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    In order to expand and spread research in various fields of philosophy, history of philosophy, and comparative studies of philosophical schools, Scientific Society of History of Philosophy has recently published the first volume of the first specialized quarterly on the history of philosophy. The Journal of History of Philosophy publishes papers on the topics related to the history of philosophy, schools of philosophy, comparative studies, etymology of philosophical schools and theories, relationships among philosophical theories and contextual conditions, etc.

    The people involved in the publication of the History of Philosophy Quarterly consist of the following

     

    Permission holder: Scientific Society of History of Philosophy

    Publisher: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Director: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

    Editor-in-chief: Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

     

    Editorial Board

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Fathullah Mojtabaei, Tehran University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Nasrullah Hekmat, Shahid Beheshti University

    Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki, Tehran University

    Hamidreza Ayatollahi, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari, ‘Allameh Tabatabai’i University

    Muhammed Taqi Rashed Mohassel, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Abdurrazzaq Hesamifar, Imam Khomeini International University


    Recent Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Editor's Note
      Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      از زمره مقاطع حساسّ و درخشان تاريخي كه از قضا بطور خاص با تاريخ فلسفه پيوند مستقيم دارد، قرن پنجم پيش از ميلاد با محوريّت و ميدانداري دو تمدّن اصلي ايران و يونان است. البته آگاهي ما از اين دوره شوربختانه يكسويه است و عمدتاً متكّي بر نوشته‌ها، منابع و گزارشهاي مورخان يون More
      از زمره مقاطع حساسّ و درخشان تاريخي كه از قضا بطور خاص با تاريخ فلسفه پيوند مستقيم دارد، قرن پنجم پيش از ميلاد با محوريّت و ميدانداري دو تمدّن اصلي ايران و يونان است. البته آگاهي ما از اين دوره شوربختانه يكسويه است و عمدتاً متكّي بر نوشته‌ها، منابع و گزارشهاي مورخان يوناني است و از اين سو، يعني جهان ايراني و بطور خاص سرزمين پارس، هيچگونه مدركي در اختيار ما نيست و اگر هست، براي عرصه تاريخ‌نگاري و مستندسازي كارآيي چنداني ندارد. قرن پنجم را عصر طلايي و شكوفايي فرهنگ و تمدن يوناني ناميده‌اند و البته كه در اين تعبير و توصيف حقيقتي نهفته است: در آن دوره، بجز شماري از فيلسوفان، مجموعه‌يي از هنرمندان، شاعران، دانشمندان، نويسندگان و سياستمداران مهم و تأثيرگذار ظهور كردند كه آثار قلمي و معنوي آنان امروز نيز با گذشت بيش از 25 قرن، همچنان در مركز توجّه هر پژوهش علمي و تاريخي و فرهنگي است. هرچند از فيلسوفان آن دوره ـ موسوم به پيشاسقراطيان ـ بلحاظ آثار مكتوب، بغير از پاره نوشته‌ها، كتاب و دفتر و رساله منظّم و كاملي در اختيار نداريم، اما همين مقدار اندك و پراكنده هم براي تاريخ فلسفه و خود فلسفه، منبعي سرشار از تفكّر و تأمّلات عميق نظري است و دور نيست كه هر يك از آنان بعنوان آموزگار فلسفه براي ادوار بعدي خوانده شوند. دربارة نقش و سهم ساير دانشمندان و هنرمندان بسيار گفته‌اند و نوشته‌اند و امروزه در نوشته‌هاي مختصر و مفصّل نويسندگان غربي، بعنوان نياي پرافتخار فرهنگ، از آنان همچون پشتوانه درازدامن تاريخي ياد ميشود. نقد و ارزيابي آثار علمي و فرهنگي آن دوره با عنوان تمدن يوناني از جهات مختلفي قابل تأمل است كه به برخي از آن جهات در قالب ملاحظه مقدماتي اشاره ميشود: 1. در عنوان «سرزمين يونان» و «فرهنگ يوناني» قدري مسامحه و اغماض وجود دارد. چنانكه ميدانيم، سرزميني كه امروزه با نام كشور يونان شناخته ميشود، در قديم مشتمل بر مجموعه‌يي از جزاير و مناطق مستقل و نيمه‌مستقلاً بوده است كه عمدتاً در سواحل مديترانه و تركيه امروزي ـ آسياي صغير ـ بصورت كولونيها و مستعمره‌نشينها پراكنده شده و به‌اعتبار مهاجرت ساكنان يونان مركزي ـ آتيكا ـ به مناطق يوناني‌نشين آن دوره، شهرت يافتند. شايد عامل زباني نيز بيتأثير نبوده است، بطوريكه زبانهاي محلي جزاير و مناطق پراكنده آن عصر، پس از مدتي به زبان ـ و البته فرهنگ ـ عمومي يونان قديم خو گرفتند. گذشته از اين، نزاع و مناقشات سياسي و نظامي ميان آن مناطق، همواره در طول قرن پنجم بر قرار بوده است كه مشهورترين نمونه آن، نزاع و رقابت مستمر ميان آتن و اسپارت، بعنوان سمبل تقابل دو فرهنگ و نظام سياسي عصر باستان تلقي شده است. بدين ترتيب، چيزي بنام «دولت واحد» و حتي «وحدت سياسي» تحت عنوان «امپراتوري يونان»، عاري از واقعيت است و اين سرزمينهاي پراكنده، رقيب و حتي دشمن يكديگر، تنها در نقاطي خاص براي حفظ منافع و در مقابل دشمن مشترك به يكديگر نزديك ميشده‌اند و لذا اطلاق مفهومي واحد و يكدست بر اين قطعات متكثّر و عمدتاً ناسازگار، خالي از مسامحه نيست. 2. در مورد فيلسوفان و مكاتب و نحله‌هاي فلسفي نيز همين ملاحظه جاري است. بغير از كساني چون سقراط و افلاطون، اغلب يا تمامي چهره‌هاي شاخص فلسفي پيش و پس از سقراط، عمدتاً به خارج از قلمرو يونان مركزي تعلق داشتند و در آتن، بعنوان مهاجر و احياناً شهروند درجه دوم محسوب ميشدند. مشهود است كه ارسطو بعنوان بيگانه و مهاجر، براي تأسيس مدرسه خود به خارج