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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Historical Development and Pre-Suppositions of the Theory of the Principiality of Existence in Tusi’s Analysis
        Hashem  Ghorbani
        The theory of the principiality of existence or quiddity lacks a systematic model in pre-Sadrian thoughts; however, it is based on certain presuppositions the discovery of which can illuminate Muslim thinkers’ approach to this problem. Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi has expl Full Text
        The theory of the principiality of existence or quiddity lacks a systematic model in pre-Sadrian thoughts; however, it is based on certain presuppositions the discovery of which can illuminate Muslim thinkers’ approach to this problem. Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi has explained his epistemological ideas regarding these presuppositions. This paper deals with some of the presuppositions underlying the principiality of existence or quiddity as presented by Tusi. Some of them are as follows: 1) the problem of the addition of existence and quiddity and its quality; 2) detecting the relationship between existence and quiddity; 3) the mind or the outside as the place of the realization of this relationship, and 4) evaluating the referents of the mentioned analysis and the realization of quiddity and existence in the outside or emphasizing the exclusive realization of one of them. Through his analyses of each of these presuppositions, Tusi adopts an approach which can represent his agreement or disagreement with the principiality of existence. Accordingly, although the theory of the principiality of existence did not occupy his mind as a problem, his epistemological presuppositions regarding existence and quiddity are consistent with it. The development of the relationship between the ideas of Tusi and Mulla Sadra can be analyzed through explaining the former’s standpoints regarding the above-mentioned presuppositions and his influence over Mulla Sadra. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - A Critical-Historical Review of Abharī’s Analysis of the Elements and Typology of Denotation Based on the Distinction of two Models: Free Will-Speaker and Meaning-Interlocutor
        Hashem  Ghorbani Abbas Bakhshandeh Bali
        The present study provides a critical-historical review of semiotics in Abharī’s view and aims to explain his encounter with the problems of the realm of semantics and his standpoints in this regard. Here, the authors have tried to evaluate and analyze some descriptions Full Text
        The present study provides a critical-historical review of semiotics in Abharī’s view and aims to explain his encounter with the problems of the realm of semantics and his standpoints in this regard. Here, the authors have tried to evaluate and analyze some descriptions of denotation and its typology. Accordingly, relying on Abharī’s conception of the nature of denotation, his analysis of its typology, and an evaluation of his view as to the inefficiency of denotation of implication, the authors provide a critical account of this philosopher’s view while employing certain elements, such as the speaker’s will in transferring meaning, the role of interlocutor’s understanding in the correct construction of meaning, and thought structure. Logicians believe that denotation depends on context and have considered contextual awareness as a necessary condition. The authors have also explained that, in addition to this criterion, some other elements in the realm of meaning, the speaker, and the interlocutor affect the creation of denotation. Through moving the concept of denotation beyond the domain of single words and its vast application to sentences and, particularly, propositions and also following a non-quiddative approach in dealing with the specification of the concepts of the field of denotation, Abharī connects semiotics with semantic discussions. Here, Abharī’s views regarding semiotics have been presented in comparison to other thinkers. Some of his endeavors in this realm include redefining denotation based on the meaning-interlocutor model, providing two different interpretations of the place of context in the typology of denotation, criticizing Fakhr al-Dīn’s analysis of similar denotations and their distinction from the other two types of denotation through adopting a dependent or independent subject and considering evaluation-centeredness, criticizing the analysis of Khunaji and Kashi of the metaphorical nature of inclusion and implication denotation, criticizing Suhrawardī’s and Rāzī’s description of implicative-corresponding relations, and criticizing the inefficient approaches to implication denotation, and designing an image based on misunderstanding based on the plurality of mental transfers. Manuscript Document