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List of subject articles New findings regarding the development of ancient western philosophy (Greek and Hellenistic Philosophies)


    • Open Access Article

      1 - Purpose of Rational Training in Heraclitus’ Logos-Centered Philosophy
      Maryam Barati Rezaali Norozy
      The purpose of the present study is to introduce some practical solutions to the problem of transgression in society through benefitting from the teleology of the rational training of Heraclitus, the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. This qualitative study was carried out More
      The purpose of the present study is to introduce some practical solutions to the problem of transgression in society through benefitting from the teleology of the rational training of Heraclitus, the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. This qualitative study was carried out following Frankena’s practical syllogism. In doing so, the researchers firstly investigated Heraclitus’ works and extracted the related discussions. Next, in order to gain access to the ultimate and intermediary goals of rational training, they considered an initial must as the premise of the first deduction and, then, based on a realist philosophical proposition as the second premise of the practical syllogism, its conclusion, which is the same ultimate goal of rational training in Heraclitus’ logos-centered philosophy, was extracted. Finally, based on this ultimate goal and other philosophical principles, they inferred the intermediary goals of Heraclitus’ rational training and, given the findings, presented some strategies for establishing the culture of normativeness. The findings of the study indicate that the end of rational training in Heraclitus’ view is to connect to logos (universal intellect) and to learn about it so that Man can discover the principles and rules of the universal intellect, move ahead accordingly, and attain perfection. Hence, it can be said that attaining the knowledge of laws is the first goal in the process of solving the problem of norm-breaking and moving towards the ideal society based on the laws. Moreover, given the intermediary goals of Heraclitus’ rational training, it can be concluded that, in order to attain knowledge and act according to the norms, rational training must be realized at three levels: cognitive, including self-knowledge and social understanding; strategic, including reference-orientedness, and ethical, including fighting against whims and developing good behavior. In this way, one can overcome the problem of transgression or norm-breaking. Manuscript profile
    • Open Access Article

      2 - Middle Platonism: Introduction and Analysis of Religious and Philosophical Theorems
      Mahbobeh  Hadina
      Middle Platonism is one of the most important philosophical-religious schools of the first century BC. While claiming to revive the original Platonic school, it is rooted in the fundamental epistemological and philosophical theorems of that time including the essence of More
      Middle Platonism is one of the most important philosophical-religious schools of the first century BC. While claiming to revive the original Platonic school, it is rooted in the fundamental epistemological and philosophical theorems of that time including the essence of the One, God as Creator, descent of the soul, rational knowledge, and salvation. A study of middle Platonists’ works reveals that the philosophical principles of this school are mainly based on a reinterpretation of certain religious-philosophical theorems of Platonic, Stoic, Pythagorean, and gnostic schools. In fact, a clear trace of the concern for explaining the problem of the oneness and transcendence of the essence of Almighty, the quality of the creation of the world, and the presence of evil therein can be witnesses in the works of the philosophers that advocate the mentioned schools. The fundamental principles of middle Platonism are basically religious, and this school is mainly concerned with such topics as the duality of the essence of divinity in two concepts, God as the Maker or Creator of the world, the duality of the spiritual and material origin of Man and the descent of the soul, cosmology and the material structure and fate of the world, eschatology with an emphasis on the theorem of Man’s salvation through rational knowledge, and finally the discussion of ethics and the definition of its practical frameworks for attaining rational perfection, which is necessary for salvation. The present paper aims to explain and provide a comparative analysis of the principles and quality of the formation of the philosophical theorems of Middle Platonism as a philosophical-religious school. Manuscript profile