از شهر آتن كوچ كرد و در طول فعاليت علمي خود، همواره تحت نظر حاكميت و رقباي خود قرار داشت. اين موضوع در مورد نويسندگان و دانشمندان و هنرمندان نيز صادق است و كمتر چهره‌يي در اين عرصه‌ها را ميشناسيم كه از سرزمين اصلي و مركزي يونان آن عصر، بر آمده باشد. نظير اين موقعيت در دنياي قديم را ميتوان شهر اسكندريه در شمال آفريقا نام بُرد. پس از افول و زوال قدرت سياسي و فرهنگي آتن، جمعيت زيادي از دانشمندان راه اسكندريه را در پيش گرفتند و در آنجا مدارس و حلقه‌هاي علمي، يكي پس از ديگري شكل گرفتند. چنانكه روشن است اطلاق عنواني مانند «تمدن اسكندريه» نيز خالي از اشكال نيست. بهر روي، فارغ از ملّيت و تعّلق افراد به آب و خاك و سرزمين مادري، سخن ما در تحليل و سنجش اصطلاح «تمدن يوناني» با تمركز بر قابلّيت و استعدادهاي ذاتي و جبلّي آنست كه در قياس با تمدنهاي ديگري، نظير هند، چين، مصر و ايران، نياز به بازخواني دارد. براي نمونه، موقعيت و شرايط امپراتوري پارس در همان عصر و برخورداري آن از وحدت سياسي و فرهنگي، دست‌كم در بازه زماني دويست سال حاكميت هخامنشيان، براي چنين مقصدي ميتواند مَدد رساند. ملاحظات ديگر در اين زمينه را به يادداشت بعدي واميگذاريم. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Philanthropia in Ancient Greece and its Relationship with Paideia
      Majid Mollayousefi Maryam Samadieh
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      The present paper investigates the relationship between philanthropia and paideia based on the texts of classical Greece. The term “philanthropia” was first used in a play called Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus and was later used repeatedly in some of the literary and phi More
      The present paper investigates the relationship between philanthropia and paideia based on the texts of classical Greece. The term “philanthropia” was first used in a play called Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus and was later used repeatedly in some of the literary and philosophical works of the Classical Greece. In this play, philanthropy has been attributed to Prometheus because he stole fire from Zeus to give it to human beings and save them from destruction. In the comedy Peace by Aristophanes, the god Hermes has been introduced as philanthropist because he makes it possible for the humankind to access peace. In Isocrates’ speech, the term philanthropist is applied to political leaders and people who posses the highest level of virtues and share such gifts as knowledge with others. Moreover, in the fourth book of Laws, Plato introduces Cronos a philanthropist because, during his reign, he tried to consolidate the pillars of culture and civilization in society. In the dialogue Euthyphro, Socrates considers himself to be a philanthropist because he shares his knowledge with others. As attested by Aristotle, philanthropia is an essential and intrinsic quality; however, it develops a knowledge-based form through paideia. On the other hand, those existents who are called philanthropists try to develop paideia and spread it in their society. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - An Analytic Critique of the Reductionist Approach to Islamic Philosophy
      Zahra  Mazaheri Seyyed Mohammad Kazem  Alavi
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      One of the recent debates regarding Islamic philosophy focuses on its originality and the questions of the “possibility of Islamic philosophy”. This identity-related problem has a significant effect on the history and future of Islamic philosophy. The view of the oppone More
      One of the recent debates regarding Islamic philosophy focuses on its originality and the questions of the “possibility of Islamic philosophy”. This identity-related problem has a significant effect on the history and future of Islamic philosophy. The view of the opponents of the originality of this denomination, including Orientalists, Western historiographers, some Arab scholars, and those who are against any kind of religious philosophy can be considered to be reductionist. In their theories, they have reduced Islamic philosophy to a philosophy imitating Greek philosophy, Islamic Kalām and theology, and Arabic philosophy. Opposing Orientalists and historiographers view Greek philosophy as the base and Islamic philosophy as one of its branches. Some of the opponents believe that any attempt at establishing Islamic philosophy is in vain by insisting on the incompatibility of religion and philosophy. Moreover, by rejecting the possibility of religious philosophy, including Islamic philosophy, they maintain that the use of the word Islamic as an adjective for philosophy, as an intellectual science, is not justified and, thus, equate Islamic philosophy with Kalām and theology. Some other opponents, including Arabs, avoid the use of the phrase “Islamic philosophy”, and, by emphasizing the language of philosophical texts in Islamic tradition, call it Arabic philosophy. They limit Arabic philosophy to the Arab race and believe that this view is supported by history of philosophy. The present paper provides a critical analysis of the proponents of reductionist approaches to Islamic philosophy and aims to demonstrate and defend the necessity of its originality as a historical reality. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The Relationships Among Eros, Techne, and Philosophy in Plato’s Symposium and Phaedrus (With a Critical Emphasis on the Views of Vlastos and Nussbaum)
