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        1 - foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
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        2 - The Idea of Order in the History of Greek Philosophy: A Study of the Epistemological-Ontological Aspects of Order in Plato’s Political Philosophy
        Abdulrasul  Hasanifar Hamzah  Alimi Cheraghali
        One of the issues which has united the ontological, epistemological, and anthropological dimensions of philosophical thought in the course of history and has continually affected and determined the related social and political directions and general trends is “order”. I Full Text
        One of the issues which has united the ontological, epistemological, and anthropological dimensions of philosophical thought in the course of history and has continually affected and determined the related social and political directions and general trends is “order”. In other words, order enjoys three ontological, epistemological, and anthropological aspects with respect to political life in society and can function as the basis for the interpretation and formation of the history of philosophy. In Greek philosophy, order is one of the philosophical principles which, due to its influence over different schools of philosophy and philosophers during the whole history of philosophical thought, enjoys an important and unique role and status. The issue of order in Platonic philosophy proved to be a turning point in this regard. Accordingly, in this paper it has been tried to explore the philosophical concept of order from its epistemological, ontological, and anthropological aspects in the history of Greek philosophy ,in general, and in Platonic philosophy, in particular. The writers have also aimed to demonstrate its influence and directive role in Plato’s political philosophy. Therefore, following an analytic-descriptive method, they firstly cast a historical glance at the concept of order in the works of pre-Platonic thinkers. Then they investigate his general philosophy and, particularly, his political philosophy with respect to the above-mentioned dimensions while emphasizing his desirable political and educational systems based on his idea of order. Their findings indicate that a philosophical thought based on order might begin with a mythological and naturalist view; nevertheless, with the later development of human thought, it shifts its attention to a kind of order with mathematical, cosmological, and metaphysical tendencies. Following this process, the Platonic natural and mathematical view of order unites with a divine and virtuous view of order. Consequently, as both the context and basis of other virtues and also as the ultimate goal of philosophy, it develops a political-social form in connection with law. Manuscript Document
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        3 - foreword
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
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        4 - Transition from Intellectual Philosophy to Esoteric Wisdom in the Ideas of Ikhwan al-Safa (An Analysis of Early Encounters of Muslim Thinkers with Philosophy)
        Hasan  Bolkhari Qehi
        The present paper initially discusses and explores the early applications of philosophical terms and their meanings in Islamic culture. Then it clarifies the dominant approach followed by those Muslim thinkers who try to reconcile Shari‘ah with philosophy through using Full Text
        The present paper initially discusses and explores the early applications of philosophical terms and their meanings in Islamic culture. Then it clarifies the dominant approach followed by those Muslim thinkers who try to reconcile Shari‘ah with philosophy through using an acceptable concept in religion by resorting to the term hikmah (which is a purely Qur’anic term). This is an approach which managed to result in a kind of esoteric wisdom between the second and fourth centuries (AH) through employing such concepts as t’awil (interpretation) in the Qur’an and promoting the interest in piety and gnosis. Ikhwan al-Safa, who exercised a huge influence on the development of wisdom and philosophy in Islamic culture, are among the pioneers of the above approach. By composing a corpus of 54 Epistles, called Rasa’il, they took a great stride towards reconciling Shari‘ah with philosophy and explaining the concept of wisdom and, particularly, Batini wisdom. Here, following an analytic-historical approach, the writer performs a conceptual analysis of the two terms of philosophy and wisdom during the first period of the rise of philosophical thought in Islamic civilization. Besides, he deliberates on the efforts of Ikhwan al-Safa in order to reach a kind of esoteric wisdom, which is a synthesis of a completely philosophical and, at the same time, Qur’anic (and narrative) approach. This was an approach which inevitably advocated the unity of religion and philosophy in order to demonstrate such a synthesis. