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        1 - A Study of the Idea of Crisis in Husserl’s View and its Background in the 19th Century European Philosophy
        Seyyed mas‘ud  Seyf Afshin  Mo’azzen
        At the beginning of the 20th century a vast trend which was unanimously called “the crisis of European science and culture” by its advocates emerged in Europe. Following the same trend, Husserl, one of the distinguished European thinkers of the early 20th century, intro Full Text
        At the beginning of the 20th century a vast trend which was unanimously called “the crisis of European science and culture” by its advocates emerged in Europe. Following the same trend, Husserl, one of the distinguished European thinkers of the early 20th century, introduced phenomenology as a solution to overcome this full-scale crisis, which, in his view, dominated Europe during the second half of the 19th century. He maintained that this crisis manifested itself in the form of absence of unity and coherence in philosophy and sciences (both natural and human sciences), as well as in the alienation of sciences from people’s everyday life. Husserl argued that the roots and causes of this crisis must be sought in the scientific and philosophical approaches of the 19th century Europe. During this period and after the demise of Hegel, certain schools such as Marxism, biologism, and historical hermeneutics appeared under the influence of Hegelian schools and the idea of historical relativism that they advocated. A common feature of all of them was their interest in relativism. Each of these schools, through negating the possibility of achieving a single and certain truth and also relativising it based on its own principles provided the context for the development of the above-mentioned crisis. After disclosing the nature of crisis in the philosophical principles of the West and through presenting a critical interpretation of Cartesian fundamentalism. Husserl suggested a method called “phenomenological interpretation” in order to have access to a solid and unifying basis for sciences. In spite of the several criticisms targeting this method, it has turned into one of the most fundamental phenomenological elements which has influenced a11 the philosophical schools which were developed after this prominent philosopher. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - A Study of Kalami School of Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi
        Afshin  Mo’azzen
        Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi is one of the prominent scientific figures of the Islamic world who is usually referred to as the first Islamic philosopher. He was the first to introduce philosophy as an independent field of study in the world of Islam. In addition to transla Full Text
        Ya‘qub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi is one of the prominent scientific figures of the Islamic world who is usually referred to as the first Islamic philosopher. He was the first to introduce philosophy as an independent field of study in the world of Islam. In addition to translating several philosophical works into Arabic, he made great efforts in order to introduce and reveal the coordination between rational thinking and Islamic teachings. Although some consider al-Kindi to be a follower of Judaism or Christianity, available evidence indicates his belief in Islam. Moreover, there are different ideas regarding his kalami views. Some believe that he was a follower of Abu Hanifah; some view him as a Shi‘ite philosopher, and some consider him to be associated with the Mu‘tazilite school of thought. A study of available proofs demonstrates that there are several religious and historical reasons suggesting his attachment to each of these schools. However, meticulous scrutiny reveals that he followed a particular kind of Shi‘ism which was prevalent in his own time called “Muhibbi Shi‘ism” and the “Mu‘tazilite School of Baghdad”. A synthesis of these two trends demonstrates that he was a believer in a religious school called the Mu‘tazilite Shi‘ism. Manuscript Document