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No 33
Vol. 33 No. 9
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The issue of ontology and the problem of authentic and unauthentic types of being have always been debated by philosophers since the time of ancient Greece until now. Among Greek philosophers, Heraclitus, Parmenides, and Plato enjoy particular significance because of their particular theories. Heraclitus believed in flux and everlasting change of things and denied stability in being. By contrast, Parmenides denied change and believed in stability and unchangability in being. These two opposite theories were later reformulated in Plato’s theory of Ideas. He developed his particular theory by benefitting from these two theories and employed Heraclitus’ continuous flux in the world of sensibles and Parmenides’ stability of being in the world of Ideas. The present paper comparatively examines the problem of existence from the viewpoint of these three philosophers in order to clarify Plato’s agreement with his two predecessors. A comparison of the ontological views of these three Greek philosophers revealed that Parmenides’ theory of stability (way of truth) and Heraclitus’ theory of unity can be matched with Plato’s world of Ideas. Moreover, the writers conclude that Heraclitus’ theory of flux and Parmenides’ ways of inquiry are compatible with Plato’s world of sensibles.
Reza Bazeli - Mahdi Monfared
Keywords : Heraclitus ، Parmenides ، Plato ، flux ، fixed being ، theory of Ideas ،
The Greeks were familiar with Egyptian culture long before Thales in the 6th century BC and greatly benefitted from their teachings particularly in the field of mathematics. Recent studies in the realm of philosophy also indicate that Thales had a thorough knowledge of ancient Egyptian philosophy and was influenced by it in developing his own philosophical views. In ancient Egyptian philosophy, in spite of resorting to myths in order to analyze and explain the truths of the world, there are also some traces of philosophical thought in its particular sense. For example, there are some traces of pure philosophical thought in the realms of ontology, politics, sociology, and anthropology. This kind of philosophical thought is formed based on the profound and multi-dimensional concept of ma’at. This word means order in the field of ontology, justice in the field of politics and sociology, and honesty in the field of anthropology. Within the domain of anthropology, ancient Egyptians specifically believed that Man’s existence has nine grades and dimensions which enjoy a kind of unity among themselves. What has led to the final emergence of such grades, particularly the last grade called thought, and, thus, Man’s eternity, is following ma’at or the laws governing the order of being. Accordingly, they establish a tight relationship between their ontology and anthropology.
Mohammad Hossein Madad Elahee - Hossein Zamaniha
Keywords : ancient Egyptian philosophy ، Greek philosophy ، Ontology ، ma’at ، anthropology ،
The relationship between “philosophical rationality” and “revelation-oriented religiosity” or, in a sense, the domain and functions of reason in comparison to revelation and its role in guiding human beings and leading them toward happiness has always been one of the most important issues occupying the minds of Muslim thinkers. Following a problem-centered and descriptive-analytic method, the present paper examines two different methods of philosophical and religious rationalities practiced by two Iranian philosophers, Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (died in 313 AH) and Abu Hatam Abdul Rahman Razi (died in 322 AH). It also explains the quality of the confluence of the two philosophical and kalami trends of thinking with each other in the 4th Hijri century. The significance of this study lies in the fact that it clearly infers the relationship between reason, revelation, and mutual needs of philosophy and religion for each other from the confrontational debates between these two methods of rationality. The most important findings of this study are related to the typology of the rationality of these two thinkers and their standpoints regarding the problem of reason and revelation, equality and inequality of reason among people, and the role of rationality in their views of happiness.
Mahdi Ganjvar
Keywords : autonomous rationality ، revealed rationality ، Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi ، Abu Hatam al-Razi ، Happiness ،
Religion Culture Iran
Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
Keywords : Religion ، Culture ، Iran
Given its emphasis upon the text of the Holy Scripture, Thomas Aquinas’s theory of analogical theology is one of the most influential and multi-faceted theories regarding the knowledge of God and analysis of His names and attributes. Aquinas’s main purpose in discussing this issue in both of his great works, Summa Theologia and Summa Contra Gentiles, was to predicate the perfectional attributes of all creatures, including human beings as the most perfect of them, on God. He believed that this is possible by employing an analogical method of predication as opposed to equivocation and unequivocation. In this way, he attained a knowledge of the names and attributes of the Truth that enabled him to leave the negative theology of the Middle Ages behind and, in this way, avoid the trap of assimilating the Truth to the created. The essential element of Aquinas’s analogical theology is the “principle of the perfections of cause and effect”. The perfections of effect have an apriori supreme presence in the cause. There are two other principles in his works called the “argument of degrees of perfection” and the “principle of the priority of cause to effect”. He insists on attributing all these three principles to Aristotle and Ibn Rushd in order to introduce his own analogical predication as being rooted in Aristotle’s philosophy. However, the truth is that Aristotle never made any explicit reference to any of the claims made by Aquinas. Rather, the idea of God’s being above perfection and pure good, in the sense that Pure Perfection embodies all perfections of finite things, is among Ibn Sina’s achievements and innovations in theological discussions. In fact, Ibn Rushd’s words in this regard explain Ibn Sina’s theories although he wrote them in his commentaries on Aristotle’s words.
Mohammad Mahdi Gorjian - Mojtaba Afsharpour
Keywords : analogical theology ، causality ، perfections of cause and effect ، causal priority ، A Beyond-Perfection Being ، Aquinas ،

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