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Interdisciplinary Components of the Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Wisdom and Philosophy: Introducing a New method for Compiling the History of Philosophy and Reviewing the Present Method of Historiography in Iran
        Reza  Mahuzi Maryam  Soleimani Fard
        The Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Philosophy, affiliated with the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute and the Scientific Society of the History of Philosophy has brought a great number of researchers together since 2005 in order to compile a co Full Text
        The Center for Compiling a Comprehensive History of Philosophy, affiliated with the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute and the Scientific Society of the History of Philosophy has brought a great number of researchers together since 2005 in order to compile a comprehensive history of wisdom and philosophy in Iran and in the world in the light of cultural and social events and incidents. The general policy dominating the process of compiling the history of philosophy here dictates a collaborative and cooperative activity in which a number of professors and authorities in the fields of archaeology, linguistics, history, art, gnosis, religion, and philosophy are participating. The present paper firstly analyzes the rules and principles governing the interdisciplinary approach in the field of science and highlights its differences from the disciplinary approach. Then, based on the documents published by this Center, it presents a picture of researchers’ group work in conformity with the norms of the interdisciplinary approach and portrays and judges their present and future activities. Finally, based on the nature of this approach and the scientific expectations it arouses, the writers make some recommendations to the researchers and professors involved in this huge project. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Historical Roots of the Concept and Referent of Prime Matter and the First Emanated in Greek Philosophy
        ali haghi Abbas  Javareshkian Hossein   Bulkhari Ghahi
        Undoubtedly, the history of philosophy follows a continuous and successive process of development in the course of human life. Although inventions and new problems and topics have always been witnessed and warmly welcomed in this field, they have never interrupted the c Full Text
        Undoubtedly, the history of philosophy follows a continuous and successive process of development in the course of human life. Although inventions and new problems and topics have always been witnessed and warmly welcomed in this field, they have never interrupted the continuous process of development of thought in the realm of philosophy. In fact, philosophy, which is the most illuminating dimension of human intellection on the history of thoughts, is responsible for the rational explanation of the most important issues in human life. Undoubtedly, one of the most important of all of them is clarifying the relationship between the Creator or Maker of the world and existents and creatures. Now, if we consider the rise of philosophy in Greece as a crucial event in the history of philosophy, the quality of the philosophical approach to prime matter and, then, the issue of the first emanated are viewed as two of the most significant and fascinating topics in this field. Following an analytic approach, the writers have tried to study the historical background of the first emanated in the history of Islamic philosophy (intellect as the first creation) with reference to Greek philosophy in this regard. The writers assume that the history of philosophy in Islamic civilization has been developed by deliberating over some Greek thoughts and has established the foundation of its own philosophical structure through a profound review of philosophical resources, such as the Qur’an and traditions, as the absolute center of this enterprise. Manuscript Document
