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        1 - Etymology of Fourth Dimension in the View of Muslim Mutikallimūn (Abū Isḥāq Naẓẓām, Ibn al-Rāwandī, Abū Sahl ‘Abbād, and Muḥaqiq Ṭūsī)
        Mahdi Assadi
        The fourth dimension is one of the problems that have left the borderlines of philosophy behind and are now among the main concerns of physicists. However, the accurate background and history of this view are still clouded. The roots of the fourth dimension can be trace More
        The fourth dimension is one of the problems that have left the borderlines of philosophy behind and are now among the main concerns of physicists. However, the accurate background and history of this view are still clouded. The roots of the fourth dimension can be traced back to the works and ideas of some thinkers of the Middle Ages, such as Anselm, in Western philosophy, although there is no explicit reference in this regard in their works. The roots of the fourth dimension have also been found in the works of Mullā Ṣadrā in Iranian philosophical society. This paper aims to demonstrate that there are some clearly explicit statements about the fourth dimension in the works of Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī in the Islamic world before Mullā Ṣadrā. The author has found no direct statement in this respect in first-hand sources; however, some ideas have been attributed in second-hand sources to some of the mutikallimūn of the Islamic world, including Naẓẓām, Ibn Rāwandī, and ‘Abbād, that focus on four-dimensionalism. Following a historical approach, this paper has compiled the views of these thinkers and analyzed them based on a rational approach. Manuscript profile