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No 36
Vol. 36 No. 9
2019
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In contrast to Aristotelian tradition, in Suhrawardī’s philosophy, logic loses its instrumentality regarding knowledge and its place is established after the realization of wisdom. Aristotelian philosophy includes the whole human knowledge, except the principles of knowledge, within the domain of acquired knowledge and considers knowledge to be a theoretical affair. However, through acknowledging the presential nature of knowledge, Suhrawardī extracts it from the realm of conceptual and acquired thought and maintains that it is primarily pre-theoretical. He initially attains wisdom through intuition and then adduces some arguments for it. Then, by a fundamental turn, he argues that conceptual thought is based on presential thought and emphasizes that the realm of presence is the criterion for the realm of acquisition.
mostafa abedi jige -
Keywords : Wisdom ، illumination ، logic ، instrumentality of logic ، Aristotelian tradition ، Suhrawardī ،
Ibn Sina Cultural Heritage
Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
Keywords : Ibn Sina ، Cultural Heritage
The concept of perfect nature (ṭabā ‘tāmm) has been derived from a Hermetic anecdote and, according to Illuminationists, is among nūrī (luminous) and archetypal truths. The union of the soul and archetype (intellect) is possible through purification, asceticism, and liberation from intermediate and immaterial worlds. This view, which was also shared by Abu’l-Brakāt al-Baghdādī and some others before Suhrawardī, was explained and interpreted by Mullā Ṣadrā and his students. Mullā Ṣadrā believed that perfect nature is a single intellectual form and the highest level of Man’s existence which enjoys the highest degree of immateriality. He called this level the “Holy Spirit” and emphasized that there is no difference between the soul and perfect nature and, basically, the whole identity of the human soil originates in their perfect nature. Although perfect nature is closely related to Hermetic teachings, one cannot ignore its Khosravani roots. In Mazdayasnan teachings, reference has been made to the states and modes of the soul, the most supreme of which is Fravashī or Farvahar. Fravashī is the heavenly essence or an aspect of Mīnuy-e Xerad (or spirit of wisdom) which reveals itself to ascetics and teaches them religious principles. In the present paper, after examining the views of Islamic philosophers regarding perfect nature, the authors have tried to demonstrate that this concept is rooted in the pre-eternal essence of wisdom, which, in conformity with Suhrawardī’s etymology of both Eastern (Khosravani) and Western (Hermetic) branches of philosophy, is among the most fundamental principles of epistemology. In fact, in order to attain his own illuminationist purpose, which is to revive the pre-eternal substance through posing the concept of perfect nature, Suhrawardī has brought Khosravani and Hermetic philosophies together. Mullā Ṣadrā has also advocated him in this regard.
Maryam Asadian - Babak Alikhani Alikhani
Keywords : perfect nature ، fravashī ، Illuminationist philosophy ، Sadrian philosophy ، Khosravani wisdom ،
Although Ibn Sīnā has been frequently introduced as a Peripatetic philosopher and the “Master of Peripatetic Philosophers” in the world of Islam, one might wonder if such a reading of his philosophy is absolutely correct. Undoubtedly, his major works have been written on the basis of the principles of Peripatetic philosophy. However, the question is whether one can find some indications of his departure from this school of philosophy in the same works. Ibn Sīnā neither remained a Peripatetic philosopher nor followed Peripatetic thoughts to the end of his life. Through coining the term “Transcendent Philosophy” for his own school and inviting the seekers of truths to follow it in order to have an accurate grasp of what they sought for, Ibn Sīnā added a completely new dimension to his identity. Finally, the Transcendent Philosophy reached its peak of development in Sadrian thoughts. Here, the author intends to explain the “transcendence of Sinian philosophy” and, at the same time, trace the roots of the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy in Sinian philosophy and highlight them in his works and words. Although the political occupations of Ibn Sīnā and his short life did not allow him to provide a new synthesis of such principles, he managed to pave the way for the creation of the Transcendent Philosophy by his successors.
Mostafa Momeni
Keywords : Sinian philosophy ، Transcendent Philosophy ، principiality of existence ، trans-substantial motion ، gradation of beings ،
There are several similarities among the philosophical thoughts of pre-Socratic sages and the preceding Zoroaster’s teachings. Such similarities indicate the familiarity of Greek philosophers with Zoroaster’s teachings through their contacts with eastern nations, particularly Iranians. In this paper, following a comparative method, the author intends to provide an answer to the question of how Zoroaster’s teachings influenced pre-Socratic philosophies. The findings of this study demonstrate that some thinkers such as Thales, Pythagoras, Empedocles, and, particularly, Plato developed their views under the influence of Iranian philosophical thoughts. In this regard, reference can be made to some concepts including partnership, duality, Plato’s king-sage, and Pythagoras’ views regarding spirit and numbers.
Reza Amiri
Keywords : Wisdom ، Plato ، Zoroaster ، pre-Socratic philosophers ،

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