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        1 - A Study of the Idea of Crisis in Husserl’s View and its Background in the 19th Century European Philosophy
        Seyyed mas‘ud  Seyf Afshin  Mo’azzen
        At the beginning of the 20th century a vast trend which was unanimously called “the crisis of European science and culture” by its advocates emerged in Europe. Following the same trend, Husserl, one of the distinguished European thinkers of the early 20th century, intro More
        At the beginning of the 20th century a vast trend which was unanimously called “the crisis of European science and culture” by its advocates emerged in Europe. Following the same trend, Husserl, one of the distinguished European thinkers of the early 20th century, introduced phenomenology as a solution to overcome this full-scale crisis, which, in his view, dominated Europe during the second half of the 19th century. He maintained that this crisis manifested itself in the form of absence of unity and coherence in philosophy and sciences (both natural and human sciences), as well as in the alienation of sciences from people’s everyday life. Husserl argued that the roots and causes of this crisis must be sought in the scientific and philosophical approaches of the 19th century Europe. During this period and after the demise of Hegel, certain schools such as Marxism, biologism, and historical hermeneutics appeared under the influence of Hegelian schools and the idea of historical relativism that they advocated. A common feature of all of them was their interest in relativism. Each of these schools, through negating the possibility of achieving a single and certain truth and also relativising it based on its own principles provided the context for the development of the above-mentioned crisis. After disclosing the nature of crisis in the philosophical principles of the West and through presenting a critical interpretation of Cartesian fundamentalism. Husserl suggested a method called “phenomenological interpretation” in order to have access to a solid and unifying basis for sciences. In spite of the several criticisms targeting this method, it has turned into one of the most fundamental phenomenological elements which has influenced a11 the philosophical schools which were developed after this prominent philosopher. Manuscript profile
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        2 - Classification of Sciences in Ikhwan al-Safa and Farabi
        Seyyed Ahmad  Hosseinee Mehdi  Amiri
        Although many philosophers have spoken of the classification of sciences, none have referred to a single one agreed upon by all. Here, both the source of division and the divisions are different from each other in each classification, when classifying sciences, Ikhwan a More
        Although many philosophers have spoken of the classification of sciences, none have referred to a single one agreed upon by all. Here, both the source of division and the divisions are different from each other in each classification, when classifying sciences, Ikhwan al-Safa consider pure types of knowledge and, initially, divide them into two theoretical and practical arts. However, Farabi divides scientific rather than pure types of knowledge and classifies them into two instrumental and non-instrumental sciences based on their functions. In the classification of Ikhwan al-Safa, drawing on the neo-Platonic approach, the place of the soul, politics, logic, and ethics are different from that in the classification of the Peripatetics, such as Farabi. The most important basis for classification of sciences in the view of Ikhwan al-Safa is the end. Nevertheless, similar to Aristotle, Farabi relies on two main criteria for the classification of sciences: end and subject. This paper, in addition to examining the differences between Ikhwan al-Safa and Farabi in their classification of sciences, discusses the specific place of some of sciences from their points of view. Manuscript profile
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        3 - Aristotelian Model of Defining Science
        Mehdi  Nazemi Ardakani Hamed  Mustafawi Fard
        Thematic distinction is the oldest method of distinguishing sciences from each other, so that some believe that it is the only method used for this purpose. Taftazani and Lahiji claim that mutikallimun are unanimous that different sciences can be essentially distinguish More
        Thematic distinction is the oldest method of distinguishing sciences from each other, so that some believe that it is the only method used for this purpose. Taftazani and Lahiji claim that mutikallimun are unanimous that different sciences can be essentially distinguished from each other based on their subject matters. Accordingly, they believe that the distinctions among sciences arise from the distinctions among their subjects, and by attaining aspects, they mean the aspects of the subject’s preparedness for accepting the predicate. However, in a more accurate sense, philosophers argue that, in the field of exact and demonstrative sciences, what consolidates the unity of a science is its subject matter. In the same way, ‘Allamah Tabataba’i explicitly states that the distinction criterion for exact and demonstrative sciences in their subject, and for mentally-posited sciences it is their end and purpose. In contrast, in the view of the critics of the model of “thematic distinction of sciences”, research findings indicate that sciences consist of a few propositions that have been completed over time. Therefore, their subjects were not even known to their founders and, that is why they were not capable of discussing their states. They argue that, even if we accept the Aristotelian model, we should say that many of the debates regarding the distinctions among sciences originate in confusing exact and mentally-posited sciences with each other and generalizing the principles of exact sciences to mentally-posited ones. Manuscript profile