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        7 - An Introduction to the Philosophy of History of Philosophy
        Masoud  Omid
        Although the discipline of history of philosophy and the related questions existed in the past, they have greatly occupied the minds of philosophers during the last two centuries. Some of the important questions in the field of the history of philosophy include the foll Full Text
        Although the discipline of history of philosophy and the related questions existed in the past, they have greatly occupied the minds of philosophers during the last two centuries. Some of the important questions in the field of the history of philosophy include the following: what is the meaning and nature of history of philosophy? What is its station of confirmation and demonstration? Is history of philosophy a perfect field or it is still in the process of development and expansion? What is the relationship between us and history of philosophy or what should it be like? Is this field the same as history or philosophy or of the type of philosophy? What is the difference between the history of philosophy and the history of science, religion, art, or the like? Due to the increasing attention to the problems related to the history of philosophy (in Iran and in the world), the present paper is intended to deal with some issues in relation to history of philosophy while discussing it in a framework entitled the philosophy of history of philosophy. In the past, philosophers referred to the theoretical philosophy of history and the philosophy of the science of history; however, it seems that it is now the right time to discuss the philosophy of the history of philosophy. The most fundamental themes which are propounded in this paper regarding this field include the place of philosophy of history of philosophy in various schools of philosophy and the possibility, necessity, and desirability of this field of knowledge. Finally, it appears that the philosophy of history of philosophy can be considered to be a branch of related philosophical fields, and it can even be offered as a new course at universities. Manuscript Document
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        8 - History of Philosophy and its Models
        Masoud  Omid
        Could the history of philosophy be viewed in the light of models? The author of this paper believes that a deliberation over the history of philosophy can reveal the traces of certain models for philosophizing. A model for philosophizing in its general sense indicates a Full Text
        Could the history of philosophy be viewed in the light of models? The author of this paper believes that a deliberation over the history of philosophy can reveal the traces of certain models for philosophizing. A model for philosophizing in its general sense indicates an allegorical mould based on which and within the framework of which a philosopher formulates his philosophy and his method of philosophizing. Accordingly, one can provide a general classification for all models of history of philosophy and then explain each of them. Based on the trend of the development of history of philosophy and the activities of philosophers, the models of philosophizing can be divided into three neutral, positivist, and negativist groups in general. The mirror (reflective) and narrative (iterative) models can be placed in the neutral category. However, the positivist models themselves can be divided into two mechanical and organic groups. The encyclopedic models fall under the first group, while the mathematical-tree (Descartes) models, mathematical-geometrical (Spinoza), puzzle-like models (Hume), architectural models (Kant), dialectic architectural models (Hegel), universalist organic architectural models (Schopenhauer), phenomenological architectural models (Heidegger in Being and Time) and logical architectural models (early Wittgenstein) belong to the second group. The therapeutic model (late Wittgenstein) and post-modern philosophies can be categorized under negativist models. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Kant and History of Philosophy: Perspectives and Main Points
        Masoud  Omid
        Investigating the history of philosophy and philosophers’ views of it are of great significance because the most important source of philosophy and philosophizing is the same field of the history of philosophy. The trend of modern philosophy, whether in the mould of rat Full Text
