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No 35
Vol. 35 No. 9
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Ibn Sina referred to God as the Simple Intellect; however, his intended meaning of this term has been interpreted differently by Fakhr al-Din Razi, Mir Damad, and Mulla Sadra. Fakhr al-Din Razi believes that the Sinan Simple Intellect depends on the suddenness and non-temporality of God’s acquired and differentiated knowledge of existents prior to their creation. According to Mir Damad, this term denotes that God’s knowledge of existents is at the level of essence and identical with essence. He believes that this kind of knowledge is in contrast to His presential knowledge of existents and argues that the attribution of acquired knowledge to Ibn Sina is among Suhrawardi’s mistakes. Finally, Mulla Sadra states that, by the Simple Intellect, Ibn Sina means a general rather than differentiated type of acquired knowledge. In this paper, the author examines each of these interpretations along with their related proofs and, at the end, demonstrates that the correct interpretation of this term is a combination of those provided by Mulla Sadra and Fakhr al-Din Razi.
Keywords : Simple Intellect ، general knowledge ، differentiated knowledge ، God’s knowledge ، Ibn Sina ،
Following an analytic descriptive method, this paper aims to configure and briefly analyze the theory or, at least, approach of Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi regarding the management of the household and the quality of resolving family problems. Given the findings of this study, it seems that, in Tusi’s definition of family, the existence of some full-time servants at home is necessary. This definition could have been developed under the influence of Tusi’s social class. It seems that his views of the desirable economic cycle of the family and its necessary elements need to be modernized in order to become more compatible with present economic realities. The findings of this study further demonstrate that Tusi’s approach to family management is similar to that of a physician. In other words, he believes that the head of the family, as a more experienced and knowledgeable person, should diagnose the defects of the family members with a sympathetic attitude and then try to remedy them.
Masoud Sadeghi
Keywords : Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi ، Akhlaq-i Nasiri ، household management ، family ،
One of the extensive realms of tawhidi (related to oneness of God) problems pertains to the explanation of Divine Attributes. The existence of such attributes in different Qur’anic verses and traditions has always raised a serious question among Islamic mutikallimun as to which linguistic principles could assist in grasping a correct understanding of them. In the history of Muslim thinkers three main approaches have been developed regarding the explanation of Divine Attributes: The first approach is supported by anthropomorphists (mushabbaha), literalists (hashwiyyah), corporealists (mujassamah), and then revivalists (salafiyya); while interpreting the verses on attributes based on their surface meaning, they maintain that predicative Divine Attributes can be demonstrated through assimilation and qualification. The second approach is mainly prevalent among the people of hadith; while ascribing predicative attributes to God, they are content with the mere explanation of the quality of their attribution and leave the understanding of their meanings to God. Unlike the proponents of the previous two approaches, those of the third approach, despite some methodological differences in interaction with attributes whose primary appearance is in contrast with conclusive rational principles, have adopted the method of t’awil or esoteric exegesis. A group of early thinkers and, following them, the Mu‘tazilites and Shi‘ites are among the true advocates of this approach. Here, following the method of content analysis, the author intends to provide an accurate account of these three approaches and, at the same time, evaluate their efficiency.
Abdollah Mirahmadi
Keywords : semantics of Divine Attributes ، anthropomorphic approach ، delegatory approach ، hermeneutic approach ، principle of bila kayf ،
Borhan Jadal Plato Keratalous
Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
Keywords : Borhan ، Jadal ، Plato ، Keratalous
The views of Suhrawardi can be traced in the philosophy of ancient Iran. One of such views was the belief in Bahman or the first emanated. Following the method of content analysis, the authors have extracted and examined the overt and covert effects of Bahman, which is considered to be the most supreme manifestation of Ahura Mazda in the view of Zoroastrians, in Suhrawardi’s works. After deducing the general and specific features of Bahman based on Zoroastrian sources, such as Avesta and Bundahishn, they have tried to locate them in Suhrawardi’s books. Following a thorough study of all of his works, they have extracted and counted all the direct references to Amesha Spenta and all the cases referring to the general and particular features of Bahman. After calculating the related frequencies, they have carried out a content analysis and conceptual study of the existing features and signs. The findings of this study reveal the number of direct references to AmeshaSpentaBahman in the studied texts. Moreover, they show that the term Bahman is used in the same sense as the first emanated or the First Intellect and, in contrast to other AmeshaSpenta, as the head of vertical intellects based on their archetypal functions. The writers also conclude that Suhrawardi’s books contain the largest collection of references to Bahman among all Persian texts, while reminiscing some of the Iranian mythological heroes. Among the general and particular features of Bahman or the first emanated, its unity with other AmeshaSpenta has the highest frequency. This is because all signs of AmeshaSpenta enjoy this characteristic, the outcomes of which include the coexistence of all signs of AmeshaSpenta with each other and the organization dominating them. This finding by itself demonstrates that Suhrawardi pays particular attention to the meanings and functions of AmeshaSpenta in his works.
Nadia Maftouni - Morteza Darrudi Jawan
Keywords : Suhrawardi ، Amesha Spenta ، Bahman ، First Intellect ، first emanated ،

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