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        4 - A Critical Study of the Ideas concerning the Islamicity of Islamic Philosophy
        Mansur  Imanpour
        Today, one of the questions raised regarding Islamic philosophy is what is meant by Islamic philosophy and why this philosophy is described by the attribute “Islamic”. Several contradictory ideas have been put forward in response to this question. Some believe that this More
        Today, one of the questions raised regarding Islamic philosophy is what is meant by Islamic philosophy and why this philosophy is described by the attribute “Islamic”. Several contradictory ideas have been put forward in response to this question. Some believe that this philosophy is basically the same Greek philosophy, and it is unjustified to add to it the adjectives of “Arabic” and “Islamic”. Some others have reduced it to Islamic theology and kalam because of its supporting Islamic beliefs; nevertheless, there are many thinkers and researchers who believe in the truth and realization of this philosophy and its Islamic nature. These researchers are divided into two major groups: one group maintain that the title of “Islamic” has only a formal sense and argue that this school is called “Islamic philosophy” because it grew and was expanded in Islamic countries by Muslim philosophers and under the rule of Islamic governments. The other group, however, believe that this denomination is due to the nature and content of this philosophy and have provided different ideas in this regard. Some of the great figures of this group believe that, the reason for this denomination is that some of the issues and problems of this school are rooted in Islamic teachings, and some others are at the service of demonstrating these teachings. Some other thinkers also view the well-documented belief of the advocates of this philosophy in the existence of Almighty Necessary and Shar‘i and divine oneness as the main reason for calling it Islamic (in its general sense) philosophy. There are still others who introduce this philosophy as the same prophetic philosophy derived from the Book and Sunnah. The present paper, after explaining and analyzing the above views, concludes that Islamic philosophy is the birth child of the living interaction between Greek and Iranian philosophy and thought and Islamic culture and civilization. Through adhering to philosophical subjects, frameworks, and methods, this school is influenced by Islamic worldview and teachings in many respects. In fact, any kind of limitation in this regard and concentration on certain directions will inevitably lead to the fallacy of essence and aspect. Manuscript profile
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        5 - Role of Christianity in the Return of Greek Philosophy to the Sassanid Iran
        Zahra  Abdi
        The present paper explores the role of Christianity in the transfer of Greek sciences, particularly philosophy, to Iran during the Sassanid period. Initially, Christianity enjoyed a brotherly and cooperative nature; however, later, in order to consolidate the status of More
        The present paper explores the role of Christianity in the transfer of Greek sciences, particularly philosophy, to Iran during the Sassanid period. Initially, Christianity enjoyed a brotherly and cooperative nature; however, later, in order to consolidate the status of theology and teaching it, Christian teachers and saints had to use a philosophical system, which they adapted from Greek philosophers, including Plato, Aristotle, and their followers, such as neo-Platonists. Some innovative branches of Christianity such as Monophysites and Nestorians began teaching their theoretical theology based on certain philosophical ideas. Moreover, the Syriac-speaking Christians of Mesopotamia, who were mainly Nestorian, translated the works of Plato, Aristotle, and neo-Platonists into Syriac in their schools so that, while teaching philosophy, they could use them in their own religious field. The emigration of these groups to Iran, whether as refugees or captives, resulted in the transfer of Greek sciences to Iran. In this paper, the writer has discussed the above issues based on library resources and following the descriptive-analytic method. Manuscript profile
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        6 - An Evaluation and Pathology of the Components of Epistemology of the Modern Period in Human Sciences
        Ali  Karbalaei Pazooki Fatemeh Najafi Pazooki
        The formation of modern human sciences which are presently taught at the academic centers of the world dates back to the modern period in the West; an era which is known as the period of the separation of science, religion, intellect, and faith from each other. The theo More