        Investigating the history of philosophy and philosophers’ views of it are of great significance because the most important source of philosophy and philosophizing is the same field of the history of philosophy. The trend of modern philosophy, whether in the mould of rationalism or empiricism, has generally been developed without acknowledging the need for history of philosophy, without making it the center of discussion, and without having a particular historical perspective in this respect. For example, in order to develop his philosophy, Descartes merely focused on the thinker’s capacity and the endless world. Empiricists have also tried to have a share of the knowledge of human nature and the world of qualities and quantities through experimentation. However, when it comes to Kant, at the beginning of his book, Critique of Pure Reason, he focuses on the possibilities of human knowledge, while he finishes this work with a section entitled “History of Pure Reason”. Even the opening section and some of his words in his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics reflect certain perspectives and points concerning the history of philosophy. Therefore, it can be said that he was, to some extent, interested in the history of philosophy and even believed that he owed the development and consolidation of his philosophy to perceiving the nature and history of metaphysics and the related sciences and teachings. Kant found out that it would be impossible to understand the nature of philosophy or conduct philosophical inquiries and discoveries without first studying the history of metaphysics and other philosophical and empirical sciences. The rise of subject and its transcendental nature would have also been impossible without considering the history of philosophy and sciences and following a historical approach regarding systematic human sciences. However, Kant did not deal with the history of philosophy by itself; rather, he focused on the history of philosophical studies. Moreover, even at this point, the relation of the history of philosophical studies or a historical approach to the definition, restriction, and specification of subject is not of a constitutive knowledge-producing type; rather, it can be of a regulatory functional type. The history of philosophical studies could function as a guiding principle for philosophical understanding and work and highlight the signs and traces of the subject. Nevertheless, it cannot, by itself, define or create the subject, for Kantian subject has a historical aspect but is not a historical entity. In other words, the subject is a historian, perspectivist, and history-bound but is not of a historical nature. The history of philosophy is the occurrence condition of the subject and not its transcendental condition. The transcendental conditions of the subject are internal and included in its definition rather than being external, historical, and accidental. The present paper examines Kantian views of the history of philosophy in order to reveal this neglected and hidden aspect of his philosophy. In doing so, it explores some problems such as the meaning and definition of history of philosophy, history of interest in philosophy, end of history of philosophy, difference and similarity between history of philosophy and history of science, classification of history of philosophy, the relationship between philosophy and history of philosophy, the relationship between the philosophy of history and history of philosophy, and the like from Kant’s point of view. Manuscript Document
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        10 - A Glance at A Century of the Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosopher from Before Christ until the 20th Century)
        Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
        During the last century, we have witnessed the second movement of the translation of Western philosophical works in Iran. This bibliography provides a list of the works of 40 famous philosophers of the West from before Christ until the 19th century which have been trans Full Text
