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        1 - Hume’s and Kant’s Epistemological Critique of Metaphysics
        حامد احتشامی SSeyyed Mohammad  Hakak
        Metaphysics is a term which was used by the compilers of Aristotle’s works for a part of them that appeared after the book of Physics. Later it was used as the title of the science which Aristotle dealt with in that section; a science that discusses the principles of ex More
        Metaphysics is a term which was used by the compilers of Aristotle’s works for a part of them that appeared after the book of Physics. Later it was used as the title of the science which Aristotle dealt with in that section; a science that discusses the principles of existent qua existent. Since it delves into some of the fundamental problems of human beings such as God, self, and free will, this discipline has always been the main representative of philosophy. It is, in fact, only in the modern era that epistemology has gained more importance than metaphysics; moreover, some philosophers such as David Hume and Emanuel Kant have questioned its validity. In Hume’s view, metaphysics is an absurd field of science because its concepts are meaningless. In Kant’s view, metaphysical concepts and, thus, the related propositions are meaningful; however, it is impossible for theoretical wisdom to tackle them, and the solutions for metaphysical problems should be sought in the realm of practical wisdom or ethics. This paper reports and evaluates the viewpoints of these two philosophers in relation to metaphysics. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Resolving Zeno’s Paradoxes Based on the Theory of the “Linear Analytic Summation” and Evaluation of Evolution of Responsesa
        Reza Shakeri Ali Abedi Shahroodi
        Zeno challenged the problem of motion following his master Parmenides and presented his criticisms of the theory of motion based on four arguments that in fact introduced the paradoxes of this theory. These paradoxes, which contradict an evident problem (motion), provok More
        Zeno challenged the problem of motion following his master Parmenides and presented his criticisms of the theory of motion based on four arguments that in fact introduced the paradoxes of this theory. These paradoxes, which contradict an evident problem (motion), provoked some reactions. This paper initially refers to two of Zeno’s paradoxes and then presents the responses provided by some thinkers of different periods. In his response to Zeno’s paradoxes, Aristotle separated the actual and potential runs of motion and, following a mathematical approach, resorted to the concept of infinitely small sizes. Kant has also referred to this problem in his antinomies. Secondly, the authors explain the theory of linear analytic summation, which consists of two elements: 1) The distance between two points of transfer can be divided infinitely; however, the absolute value of the subsequent distance is always smaller than the absolute value of the previous distance; 2) since the infinitude of the division is of an analytic rather than a synthetic nature, the summation limit of these distances will be equal to the initial distance. Based on this theory, as motion is not free of direction and continuous limits, an integral limit of distance is traversed at each moment, and the analytic, successive, and infinite limits of distance are determined. The final section of this paper is intended to evaluate the responses given to the paradoxes. Manuscript profile