        The formation of modern human sciences which are presently taught at the academic centers of the world dates back to the modern period in the West; an era which is known as the period of the separation of science, religion, intellect, and faith from each other. The theoretical principles of this field of knowledge are limited to matter from an ontological standpoint, to anthropology from a humanist standpoint, to secularism from an eschatological standpoint, and to sense perception, experience, verification, and instrumental intellect from an epistemological standpoint. The question is what the contexts and background of the formation of modern human sciences in the West are, and what epistemological, religious, psychological, and spiritual harms they might lead to. Following a descriptive-analytic design and through a historical review of the problem of knowledge in the West, the present study intends to revisit the epistemological factors influencing the formation of the human sciences of the modern period and their disadvantages. Restricting science to scientism; human being to humanism; the world of being to natural phenomena; acquisition of knowledge to sense perception, empiricism, causality, and pure rationalism, as well as focusing on an epistemological distinction between phenomena and things in-themselves, and ignoring inner sense and fitri (intrinsic) knowledge, intuitive intellect and revelation are among the significant factors which play roles in the formation of modern western human sciences. Moreover, they underlie the creation of epistemological, religious, and psychological crises; spiritual poverty; nihilism, and the like in the world today. Manuscript profile
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        7 - The Influence of Social Conditions on Mullā Ṣadrā’s Classification of Sciences
        Fatemeh Jamshidi Nasrin Serajipour
        During the Safavid era, at the time of Mullā Ṣadrā and upon the rise of court-jurisprudents and pseudo-mysticism, true sciences such as jurisprudence, philosophy, and gnosis were in seclusion. Mullā Ṣadrā, as a religious scholar who was familiar with the philosophical a More
        During the Safavid era, at the time of Mullā Ṣadrā and upon the rise of court-jurisprudents and pseudo-mysticism, true sciences such as jurisprudence, philosophy, and gnosis were in seclusion. Mullā Ṣadrā, as a religious scholar who was familiar with the philosophical and gnostic ideas before him, tried to eliminate philosophical confusion from the scientific society and oppose this fallacious approach. Hence, he established a new philosophical system in order to bring all previous thoughts together in a consistent manner. In fact, he aimed to clarify the place of true knowledge and the ways of attaining it for society through establishing his own school of philosophy. The classification of sciences is one of the fundamental problems in any philosophical system. However, it is emphasized that each system of philosophy and the collection of its problems are influenced by the social conditions of their time. Similarly, Mullā Ṣadrā’s classification reflects his social concerns and has been developed in response to the social needs of his time and directing them towards true sciences. He has provided a specific classification of sciences in each of the three periods of his scientific life. He followed a peripatetic approach during the first period, an Illuminationist approach during the second one, and a transcendent approach during the third period, which reflected the height of his philosophical maturity. This paper aims to investigate Mullā Ṣadrā’s classification of sciences during each of the three periods of his scientific life and demonstrate how each was influenced by the social conditions of his time, and how each responded to the existing societal needs. Manuscript profile
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        8 - Revisiting and Validating the Normative Approach to Sciences in the View of Islamic Philosophers
        Ahmad  Shahgoli Fardin Jamshidi Mehr
        This study was conducted to clarify the view of Islamic philosophers regarding the graded approach to sciences and the dimensions and outcomes of this problem. One of the principles dominating the worldview of Islamic philosophers is the graded conception of affairs. Th More
        This study was conducted to clarify the view of Islamic philosophers regarding the graded approach to sciences and the dimensions and outcomes of this problem. One of the principles dominating the worldview of Islamic philosophers is the graded conception of affairs. This view also exists in relation to sciences and stipulates that sciences are of different levels and grades with respect to their value. In other words, some of them are more valuable, while some others are less valuable. Philosophers believe that philosophy is the noblest of all sciences and have provided some criteria and arguments in support of this claim. The purpose of this paper is to explain and revisit this approach and its epistemological effects based on a descriptive-analytic and critical method. Therefore, the authors have first introduced the basic principles and approaches of philosophers concerning this problem and then clarified their effects and consequences in other realms. Manuscript profile