• Home
  • Akbar  Faydei
    • List of Articles Akbar  Faydei

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Philosophical Psychology in Islamic Kalam in the Sixth and Seventh Hijri Centuries
        Akbar  Faydei Sohrab  Haqiqat
        The philosophical psychology of Muslim thinkers in the sixth and seventh centuries (AH) was influenced by Ibn Sina’s discussions of the soul. However, the difference was that Ibn Sina tried to demonstrate only the immateriality of the rational faculty. Nevertheless, aft Full Text
        The philosophical psychology of Muslim thinkers in the sixth and seventh centuries (AH) was influenced by Ibn Sina’s discussions of the soul. However, the difference was that Ibn Sina tried to demonstrate only the immateriality of the rational faculty. Nevertheless, after him, some thinkers focused on interpreting the immateriality of all levels of perception in the soul. Following Ibn Sina, Nasir al-Din Tusi considered the rational soul to be a substance separate from matter as well as a simple and spiritually originated entity which, in the course of its development enjoys an administrative relation to the body. Based on the belief in the concomitance of immateriality and immortality, Tusi demonstrated the immateriality of all the perceptive levels and subsistence of rational souls by employing solid intellectual arguments. He also believes that the soul and body affect each other, and neither the corruption of the body nor any other factor can cause the annihilation of the simple and immaterial rational soul. However, Fakhr al-Din Razi has a dual theory of the nature of the soul and its relationship with the body. Sometimes, like Islamic philosophers, he views the soul as an immaterial substance drawing on Ibn Sina’s arguments in order to demonstrate its immateriality and, sometimes, like most Islamic mutakallimun, he introduces the soul as a subtle entity which dominates the body in the light of the power of Almighty God. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Role of Muslim Peripatetics in the Development of Aristotelian Logic
        Akbar  Faydei
        Before Aristotle, some of the topics in the science of logic had appeared in a scattered form in the words of the great Zeno, Plato, Socrates, and some Sophists. However, Aristotle was the first scholar to compile theoretical logic and classify its topics into related p Full Text
        Before Aristotle, some of the topics in the science of logic had appeared in a scattered form in the words of the great Zeno, Plato, Socrates, and some Sophists. However, Aristotle was the first scholar to compile theoretical logic and classify its topics into related parts and chapters in a book. Based on his own epistemological principles, he propounded predicative logic. From among his most important logical ideas, we can refer to predicative reasoning and categorical syllogism. After Aristotle, another school of logic entitled Stoic-Megarian was developed in Greece by other logicians such as Philo, Diodorus, Megari, Zeno, and Chrysippus. Unlike Aristotelian logic, this new school dealt with conditional logic. Megarians’ detection of compound conditional syllogisms and Stoics’ detection of other compound syllogisms, such as conjunctive and disjunctive propositions and the forms of connected and disconnected syllogisms, created conditional logic. Therefore, the logical legacy of Greece consists of two Aristotelian and Stoic-Megarian Schools. Muslim Peripatetics, who were well-aware of Greeks’ logical legacy, diverted from the method of Greek philosophers in devising the science of logic. In addition to reducing some logical problems, such as the problem of categories, the differentiated discussion of poetry, rhetoric, and dialectics, as well as some changes in other areas such as conversion, and descriptive definitions, they played an influential role in the development and advancement of the science of logic. In this paper, some of these changes have been discussed. Manuscript Document