartes’ philosophy. Based on one of these interpretations, these ideas potentially exist and are present in the soul prior to experiencing them, and their appearance and actuality comes after their sense perception. However, based on another interpretation, the innateness of ideas does not necessarily indicate their permanent presence in the mind as, in this case, no idea can ever be innate. Rather, it means that we are capable of creating such ideas and can perceive their truth through sufficient mental and rational contemplation and needless of the knowledge acquired through the senses. It seems that the first interpretation conforms more to Descartes’ own view as to the potential existence and presence of such ideas. Accordingly, it is inferred that the existence of innate ideas in its Cartesian sense is not consistent with Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical principles because he denies the existence of any kind of concept and judgement prior to experiencing them in the mind. Moreover, based on Sadrian principles, the human soul is a corporeal substance void of any kind of concept and judgement at the beginning of its creation, but it gradually develops through its trans-substantial motion until it reaches the level of intellectual immateriality. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Study of the Illuminationist Elements of Ibn Sīnā’s Works in the Realms of Method, Content, and Language
      Saeed  Rahimian
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      Although Ibn Sīnā was the master of Peripatetic philosophers, he also provided the bases for the development of Illuminationist philosophy. In terms of methodology and epistemology, through introducing Oriental wisdom, which, irrespective of the Greeks’ views, is his ow Full Text
      Although Ibn Sīnā was the master of Peripatetic philosophers, he also provided the bases for the development of Illuminationist philosophy. In terms of methodology and epistemology, through introducing Oriental wisdom, which, irrespective of the Greeks’ views, is his own specific school of philosophy, and also through employing certain terminology, principles, and arguments which are associated with Illuminationism, he prepared the context for the revival and growth of Illuminationist philosophy by Suhrawardī. Ibn Sīnā’s critical mind and spiritual worthiness during his short life efficiently paved the way for the surge of Islamic philosophy and wisdom towards Illuminationist philosophy and then the Transcendent Philosophy in terms of methodology, content, and language. Suhrawardī mainly emphasizes the differences between his school of philosophy and that of Ibn Sīnā and his Peripatetic followers and introduces the beginning of his philosophy as the end of Peripatetic philosophy. However, we can confidently claim that his philosophy is to such a large extent influenced by Ibn Sīnā’s that one can consider Suhrawardī’s school to have been the outcome of the natural growth of Sinan philosophy in the course of time. Through highlighting gnostic and intellectually intuitive (or what was later called Illuminationist) elements in Ibn Sīnā’s available works, the present paper aims to demonstrate that Suhrawardī’s debt to Ibn Sīnā in all the three fields of methodology, content, and language is much greater than what is commonly assumed. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Anthropological Principles of Hobbes and Spinoza on Government (A Historical Overview)
      Bayan Karimy Seyyed Mustafa  Shahraeini
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their v Full Text
      Hobbes and Spinoza are among the philosophers who believe in the necessity of dealing with political philosophy. They maintain that their political philosophies are systematically related to metaphysics and the anthropology that originates in it. In this regard, their views are clearly different from those of their predecessors and even from those of Descartes, who is almost contemporary with them. Spinoza has been influenced by Hobbes in some respects; however, because of the differences between the logic and general philosophy of each of them, there are some noteworthy differences between these two philosophers’ anthropological interpretations and the functions of their political philosophy. The main purpose of the present paper is to highlight the historical background of political philosophy in ancient Greece, particularly during the Middle Ages. While challenging this historical background, it also aims to discover the explicit and implicit metaphysical and anthropological principles and assumptions underlying the views of Hobbes and Spinoza regarding a desirable government and report the differences and similarities between them. The authors intend to demonstrate that Spinoza’s political philosophy is based on ethics and reason. The distinctive feature of his philosophy is its love of human beings and reason. On the other hand, Hobbes’ political philosophy is based on the senses, and its distinctive feature is having a pessimistic view of human beings and presenting a material interpretation of their nature. Accordingly, the principle of preserving the essence in Hobbes’ view is limited to preserving the body, and a superior government means absolute monarchy, the sole purpose of which is protecting the lives of its citizens and establishing security in society. Nevertheless, in Spinoza’s view, protecting the essence is beyond the protection of the body and extends to reason, perhaps even more than the body, because human essence mainly depends on their reason rather than their body. Hence a superior government in Spinoza’s view is of a democratic nature. He also emphasizes the role of government in promoting the human culture and the necessity of educational and ethical policy-making. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Study of the Rule of the One from the Viewpoint of Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī
      Rohollah Adineh Fatemeh Babaeiy Adeleh Fallah
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      The rule of the one or al-wāḥid (nothing proceeds from the one, but one) is one of the most fundamental rules which is referred to in philosophy and, particularly, in discussions on the quality of the creation of the world. This principle has provoked several debates in Full Text
