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        1 - An Evaluation of Fakhr al-Din Razi’s Criticisms of Ibn Sina’s Definition of Time
        Mahmoud  Saidiy Seyyed Mohammad  Musawy
        Following Aristotle, Ibn Sina maintained that time is the number of motion which is attained by the continuous movement of a moving agent over a distance. He adduced two arguments in order to demonstrate his theory: one was based on the difference between the motions of More
        Following Aristotle, Ibn Sina maintained that time is the number of motion which is attained by the continuous movement of a moving agent over a distance. He adduced two arguments in order to demonstrate his theory: one was based on the difference between the motions of moving things in terms of speed, and the other was based on the divisibility of the distance of movement. In contrast, through advancing various objections, Fakhr al-Din Razi challenged this theory not only with regard to its two underlying arguments but also with respect to the theory of time being the number of motion. The present paper aims to demonstrate that Fakhr al-Din Razi’s criticisms originate in his lack of enough scrutiny of Ibn Sina’s principles, particularly regarding the opposition of non-existence and habit between motion and rest, time as necessary by the other and not necessary by itself, the difference between universal and particular times of each motion, and the existence of logical fallacy in some arguments. However, the final response to some of his criticisms are given based on the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy regarding the analytic differences between motion, time, and time as the fourth dimension of being. Manuscript profile
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        2 - Khalil Khan Thaqafi (A‘alam al-Dawlah): A Philosophical Translation concerning Time and Place
        Reza  Ranjbar
        After graduation from Dar al-Funun and before going abroad, Dr. Khalil Khan Thaqafi translated and wrote two treatises on time and place. In the first treatise, which was introduced in the previous issue of History of Philosophy Journal, he discusses the idea of finite More
        After graduation from Dar al-Funun and before going abroad, Dr. Khalil Khan Thaqafi translated and wrote two treatises on time and place. In the first treatise, which was introduced in the previous issue of History of Philosophy Journal, he discusses the idea of finite and infinite time and place. The second treatise, which is introduced in this issue, includes the translation of a short part of a huge philosophical book by Victor Cousin, the French philosopher of the 19th century, discussing whether time and place are substance or not. Manuscript profile
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        3 - Time and Place in the View of Mirza Khalil Khan Thaqafi (A‘lam al-awlah): Two Hand-Written Treatises
        Reza  Ranjbar
        Doctor Khalil Khan Thaqafi (A‘lam al-Dawlah), a physician, writer, and translator of the Qajar period and one of the first graduates of modern medicine in Iran, translated and wrote two treatises about time and place after he graduated from Dar al-Funun and before he we More
        Doctor Khalil Khan Thaqafi (A‘lam al-Dawlah), a physician, writer, and translator of the Qajar period and one of the first graduates of modern medicine in Iran, translated and wrote two treatises about time and place after he graduated from Dar al-Funun and before he went abroad. In the treatise that he wrote himself, Mirza Khalil Khan discusses the quality of the development of the idea of space, the distinction between the idea of environmental space and infinite space, the quality of the formation of the idea of infinite space, the idea of space as substance, the infinity of space with respect to its breadth and continuity, the development of the idea of time, and the idea of time as a predicate of space. In this treatise, he briefly explains and criticizes the ideas of such philosophers as Victor Cousin, Stewart Mill, and Spinoza. In the second treatise, which is a translation, he discusses whether time and place are substance or not. Manuscript profile
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        4 - Historical Time and Philosophical Time in Ibrahimi Dinani’s View
        M‘asumeh  Qorbani Anderehci
        Perception of time is of an intellectual nature, and the human mind can easily divide it into seconds and minutes, for example, and measure it. However, when speaking of the truth of time, one is in fact faced with a complex and difficult mystery. The attempts at disamb More
        Perception of time is of an intellectual nature, and the human mind can easily divide it into seconds and minutes, for example, and measure it. However, when speaking of the truth of time, one is in fact faced with a complex and difficult mystery. The attempts at disambiguating this mystery has resulted in wide-spread disagreements among philosophers and thinkers so that some of them hold that time exists while some others deny its existence. Gholam Hossein Ebrahimi Dinani, a contemporary Iranian thinker, conceives of time as an ontological entity. He has reanalyzed and reinterpreted the views of several thinkers regarding time and believes that everything in the world of being is manifested and emerges through the channel of human consciousness. He emphasizes that the relationship between Man and time is so strong that its rupture is meaningless. Dinani maintains that time has two dimensions: one is the material dimension, which is realized in the material world, and the other is the Ideal dimension, which is indeed perceived as a path towards the world of meaning. The latter, while being material, is of an Ideal nature. In his view, time in its material dimension is the same as the measure of motion, and time in the world of thought is identical with the form of human perception. Manuscript profile
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        5 - Etymology of Fourth Dimension in the View of Muslim Mutikallimūn (Abū Isḥāq Naẓẓām, Ibn al-Rāwandī, Abū Sahl ‘Abbād, and Muḥaqiq Ṭūsī)
        Mahdi Assadi
        The fourth dimension is one of the problems that have left the borderlines of philosophy behind and are now among the main concerns of physicists. However, the accurate background and history of this view are still clouded. The roots of the fourth dimension can be trace More
        The fourth dimension is one of the problems that have left the borderlines of philosophy behind and are now among the main concerns of physicists. However, the accurate background and history of this view are still clouded. The roots of the fourth dimension can be traced back to the works and ideas of some thinkers of the Middle Ages, such as Anselm, in Western philosophy, although there is no explicit reference in this regard in their works. The roots of the fourth dimension have also been found in the works of Mullā Ṣadrā in Iranian philosophical society. This paper aims to demonstrate that there are some clearly explicit statements about the fourth dimension in the works of Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī in the Islamic world before Mullā Ṣadrā. The author has found no direct statement in this respect in first-hand sources; however, some ideas have been attributed in second-hand sources to some of the mutikallimūn of the Islamic world, including Naẓẓām, Ibn Rāwandī, and ‘Abbād, that focus on four-dimensionalism. Following a historical approach, this paper has compiled the views of these thinkers and analyzed them based on a rational approach. Manuscript profile