        During the last century, we have witnessed the second movement of the translation of Western philosophical works in Iran. This bibliography provides a list of the works of 40 famous philosophers of the West from before Christ until the 19th century which have been translated into Persian. The translators who have rendered classic works of philosophy into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and have specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manouchehr Bozorgmehr has mainly been interested in George Berkeley, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi in Plato and Plotinus, Daryush Ashuri in Friedrich Nietzsche, Ziba Jebelli in Marx, and Manuchehr Sanei in Kant. The works of some philosophers have also been translated several times; for example, the book of Thus spoke Zarathustra: A Book for all and None holds the record with 14 different translations. In certain cases, none of the books of some famous Western philosophers, such as Nicolas Malebranche, Dans Scotus, Bonaventure, and William of Ockham, has been translated into Persian. In this bibliography, the authors have introduced the works of the following philosophers: Thomas Aquinas, Augustino of Hippo, Anselm of Canterbury, Epictetus, Epicure, Aristotle, Herbert Spencer, Baruch Spinoza, Plato, Plotinus, Friedrich Engles, Marcus Aurelius, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon, Blaise Pascal, Pre-Socratic Philosophers, Descartes, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich von Schiller, Ludwig Feuerbach, Johan Gottlieb Fichte, Kant, Auguste Comte, Soren Kierkegaard, John Locke, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Lucretius, Marx Niccolo Machiavelli, Montesquieu, George Edward Moore, John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Thomas Hobbes, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and David Hume. Manuscript Document
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        11 - A Glance at one Century of Translation of Philosophical Texts in Iran (Bibliography of Western Philosophers from the Beginning of the 20th Century until Now)
        Saeed Anvari Maryam Mahdavi Mazdeh
        The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the la Full Text
        The present paper provides a list of the works of western philosophers (from the beginning of the 20th century until now) which have been translated into Persian and published in Iran. Because of the expansion of the branches of philosophy in the 20th century and the later years and the large number of the prominent philosophers in various fields of philosophy, this list only contains the names of 40 of the most influential philosophers of this period in Iran. The translators who have rendered the works of these philosophers into Persian have sometimes focused on a specific philosopher and specialized in the translation of his works. For example, Manuchehr Sanei Darrehbidi has mainly focused on Wilhelm Dilthey, Yadollah Moaghan on Ernst Cassirer, Malek Hosseini on Wittgenstein, and Mohammad Hassan Lotfi on Jaspers. The works of some philosophers have been translated several times, for instance, Nietzsche and Philosophy by Gilles Deleuze; Political Ideas, Why I Am Not A Christian, Power: A New Social Analysis, and Marriage and Morals by Bertrand Russell; Existentialism is a Humanism and The Words by Jean-Paul Sartre; The Myth of Sisyphus and Notebooks (3 volumes) by Albert Camus; The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn; Logical-Philosophical Treatise by Wittgenstein, and Being and Time by Martin Heidegger have been translated at least four times. Among them Russell’s Power: A New Social Analysis ranks first with six retranslations. This bibliography introduces the works of the following 40 philosophers: Theodor W. Adorno, Hannah Arendt, Alfred Jules Ayer, Henry Bergson, Karl Raimund Popper, William James, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Dilthey, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, John Bordley Rawls, Richard McKay Rorty, Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur, Jean Paul Sartre, John Rogers Searle, Paul Karl Feyerabend, Friedrich Ludwig GottlobFrege, Paul-Michel Foucault, Rudolf Carnap, Ernst Alfred Cassirer, Albert Camus, Saul Aaron Kripke, Willard Van Orman Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-François Lyotard, Gabriel Honoré Marcel, Herbert Marcuse, Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty, George Edward Moore, Alfred North Whitehead, Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Jürgen Habermas, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich August von Hayek, and Karl Theodor Jaspers. Manuscript Document
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        12 - Editors Note
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        پیشینة تألیف و تدوین کتاب یا مجموعه کتابهایی با عنوان «تاریخ فلسفه» چندان زیاد نیست و اساساً ظهور عناوینی چون تاریخ هنر، تاریخ ادبیات، تاریخ ادیان، تاریخ تمدن و مانند آن، به ظهور تفکر و نگاه تاریخی ـ که از مظاهر تفکر جدید و معاصر است‌ـ بازمیگردد. معنای این سخن آن نیست ک Full Text