      Javid  Kazemi Seyyed Mohammad  Hakak Ali Naqi  Baqershahi Mohammad Raayat Jahromi
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      Eros, the Greek god of love, in addition to its different meanings in the pre-Socratic mythological and philosophical history, has been used in Plato’s philosophy in different senses. This diversity has misled its interpreters in translating it into erroneous meanings s More
      Eros, the Greek god of love, in addition to its different meanings in the pre-Socratic mythological and philosophical history, has been used in Plato’s philosophy in different senses. This diversity has misled its interpreters in translating it into erroneous meanings such as love. The present paper examines the meaning of eros in Plato’s two Dialogs of Symposium and Phaedrus and then explores its relationship with philosophy and techne. In the dialog of Symposium, after being used in some different meanings, Eros is used in the sense of the longing and desire for observing absolute beauty, which is the same philosophy. This is because in Plato’s philosophy, the difference between the Idea of the good (philosophy is a motive for viewing it) and the Idea of beauty is mentally-posited. In other words, the Ideas of the good and absolute beauty are the same truth that is viewed from two points of view. Now that dialectics – an activity in which multiple details are recognized from the one and the one from multiple details – is introduced in the dialog of Phaedrus as an instrument of techne, it can be concluded that the Platonic lover, and the philosopher cannot perceive the Idea of beauty (or the good) unless through techne. The major problems in this paper are discussed based on the views of two interpreters of Plato, Gregory Velastos and Martha Nussbaum. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The Role of Religious Beliefs of Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī in his Association with and Dissociation from the Ismā‘īlīs
      Seyyed Mohsen  Hosseini Einullah  Khademi Hoorieh Shojaee Baghini Mohammad Vahid Samimi
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      A collection of factors underlay Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s association with and dissociation from the Ismā‘īlī sect. This paper aims to disclose the role of his religious beliefs in his interactions with this religious sect. Ṭūsī’s education was completed in an atmosp More
      A collection of factors underlay Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s association with and dissociation from the Ismā‘īlī sect. This paper aims to disclose the role of his religious beliefs in his interactions with this religious sect. Ṭūsī’s education was completed in an atmosphere of Twelver Shi‘ite philosophy, but in his youth he was also disenchanted with the existing imitative beliefs and dogmatic emphasis on extrinsic features of Sharī‘ah. This led him to develop an interest in some Ismā‘īlī teachings such as their attention to the esoteric meaning of religious texts and join this sect in response to their invitation. Of course, the undesirable conditions in the political-religious geography of the east of the Islamic world had also limited Ṭūsī’s choices. Nevertheless, based on some historical reports of the time of his relationship with the Ismā‘īlīs and some of his works that had been written in conformity with Ismā‘īlī ideas, it can be said that he had some ideological disagreements with them after joining the sect. His reaction after his separation from the Ismā‘īlīs, whom he has introduced as atheists and non-Muslims in his Kalāmī books, demonstrate his ideological conflicts with this sect. In fact, Ṭūsī joined the Ismā‘īlīs in his youth because of his religious ideas and, later, separated from them for the same reason. He revealed his ideological opposition to them in his Kalāmī written works. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Aeons in Christian Gnosticism (Based of Saint Irenaeus’ Reports)
      Hojjatullah  Askarizadeh
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      Aeons are among fundamental concepts in Christian gnosticism. On the one hand, they are rooted in the myths of ancient Greek gods and, on the other hand, they originate in Platonic philosophy and school and are integrated with the elements of Christianity and the Holy B More