      The rule of the one or al-wāḥid (nothing proceeds from the one, but one) is one of the most fundamental rules which is referred to in philosophy and, particularly, in discussions on the quality of the creation of the world. This principle has provoked several debates in the history of philosophy, and many philosophers have resorted to it when explaining their own cosmological views. However, some philosophers have found it completely inconsistent with the absolute power and will of Almighty Truth and harshly criticized it. Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī is one of the scholars, who, in spite of being a well-known philosopher and presenting a great number of innovative ideas, has not received the attention that he truly deserves. He studied the “rule of the one” extensively and intended to demonstrate it based on several rational and traditional arguments and through resorting to various Qur’anic verses and narrations. Following a descriptive-analytic method and based on several historical documents, the present study initially explores the origin of the rule of the one and its historical development among philosophers. Next, it presents the view of Mīrzā Mahdī Āshtīyānī regarding the rule of the one and analyzes and examines his rational and traditional arguments. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Purpose of Rational Training in Heraclitus’ Logos-Centered Philosophy
      Maryam Barati Rezaali Norozy
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      The purpose of the present study is to introduce some practical solutions to the problem of transgression in society through benefitting from the teleology of the rational training of Heraclitus, the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. This qualitative study was carried out Full Text
      The purpose of the present study is to introduce some practical solutions to the problem of transgression in society through benefitting from the teleology of the rational training of Heraclitus, the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. This qualitative study was carried out following Frankena’s practical syllogism. In doing so, the researchers firstly investigated Heraclitus’ works and extracted the related discussions. Next, in order to gain access to the ultimate and intermediary goals of rational training, they considered an initial must as the premise of the first deduction and, then, based on a realist philosophical proposition as the second premise of the practical syllogism, its conclusion, which is the same ultimate goal of rational training in Heraclitus’ logos-centered philosophy, was extracted. Finally, based on this ultimate goal and other philosophical principles, they inferred the intermediary goals of Heraclitus’ rational training and, given the findings, presented some strategies for establishing the culture of normativeness. The findings of the study indicate that the end of rational training in Heraclitus’ view is to connect to logos (universal intellect) and to learn about it so that Man can discover the principles and rules of the universal intellect, move ahead accordingly, and attain perfection. Hence, it can be said that attaining the knowledge of laws is the first goal in the process of solving the problem of norm-breaking and moving towards the ideal society based on the laws. Moreover, given the intermediary goals of Heraclitus’ rational training, it can be concluded that, in order to attain knowledge and act according to the norms, rational training must be realized at three levels: cognitive, including self-knowledge and social understanding; strategic, including reference-orientedness, and ethical, including fighting against whims and developing good behavior. In this way, one can overcome the problem of transgression or norm-breaking. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Theoretical Changes about the Faculty of Estimation in the Course of Historical Development of Islamic Philosophy
      Mohammad-Ali  Ardestani
      Issue 1 , Volume 12 , Summer 2021
      The faculty of estimation is one of the inner, particular, and perceptive powers of the soul that plays a significant role in particular cognitions, and without which it is impossible to organize and balance life affairs. Its potential of transcending the realm of meani Full Text
      The faculty of estimation is one of the inner, particular, and perceptive powers of the soul that plays a significant role in particular cognitions, and without which it is impossible to organize and balance life affairs. Its potential of transcending the realm of meanings has placed it on top of all inner particular powers. Following a descriptive-analytic evaluation method, the present paper examines the development of the views of Muslim philosophers in this regard. Three important theories stand out in this process. In their quest to attribute a specific source to each kind of perception, Peripatetic philosophers consider the faculty of estimation to be independent from others, place it alongside the faculties of sensation, imagination, and intellect, and emphasize that it can perceive the nature of all specific universals. Accordingly, perceptions are divided in two four sensory, imaginative, estimative, and rational types. Among the followers of the Transcendent Philosophy, some philosophers such as Mullā Hādī Sabziwārī have advocated the Peripatetics on this ground, but Mullā Ṣadrā and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī have criticized this theory each in their own way. Mullā Ṣadrā has promoted the faculty of estimation to the level of the intellect and placed it at the level of revealed intellect. Accordingly, perceptions are divided into three sensory, imaginative, and rational types. However, ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī has attributed the faculty of estimation to the common sense and demoted its status to the level of the senses. He acknowledges the unity of sensory, imaginative, and estimative perceptions. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Issue 3 , Volume 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech Full Text
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Issue 1 , Volume 8 , Summer 2017
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek Full Text
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript Document

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      3 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Issue 1 , Volume 6 , Summer 2015
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir Full Text
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript Document

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      4 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Issue 4 , Volume 6 , Spring 2016
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged Full Text
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Reflection of the Philosophy of Amesha Spenta in Suhrawardi’s Theory of Archetypes
      Nadia  Maftouni Morteza  Darrudi Jawan
      Issue 4 , Volume 8 , Spring 2018
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta Full Text