        پیشینة تألیف و تدوین کتاب یا مجموعه کتابهایی با عنوان «تاریخ فلسفه» چندان زیاد نیست و اساساً ظهور عناوینی چون تاریخ هنر، تاریخ ادبیات، تاریخ ادیان، تاریخ تمدن و مانند آن، به ظهور تفکر و نگاه تاریخی ـ که از مظاهر تفکر جدید و معاصر است‌ـ بازمیگردد. معنای این سخن آن نیست که آدمی قبل از دورة جدید به مقولة تاریخ و تأملات تاریخی التفاتی نداشته است، بلکه مقصود آنست که در این عصر، نحوی از نگاه تاریخی تکوین، بسط و گسترش یافته که عالم و مسیر حوادث و سوانح را نه برابر طرح و مشیت‌الهی، که مطابق طرح فاعل شناسا و مدرک خودبنیاد و خودآيین (سوژه) تبیین و تقریر میکند. تاریخ در نظر قدما، صحنة ظهور اراده خالق هستی و واجد غایت و فرجامی ابدی است و نقش انسان همانا درک و دریافت غایت هستی و تطبیق ارادة فردی خویش با ارادة کلی و کیهانی است. این تفاوت و تمایز در همة شئون دانش و عمل، میان دورة اخیر و ماقبل آن بچشم میخورد. تاریخ‌انگاری و غلبة طرح و شاکلة سوژه، صفت عام و مشترک تمامی علوم انسانی و اجتماعی شمرده میشود. در این میان، از قرن نوزدهم میلادی به اینسو و از زمان درسگفتارهای هگل دربارة تاریخ فلسفه و فلسفه تاریخ و نیز نگارش پدیدارشناسی روح، مجموعه نوشته‌هایی با عنوان تاریخ فلسفه رواج قابل ملاحظه‌يی یافت و ابتدا در اروپای قاره‌يی و سپس در دنیای انگلیسی زبان، گسترش چشمگيري پیدا کرد. روح و منطق حاکم بر این نوشته‌ها موضوعی است که نیاز به تأمل و سنجش دارد، چرا که اولاً، گذشته از تفاوتها در صورت و قالب (حجم، ادبیات، نوع نگارش، ایجاز یا تفصیل، تعداد نویسندگان و...) در محتوا و مضامین (پیش‌فرضها و انگاره‌ها، منطق و هندسه، نوع تحلیل و تبیین، نوآوری یا تکرار و تقلید، منابع و مراجع و...)، در برخی مبادی و خاستگاه‌ها نیز از یکدیگر متمایزند و ثانیاً، در نگاه به میراث فلسفی، عرفانی و معرفتی مشرق زمین، غالباً و عملاً در مدار منطق و روش «شرق‌شناسی» و قالبهای کلیشه‌يی آن قرارگرفته و از انگاره‌های آن تبعیت میکند. این نسبت میان انحاء تاریخ‌نگاری غرب با شرق‌شناسی از یکسو و با فلسفة تاریخ از سوی دیگر، موضوعی است که در ردیف مبادی و مبانی دانش معاصر باید لحاظ شود. حکایت پیامدهای نگاه تاریخ‌انگارانه و شرق‌شناسانه به ساحتهای مختلف دانش، حکایت شورباری است، تا آنجا که مثلاً برخی نویسندگان عرب زبان که در چند دهة اخیر به نگارش تاریخ فلسفه روی آورده‌اند، یا مقید و مقهور پیش‌فرضهای شرق‌شناسی شده‌اند یا در دام ناسیونالیزم خام افتاده‌اند.گذشته از نقدهای گزنده ادوارد سعید و نشان دادن شجاعانه و بیپردة باطن شرق‌شناسی در نسبت با مقاصد سیاسی و استعماری، باید در نظر داشت که چهارصد سال پیشینة شرق‌شناسی کلاسیک، نوعی حالت متصلب و سترون در پیکرة آن پدید آورد و تاریخ‌انگاری (هیستوریسیسم) در این تصلب نقش نخست را ایفا کرد. کوتاه سخن آنکه، سنجش و ارزیابی این سلسله نوشته‌ها که بعضاً در محافل دانشگاهی نیز تدریس میشود، ضرورت دارد و به این مطلب، وفور و تعدد ترجمه‌هایی را باید افزود که در یکی دو دهة اخیر با عنوان تاریخ فلسفه در سطحی وسیع چاپ و منتشر شده است. بررسی آثاری که در زبان فارسی در عداد منابع تاریخ فلسفه قرار گرفته‌اند مجال مستقلی میطلبد، لیکن همینقدر اشاره کنیم که پس از نگارش سیر حکمت در اروپا به قلم محمدعلی فروغی در حدود هشتاد سال پیش و پس از انتشار مجلدات تاریخ فلسفه کسانی چون امیل بریه، ویل دورانت، برتراند راسل و سرانجام، فردریک کاپلستون، در خلال پنج دهة اخیر (و با لحاظ تمامی تفاوتهای کمی و کیفی میان آنها)، اکنون نیز مجموعه‌های تک جلدی و چند جلدی تاریخ فلسفه شامل تاریخ فلسفه‌های موسوم به راتلج، آکسفورد، استنفورد، گاتری، گمپرتس (دو اثر اخیر فقط در حوزة یونان باستان) و اخیراً آنتونی کنی، روانه بازار نشر شده‌اند و افزون بر این، برخی از این آثار حتی ترجمه مکرر شده است. این تنوع و تعدد، فی‌نفسه نشان از رغبت و توجه اهالی فلسفه به آگاهی از سیر و صیرورت تفکر فلسفی از گذشته دور تاکنون دارد ولی در عین حال بنظر میرسد برغم تعدد و گوناگونی این دسته از آثار، نوعی مشابهت و حتی اقتباس و تکرار ناشی از وحدت انگاره‌ها و پیش‌فرضها نیز در میان این آثار دیده میشود و در عوض، جای مطالعات انتقادی نسبت به مثلاً دورة یونانی و یونانی‌مآبی در آنها خالی است و طنین لحن ستایش‌گرانه و همدلانه نویسندگان قرن نوزدهم و بیستم میلادی در اینها نیز موج میزند. سخن خود را با طرح یک پرسش به پایان میبریم و آن اینکه، آیا نوبت به عرضة تصویری نو و متفاوت از تاریخ فلسفه و بویژه متفاوت با پیش‌فرضهای تاریخ‌انگارانه و شرق‌شناسانه نرسیده است؟ به دیدگاه‌ها و پیشنهادهای محققان و صاحب‌نظران کشور عزیزمان ارج گذارده و از گشوده شدن باب بحث و گفتگو در این زمینه استقبال میکنیم. Manuscript Document
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        13 - Analytic Philosophy and the Charge of Anti-Historicity
        Mohammad Saeid  Abdollahi Mohamad Ali  Abdollahi
        According to some philosophers, not heeding historicity is one of the characteristics of analytic philosophy in comparison to other philosophical schools. That is why analytic philosophers are always being accused of ignoring historicity and blamed for this charge. Cont Full Text