      Aeons are among fundamental concepts in Christian gnosticism. On the one hand, they are rooted in the myths of ancient Greek gods and, on the other hand, they originate in Platonic philosophy and school and are integrated with the elements of Christianity and the Holy Book. Therefore, a conceptual and technical explanation of Aeons is important and plays a significant role in understanding the origins of early philosophical schools and ideas. Gnosticism and its founders, such as Valentinus, precede Plotinus, the founder of Neo-Platonism; hence, a clarification of gnostic concepts and, particularly, an analysis of the emanation of existents are of great importance in this school. Moreover, the etymology of dualism in gnosticism speaks of its original and fundamental relationship with Zoroastrian wisdom and the magi’s religion in ancient Iran. Therefore, a study of this point can reveal the integration of philosophical elements in ancient Iran and ancient Greece and the New and Old Testaments. Accordingly, this paper is intended to explain the concept of Aeons and the reasons of their emergence in Christian gnosticism based on Saint Erenaus’ reports and through investigating their roots in the technical philosophical terms in ancient Greece and the New and Old Testaments. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Development of the Concept of Free Will in the View of Modern Philosophers
      Roohollah Karimi
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      The concept of free will is one of the fundamental concepts in Western metaphysical tradition. Although there are some important signs regarding the origination of this concept in Greek classical philosophy and Middle Age philosophy, it was just at the beginning of the More
      The concept of free will is one of the fundamental concepts in Western metaphysical tradition. Although there are some important signs regarding the origination of this concept in Greek classical philosophy and Middle Age philosophy, it was just at the beginning of the modern period that the role of free will in the interpretation of the world was more highlighted in the thoughts of each philosopher more than those of the previous one. It seems as if the role of rational knowledge has become gradually less important in this process while the role of free will has become more significant. Inspired by Heidegger, the author has tried to strengthen his standpoint by yielding more proofs than he has offered in order to examine the development of the concept of free will. In doing so, he starts with Descartes and, by investigating the views of Espinoza, Leibniz, Rousseau, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche, aims to analyze the quality of the development of this concept, particularly the relationship between the free will and knowledge in the modern period. The purpose is to show that the significance of free will for Schopenhauer and Nietzsche is not accidental, and the preliminary contexts of such a development had been previously and gradually paved by modern philosophers. The findings of this study indicate that, unlike the previous comments and interpretations, Nietzsche’s “will to power” is not a complement to a Schopenhaurian project but, rather, a complement to German idealism. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Question of the Consistency of Intellectual Arguments and Intuition: Evolution of Fundamental Principles
      Ghasem Pourhasan پورحسن
      Issue 1 , Vol. 13 , Summer 2023
      Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā’s philosophies are based on reason, and the further we go from these two philosophers, intuition and unveiling replace philosophical reasoning. The most important feature of the School of Isfahan is considered to be the synthesis of these two ration More
      Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā’s philosophies are based on reason, and the further we go from these two philosophers, intuition and unveiling replace philosophical reasoning. The most important feature of the School of Isfahan is considered to be the synthesis of these two rational and gnostic approaches. This school of philosophy claims to have integrated philosophical and demonstrative aspects of affairs with religious teachings and, specifically, the Imāmīyah Qur’anic-narrative thoughts. All thinkers of the School of Isfahan have comprehensively explained and extended the Imāmīyah ḥadīth or commented on them based the Qur’anic intellectual wisdom. The secretive and allegorical approach to interpretation became prevalent in Ibn Sīnā’s time; however, writing commentaries on ḥadīths and traditional thoughts are among the unique characteristics of the philosophical school of Isfahan. This method has been in use since then, and some of the prominent post-Sadrian philosophers view writing interpretations and comments on Qur’anic verses as an inseparable part of philosophical tradition. Perhaps, the only exception here who has emphasized the distinction between these two fields is ‘Allāmeh Ṭabāṭabā’ī. Nevertheless, the fundamental question here is whether the School of Isfahan, with Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical system at its center, represents a philosophical and demonstrative school of thought or depends on religious thought and employs argumentation merely to access previously-established and correct thoughts. Mullā Ṣadrā and his followers have paid attention to this problem and emphasized the consistency of these two methods. The most important questions in this discussion include the following: 1) Is the method of rational argument completely different from the religious method? 