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bandhesh, and other scientific and analytic texts, the authors have searched for them in Suhrawardi’s works. They have extracted and enumerated all the cases in which explicit references have been made to amesha spenta and their general and specific features. After calculating the frequency of the features and signs of each amesha spenta, they have provided a content and conceptual analysis for them. Among the findings of this study are determining the number of explicit references to amesha spenta and the relative order of the frequency of the signs based on the order of amesha spenta, referring to the five-fold amesha spenta as accidental intellects based on their archetypal functions, providing a collection of the strongest signs in Persian texts, and reminiscing about Iranian mythical heroes. Manuscript Document

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      6 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Issue 4 , Volume 5 , Spring 2014
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The Full Text
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Issue 3 , Volume 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei Full Text
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Issue 3 , Volume 6 , Winter 2016
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Full Text
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Farabi and his Distinction between Existence and Quiddity
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 3 , Volume 5 , Winter 2015
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn S Full Text
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn Sina, because of their epistemological rupture with Greek tradition, sought to understand being differently from Aristotle and, in a way, abstained from reducing the question of being to the question of the whatness of objects. In addition to a conceptual and logical distinction, Farabi managed to develop and present an ontological distinction in the field of philosophy. Ibn Sina expanded it so vastly that some might consider this theory as one of his own philosophical achievements. After the problem of the evidence and principliality of existence, the quality of the relationship between existence and quiddity turned out to be one of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy. At the beginning, under the influence of dividing being into necessary and possible types, Muslim philosophers tried to explain the fundamental difference between them through explaining the relationship between quiddity and existence. As a result, they considered two propositions as the basis of two interpretations of existence and the explanation of its relationship with quiddity. The theory of the synthetic nature of quiddative existents in terms of their existence and quiddity, the existence’s being superadded or accidental to quiddity, and the distinction between existence and quiddity in existents are the views that emerged in Islamic philosophy with Farabi and gradually came to the fore as the most important discussions concerning existence. Furthermore, Farabi’s discussion concerning the individuation of quiddities and the criterion for individuation, which was later accepted by all Islamic philosophers and emphasized by them, was developed under the influence of the above theories. In this paper, the writer has initially tried to provide a correct understanding of the theory of distinction through clarifying its fundamental bases. Then he has clarified its ontological and philosophical consequences and highlighted the importance of this theory in Islamic philosophy. Such an explanation necessitates an extensive investigation of Farabi’s ideas about existence, the meaning of existence, and the existence-quiddity relation. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Farabi and a Philosophical Reading of al-Huruf
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 2 , Volume 7 , Autumn 2016
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important ph Full Text
      The book al-Huruf has never been approached from a philosophical standpoint. Unlike the common belief, it is not a purely linguistic work and, rather, enjoys great significance regarding its philosophical aspect. Al-Huruf is considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of Farabi, and most of the studies conducted on this book emphasize that it is merely a commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. That is why Farabi’s innovations have been disregarded there. This book is of great importance not only because of its focus on linguistic principles but also because of its discussing the relationships between language and philosophy, religion and philosophy, and everyday language and philosophical language. Here, the writer also reveals the nature of the 200-year conflicts between kalam, philosophy, syntax, and logic in the world of Islam. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze two fundamental principles and evaluate the related views. Therefore, the writer initially attends to the general and philosophical status and writing style of al-Huruf and explains the related ideas. This book is, first and foremost, a reaction to the enemies of philosophy and rationalist trends in understanding religion. Farabi begins the book with linguistic discussions and, then, in the light of his introduction, spells out the intricacies of logical and epistemological theories, and finally clarifies the nature of ontological thoughts. In this book, he discusses how ignoring fundamental linguistic principles could harm ontological and epistemological discussions. He also illustrates how linguistic studies could demystify philosophical principles and grant them more depth and essence. Second, in addition to examining the structure of al-Huruf, the writer tries to explore Farabi’s fundamental doctrine of reconciliation. In doing so, he begins with an analysis of the two schools of Kufa and Basrah and then reviews the mentioned doctrine. In the second part of this book, Farabi demonstrates in two chapters on the unity of philosophy and religion (al-Silah bayn al-falsafah wal millah) that there is no choice but to defend the doctrine of reconciliation. He emphasizes that an irrational religion is nothing but fantasy and maintains that the fundamental principles of religion are based on the intellect and reasoning. In his view, neither Abu Bishr nor Abu Saeid had grasped the significance of this view. Matta Ibn Yunus was not merely a representative of logic and wisdom; rather, he and his companions and advocates relied only on autonomous reasoning, which Farabi found insufficient. In contrast, Abu Saeid was not merely a representative of syntax as advocated by the School of Baghdad, but, in company with several people who defended a purely religious approach, he opposed the role of reason in understanding and justifying religious beliefs. In this book Farabi tries to pose and develop a third theory based on analyzing these two approaches. Manuscript Document
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