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        1 - An Evaluation of Fakhr al-Din Razi’s Criticisms of Ibn Sina’s Definition of Time
        Mahmoud  Saidiy Seyyed Mohammad  Musawy
        Following Aristotle, Ibn Sina maintained that time is the number of motion which is attained by the continuous movement of a moving agent over a distance. He adduced two arguments in order to demonstrate his theory: one was based on the difference between the motions of Full Text
        Following Aristotle, Ibn Sina maintained that time is the number of motion which is attained by the continuous movement of a moving agent over a distance. He adduced two arguments in order to demonstrate his theory: one was based on the difference between the motions of moving things in terms of speed, and the other was based on the divisibility of the distance of movement. In contrast, through advancing various objections, Fakhr al-Din Razi challenged this theory not only with regard to its two underlying arguments but also with respect to the theory of time being the number of motion. The present paper aims to demonstrate that Fakhr al-Din Razi’s criticisms originate in his lack of enough scrutiny of Ibn Sina’s principles, particularly regarding the opposition of non-existence and habit between motion and rest, time as necessary by the other and not necessary by itself, the difference between universal and particular times of each motion, and the existence of logical fallacy in some arguments. However, the final response to some of his criticisms are given based on the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy regarding the analytic differences between motion, time, and time as the fourth dimension of being. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - A Historical-Analytic Deliberation over the Logical Meaning and Concomitants of the Principle of Possibility of the Nobler
        Seyyed Mohammad  Musawy Seyyed Abbas  Hakimzadeh Kherad Mohammad Reza  Gorgin
        According to the principle of the possibility of the nobler, which is accepted by all Islamic philosophers, the priority of superior possible over lower possible in the system of making is necessary. Given the existing evidence in the history of the evolution of philoso Full Text
        According to the principle of the possibility of the nobler, which is accepted by all Islamic philosophers, the priority of superior possible over lower possible in the system of making is necessary. Given the existing evidence in the history of the evolution of philosophical thought in the world of Islam, Suhrawardi was the first Islamic philosopher who explained and demonstrated this principle and paid attention to its dimensions and concomitants, although there are some traces of the content of this principle in Aristotle’s words. After Suhrawardī, some other philosophers such as Mīr Dāmād and Mullā Ṣadrā in the philosophical school of Isfahan and ‘Allamāh Ṭabāṭabā’ī in the contemporary period presented some arguments to prove this principle and referred to several of its consequences. Here, the authors initially report the philosophers’ arguments for demonstrating this principle and then discuss its historical development. The noteworthy point of this analysis is that, although the main content of this principle has been correctly phrased and clearly corresponds with other philosophical principles, it cannot be considered a new principle in philosophy. It is, rather, another form of the principle of the commensurability of the cause and effect. Manuscript Document