2) If they are different, which depends on which? 3) Which is the basis in Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophy: rational reasoning or defending Sharī‘ah and revealed thoughts? How could rational affairs, which can be verified or rejected, and Shar‘ī teachings, which cannot be rejected, be compatible with each other? Here, the author tries to show that Mullā Ṣadrā’s effort to establish this consistency has not been much successful. In fact, in doing so, he has had to either forget about rational reasoning or interpret the religion rationally to prove their consistency. Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Elements and Place of the Concept of Techne in Greek Ancient Philosophy with Reference to Heidegger’s View
      Hassan  Mehrnia Hossein  Latifi Mahdi  Zakeri
      Issue 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of tech More
      One of the significant and influential aspects of the philosophy of technology is the historical background of the concepts related to this field in the words of the writers and thinkers of ancient Greece. Among such concepts, the concept of techne, in the sense of technique, industry, or art, and its place in ancient Greek works is of greater importance. Martin Heidegger was one of the first thinkers who conceived of the study of the concept of techne in ancient Greece as the introduction of a distinct perception of modern technology and held a particular view in this regard. Through the study of three groups of Greek texts, the present paper initially aims to trace the main elements of the concept of techne in the view of ancient Greek writers and thinkers. Second, through investigating Heidegger’s view, it intends to reintroduce the core of his analysis of this problem. Finally, it demonstrates that, firstly, techne is a rich concept, which, given its various elements, was so attractive to Greek thinkers that they used it in their philosophical discussions; secondly, its main elements have been repeated during ancient periods. However, in some periods, due to the existing conditions and views of different thinkers, some of its elements have become more foregrounded. The writers also conclude that reducing the complicated and multi-dimensional concept of techne into a general element does not appear to be correct and accurate. Manuscript profile

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      2 - A Comparative Study of the Concept of Generation and Corruption in Aristotle and Ibn Sina
      Asghar  Salimi Naveh
      Issue 4 , Vol. 5 , Spring 2015
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The More
      The treatise On Generation and Corruption is one of the treatises on nature which Aristotle wrote in about 347-335 BC. This treatise consists of two books: in the first one, Aristotle introduces generation and corruption as two basic properties of sublunary bodies. The other properties of sublunary bodies include transformation, growth and shrinking, contact, action and interaction, and mixing, which are completely distinct from each other in Aristotle’s view. He rejects absolute generation and corruption and criticizes Empedocles’ theory of equating them with transformation. The second book is mainly devoted to a profound investigation of the four primary elements (water, earth, air, and fire), their nature, and the quality of their changing into each other. Aristotle believes that these elements come into being in a cyclical fashion and none is prior to the other. Ibn Sina divided the existents of the world into four groups of intellects or angels, angelic souls, spherical bodies, and the bodies of the world of generation and corruption. He matched the ontological distinction between immaterial beings and those beings which are coupled with matter and are subject to generation and corruption with the astronomical distinction between the spheres and the sublunary world. Ibn Sina followed Aristotle in this regard. In this paper, the authors analyze the concept of generation and corruption in bodies from the viewpoints of Aristotle and Ibn Sina. They also examine the extent of Aristotle’s influence over Ibn Sina concerning generation and corruption, as well as the latter’s innovations in this regard. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Nature of Place in the History of Islamic Philosophy