        According to some philosophers, not heeding historicity is one of the characteristics of analytic philosophy in comparison to other philosophical schools. That is why analytic philosophers are always being accused of ignoring historicity and blamed for this charge. Continental and traditionalist philosophers are unanimous in this regard. However, the question is whether the critics of analytic philosophy can support this accusation with sufficient and convincing arguments, or whether not taking heed of history is a baseless claim rooted in an incorrect perception and insufficient knowledge of this philosophical movement. This paper is intended to explain the critic’s claims, arguments, and proofs as to historical ignorance in analytic philosophy, on the one hand, and to describe the attention and accuracy invested in analytic philosophers’ view of history of philosophy and their arguments. The authors emphasize that, firstly, one must distinguish between essential, instrumental, and weak types of historicity. Analytic philosophers might reject essential historicity but accept a kind of weak historicity. Secondly, an emphasis on the distinction of the history of philosophical problems from history of philosophy should not be understood in the sense of anti-historicity or equating the past and presence. Manuscript Document
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        14 - Editor's Note
        Hossein  Kalbasi Ashtari
        History of philosophy The Books of Sects and Creeds Biography
        History of philosophy The Books of Sects and Creeds Biography Manuscript Document
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        15 - ُُEditor's Note
        Hossein Kalbasi Ashtari
        از مداخل مهم تاريخ علم و فلسفه جهان، مدخلي موسوم به «نهضت ترجمه» در دو قلمرو عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني است. تتبّعات و تحقيقات متعدّدي در چگونگي اين دو رخداد مهم علمي و فرهنگي صورت پذيرفته و اكنون به بركت اين تلاشها، داده‌هاي ارزشمندي دربارة آثار و منابع، مترجمان و چگونگي Full Text
        از مداخل مهم تاريخ علم و فلسفه جهان، مدخلي موسوم به «نهضت ترجمه» در دو قلمرو عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني است. تتبّعات و تحقيقات متعدّدي در چگونگي اين دو رخداد مهم علمي و فرهنگي صورت پذيرفته و اكنون به بركت اين تلاشها، داده‌هاي ارزشمندي دربارة آثار و منابع، مترجمان و چگونگي ترجمة آثار از زبان مبدأ به زبان مقصد در اختيار ماست. برابر گاهشماري موّرخانِ تاريخ علم، نهضت ترجمة نخست، حدّ فاصل قرن سوّم تا پنجم قمري در عالم اسلام و در مناطقي چون بغداد و مرو و نهضت ترجمة دوم، حد فاصل اواخر قرن يازدهم تا اواسط قرن سيزدهم ميلادي در مناطقي چون صَقليّه (سيسيل) و طليطليه (تولدو) در جنوب اروپاي آنروز پديد آمد. بي‌ترديد در باب مبادي و انگيزه‌هاي دو حوزة فرهنگي و تمدني عالم اسلام و غرب لاتيني در اقبال به ترجمة متون نيز ديدگاههاي مختلفي عرضه شده است، ليكن همچنان پرسشهاي مهمي در اين زمينه وجود دارد كه نيازمند تتبّع و تحقيق افزونتري است، مانند اين پرسشها كه: به غير از احساس نياز به فراگيري دانشها ـ بويژه دانشهاي كاربردي نظير رياضيات، نجوم و طبّ ـ چه انگيزه يا انگيزه‌هاي ديگري در اخذ و اقتباس اين علوم وجود داشته است؟ در اقبال و توجه به علوم عقلي نظير منطق و فلسفه و كلام چه زمينه‌هاي روحي و فرهنگي مؤثر بوده است؟ و مهمتر اينكه: در اخذ و اقتباس علوم، چه افزوده‌ها و تغييراتي به صورتهاي اوليه آن علوم ضميمه شده است؟ بنظر ميرسد مبادي تحرّك و نشاط علمي سده‌هاي نخستين قمري در عالم اسلام و نيز تأثيرات ناشي از حضور هشتصد ساله حاكمان مسلمان (711 ـ 1492م.) در شبه جزيره‌ ايبري در جنوب اسپانيا از جمله موضوعاتي است كه همچنان نيازمند بررسي و پژوهش بيشتري است، زيرا در مقايسه با شرايط و موقعيتهاي قبل و بعد از اين مقاطع تاريخي، تحولات چشمگيري صورت گرفته كه تنها برمبناي آگاهي از گاهشماري آن تحولات، نميتوان به عمق روابط و مناسبات فرهنگي و معنوي آن روزگار پي‌ برد. به اين مطلب بايد مطلب ديگري نيز افزود و آن اينكه بخش اعظم پژوهشهاي صورت گرفته در خصوص اين دو جريان علمي بدست پژوهشگران غربي انجام شده و حتي آن بخش از اين پژوهشها كه مربوط به نهضت ترجمه در عالم اسلام است نيز عمدتاً از جانب پژوهشهاي غرب به شرق سرازير شده است، اين در حالي است كه منابع و مدارك تاريخي براي پژوهشهاي گسترده در اين زمينه در اختيار پژوهشگران عالم اسلام قرار داشته و دارد، مانند انبوهي از تراجم و فهرستها و گزارشهاي تاريخي كه هرچند نيازمند مطالعه و بررسي انتقادي است، ليكن حجم قابل توجهي از داده‌ها را در اختيار پژوهشگران اين حوزه قرار ميدهد. اميد آنكه اين مهم با همّت و دقت نظر صاحبان قلم و پژوهشگران علاقمند به حوزة تاريخ علم و تمدن تحقق يافته و افق جديدي از تأثير ميراث علمي جهان اسلام را به روي نسل حاضر بگشايد. Manuscript Document