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        1 - Functions of Reason in the Field of Religion in the Views of Qadi Abd al-Jabbar Mu‘tazili and Abubakr Baqillani
        Farzaneh  Mustafapour
        The present paper investigates the functions of reason in the realm of religion in the kalami thoughts of Qadi Abd al-Jabbar Mu‘tazili and Qadi Abubakr Baqillani following a descriptive-analytic method. In doing so, it compares and examines the rational approaches of bo Full Text
        The present paper investigates the functions of reason in the realm of religion in the kalami thoughts of Qadi Abd al-Jabbar Mu‘tazili and Qadi Abubakr Baqillani following a descriptive-analytic method. In doing so, it compares and examines the rational approaches of both thinkers to the interpretation of the Qur’an and applications of reason in inferring religious principles. The results of this study indicate that what distinguishes these two great figures from each other more than anything else is their approach to reason and the quality of its relationship with revelation. Qadi Abd al-Jabbar believes in the priority of reason and rational arguments and always resorts to reason as a tool for gaining knowledge in his kalami perception of religion. Sometimes, in cases where rational judgment is in contrast to the exoteric meaning of Qur’anic verses and traditions, he even gives the priority to reason with no reservation and firmly interprets or negates the validity of propositions which stand against reason. However, preferring tradition to the intellect and granting priority to the descended texts, including the Qur’an, traditions, and those on the acts of the Prophet’s companions are the most important epistemological principles of Baqillani. However, his philosophical system, in fact, marked the beginning of Ash‘arite kalam’s treatment of rational premises. The Ash‘arite considered rational principles to depend on beliefs and, thus, believed that it was first necessary to have faith in their content. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Function of the Intellect in the Realms of Religion and Ethics in Qadi Abduljabbar Mu‘tazili
        Farzaneh  Mustafapour Hossein  Hooshanghi Seyyed Abbas  Zahabi
        This paper examines the functions of theoretical and practical intellects in the fields of religion and ethics in the view of Qadi Abduljabbar Mu‘tazili. Based on what appears from his views regarding the explanation of ethical propositions, we can refer to three episte Full Text
        This paper examines the functions of theoretical and practical intellects in the fields of religion and ethics in the view of Qadi Abduljabbar Mu‘tazili. Based on what appears from his views regarding the explanation of ethical propositions, we can refer to three epistemological, motivational, and ontological approaches. The writers have investigated three categories in the field of epistemology: knowledge of fundamental values, goodness and ugliness of acts, and unveiling of ethical principles based on basic propositions; two functions of the intellect in the field of motivation: the origin of human ethical implications and the basis of Man’s responsibility, and the human voluntary and rational choice in the field of ontology. He maintains that the intellect plays an essential and fundamental role in each of them, and that moral principles have been explained based on rational reasoning. Regarding the functions of the intellect in the domain of understanding religion, the writers initially deal with God’s Oneness and Justice in the light of rational reason and, then, relying on religious principles and through granting a central role to the intellect, they interpret some Qur’anic verses. Finally, they try to interpret some cases which are in contrast to the intellect with reference to certain examples. Manuscript Document