      Abdulrassoul  Oboudiat
      Issue 1 , Vol. 8 , Summer 2017
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek More
      Place enjoys some specific characteristics which are accepted by all thinkers; for example, place is the receptacle of the emplaced; the emplaced occupies place; it is impossible for two emplaced things to exist at the same time in the same place; the emplaced can seek for a place or leave it through motion; place can be divided into smaller places, etc. Accordingly, the existence of place in the outside is considered to be evident, and if there are any disagreements, they pertain to the nature of place. Now, the question is which entity possesses the above-mentioned characteristics. There are certain views which are clearly inconsistent with some of these features and are, therefore, rejected; for example, the place of a thing is the same as its matter or form. Regarding this issue, Aristotle’s view is more acceptable than others and has been confirmed by Farabi and Ibn Sina. They believe that place is the internal surface of the container which is tangent with the external surface of the contained. The next view which is supported by some well-known philosophers indicates that place is the immaterial dimension. However, the idea of some mutikallimun entailing that “place is the same imagined vacuum” is rejected in the view of philosophers because it refers to vacuum. Finally, more recent philosophers interpret place as volume. Manuscript profile

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      4 - Origin of Iranian Philosophy
      A‘ala  Torani Fariba  Rokhdad
      Issue 1 , Vol. 6 , Summer 2015
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific bir More
      Perhaps we can never exactly and positively decide where and among which people science and philosophy came into being for the first time. Neither can we fully explain how they were developed. However, what we know for certain is that they cannot have had a specific birthplace. We should never assume that a particular group of people or nation created and developed philosophy; nevertheless we can discuss which nation or people took the first steps in expanding, spreading, and promoting this invaluable field of knowledge. During the last one or two centuries, researchers and Orientologists have written different books on philosophy and the cradles of knowledge and thought which often seem to be quite subjective. Most of these thinkers have tried to introduce Greece and Europe as the origin of science and philosophy. If we wish to make a fair judgment, we should say that they made this mistake perhaps because they had no access to any of the written sources regarding the brilliant scientific achievements of the East and Middle East. However, there are several historical proofs and documents indicating that some of the well-known Greek scientists and scholars travelled to Egypt, India, Babylon, and Iran and returned to Greece with a great treasure of science, philosophy, gnosis, and illumination. There are also some authentic sources acknowledging that some philosophers such as Pythagoras and Socrates studied under the Iranian magi. Therefore, the magi philosophy of the Media in the land of Iran played a significant role in the history of philosophy and the science and gnosis of the different nations of the East and the West in the World. Some of the philosophers, such as Ostanes, Gobrias, Pazatus, and Astrampsychos, who were famous as Khosrawani philosophers or Persian sages played an important part in transferring Iranians’ knowledge to the whole world. Accordingly, this paper deals with two of these philosophers, namely, Ostanes and Gobrias. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Objectivity and Representativeness of Propositions in the Practical Philosophies of Kant and Mulla Sadra
      Hossein  Qasemi
      Issue 4 , Vol. 6 , Spring 2016
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged More
      Kant, the modern philosopher, believes that the development of Man’s moral life depends on designing a moral system the principles of which are based on reason and objectivity. In this way, it would be free from any kind of subjectivity and personal bias, which damaged the moral system of his period. The only proposition which enjoys these features is the categorical imperative. Now, the problem is how Kant justifies the objectivity and truth of this imperative. Another question is how this problem is answered in Mulla Sadra’s Islamic philosophy. In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant maintains that practical matters are rooted in the moral law and tries to justify them by resorting to practical reason and the notion of freedom. Although Kant’s discussions in the field of philosophy of ethics proceed in a way to demonstrate nomena and, particularly, freedom, he considers them to be among axioms. This means that the reality of practical reason and freedom only justify the practical possibility of moral experience and other practical fields. In other words, admitting the reality of the intellect and freedom is merely based on belief and faith, consequently, moral propositions are rational rather than cognitional. In Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, practical propositions in individual and social fields are developed based on practical reason while attending to its relationship with theoretical reason. Moreover, the realms of both theory and practice stem from the innermost of the soul and are known through presential knowledge. As a result, all mental and rational perceptions are related to the truth of the good and its grades as an ontological affair. In this way, the objectivity and truth of these propositions are justified not based on certain axioms but by resorting to the possibility of the presential knowledge of the world of fact-itself. In this paper, the writer has tried to discuss the truth and objectivity of propositions in practical philosophy through employing a comparative method and the analysis of the philosophical principles of Kant and Mulla Sadra in order to highlight the importance of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Critical Study of the Illuminationist Nature of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
      Abdolhossein  Khosropanah Hesam al-Din  Momeni Shahraki Seyyed Hamid  Forghani Dehnawi
      Issue 3 , Vol. 8 , Winter 2018
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate thei More
      One of the important problems in the field of the study of Ibn Sina is whether his philosophy is of a Peripatetic nature or an Illuminationist one. Some believe that his philosophy follows an Illuminationist approach and offer certain proofs in order to demonstrate their claim. In a general classification, it can be said that some of these proofs are based on the works of Ibn Sina himself, and some others are based on the knowledge sources he benefitted from. The writers of this paper believe that the proofs adduced on the Illuminationist nature of Ibn Sina’s philosophy are open to criticism. Therefore, they initially delve into the nature of Illuminationist philosophy and provide a concise but precise account of the proofs and reasons presented in support of the above claim. Next, they analyze and criticize them and highlight their weaknesses. This research has been carried out following an analytic critical method. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Reflection of the Philosophy of Amesha Spenta in Suhrawardi’s Theory of Archetypes
      Nadia  Maftouni Morteza  Darrudi Jawan
      Issue 4 , Vol. 8 , Spring 2018
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta More
      Following the method of content analysis, this study explores the extent of the direct and indirect effects and signs of five amesha spenta in the collection of Suhrawardi’s works. In this process, after establishing the general and particular features of amesha spenta based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bandhesh, and other scientific and analytic texts, the authors have searched for them in Suhrawardi’s works. They have extracted and enumerated all the cases in which explicit references have been made to amesha spenta and their general and specific features. After calculating the frequency of the features and signs of each amesha spenta, they have provided a content and conceptual analysis for them. Among the findings of this study are determining the number of explicit references to amesha spenta and the relative order of the frequency of the signs based on the order of amesha spenta, referring to the five-fold amesha spenta as accidental intellects based on their archetypal functions, providing a collection of the strongest signs in Persian texts, and reminiscing about Iranian mythical heroes. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Place of Justice in Plato and Farabi’s Utopia
      Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari Parviz  Hajizadeh
      Issue 1 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2014
      Justice is the key term by which Farabi has managed to explicate the foundations of the genetic system of the world. Moreover, based on the same concept and following Plato, he has entered it into the structure of utopia and justified the system of individual ethics acc More
      Justice is the key term by which Farabi has managed to explicate the foundations of the genetic system of the world. Moreover, based on the same concept and following Plato, he has entered it into the structure of utopia and justified the system of individual ethics accordingly. Here, the writers maintain that it is only through matching the system of divine legislation to creation and using it as a model in establishing individual and social relationships that Man can attain happiness, which is the ultimate end of Plato and Farabi’s utopia. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Farabi and his Distinction between Existence and Quiddity
      Ghasem  Purhassan
      Issue 3 , Vol. 5 , Winter 2015
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn S More
      One of the innovations of Farabi and Islamic philosophy is the theory of the distinction between existence and quiddity. This view was merely developed in the light of understanding the meaning of the reality of being. Islamic philosophers, particularly Farabi and Ibn Sina, because of their epistemological rupture with Greek tradition, sought to understand being differently from Aristotle and, in a way, abstained from reducing the question of being to the question of the whatness of objects. In addition to a conceptual and logical distinction, Farabi managed to develop and present an ontological distinction in the field of philosophy. Ibn Sina expanded it so vastly that some might consider this theory as one of his own philosophical achievements. After the problem of the evidence and principliality of existence, the quality of the relationship between existence and quiddity turned out to be one of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy. At the beginning, under the influence of dividing being into necessary and possible types, Muslim philosophers tried to explain the fundamental difference between them through explaining the relationship between quiddity and existence. As a result, they considered two propositions as the basis of two interpretations of existence and the explanation of its relationship with quiddity. The theory of the synthetic nature of quiddative existents in terms of their existence and quiddity, the existence’s being superadded or accidental to quiddity, and the distinction between existence and quiddity in existents are the views that emerged in Islamic philosophy with Farabi and gradually came to the fore as the most important discussions concerning existence. Furthermore, Farabi’s discussion concerning the individuation of quiddities and the criterion for individuation, which was later accepted by all Islamic philosophers and emphasized by them, was developed under the influence of the above theories. In this paper, the writer has initially tried to provide a correct understanding of the theory of distinction through clarifying its fundamental bases. Then he has clarified its ontological and philosophical consequences and highlighted the importance of this theory in Islamic philosophy. Such an explanation necessitates an extensive investigation of Farabi’s ideas about existence, the meaning of existence, and the existence-quiddity relation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - The Relationship between Ibn Sina and Peripatetic Philosophy (Historical Semantics of the Term “Peripatetic”)
      Seyyed Mohammadali  Dibaji
      Issue 3 , Vol. 6 , Winter 2016
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of More
      The term Peripatetic is used in contemporary philosophical literature to exclusively refer to the philosophical method of Aristotle, his followers, Ibn Sina, and a number of Muslim philosophers. On the other hand, Ibn Sina himself, who is considered to be the leader of Peripatetic philosophers among Muslims, has advanced certain harsh criticisms against Peripatetics and denounced them. Presently, the questions that arise in this regard are as follows: Has Ibn Sina criticized Aristotle or his followers? If his criticism of Peripatetics are not related to Aristotle, does it equally target the Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman advocates of this school and the Peripatetics of Baghdad during the Islamic Period? Can we consider his criticism of the Peripatetics to be a reason for his deviation from the Peripatetic philosophy and turning to a kind of Oriental wisdom? In the present paper, while providing a historical and semantic review of the word “Peripatetic”, the author argues that three groups of Peripatetics (friends of Lyceum, Peripatetics of the third to sixth centuries, and the friends of the House of Wisdom) can be identified in the history of philosophy. Ibn Sina criticizes all the three groups, particularly the third one. Moreover, in his view, one can remove all the defects of the Peripatetic philosophy and then define its modified version in a way that everyone not only accepts it but also pays attention to and emphasizes it. This can be a good strategy for justifying the essence of his Oriental wisdom. Manuscript profile
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