A Different Version of Immortality in Plato’s SymposiumResearch Areas : Geneology of philosophical schools and Ideas
Keywords: Immortality soul remembrance and memory forms virtue Plato ,
A well-established and common view in Plato’s philosophy is that the immortality of the soul after death is a persistent and fixed type of immortality. The human soul, or at least an important part of it, which is the same intellect, is a substance of a different type and from a different world, which remains alive after death. However, Plato’s Symposium portrays a perspective of immortality that, through creating a phenomenological image of the soul and attributing the tendency for immortality to Eros, considers the soul to be vulnerable to change. Hence, he maintains that the immortality of the soul is different from the common sense interpretation of this concept. The present paper argues that, in order to understand and interpret Plato’s intended meaning of immortality in Symposium, it is necessary to pay careful attention to some of his remarks in this regard, as well as to his discussions of birth and education, and remembrance and reminiscence. In this way, one could infer a dynamic and creative model of immortality which neither necessitates the after-death subsistence of the identical soul, which enjoys the passive and stagnant introversion of the Ideas, nor presupposes the existence of a soul of another type. The present paper, while referring to and describing Plato’s four-fold model of immortality, explains their important, similar, and, in some cases, different characteristics. It also demonstrates that this immortality is in permanent unity with the creation of certain words regarding true virtue or its images and life in the memory of future generations and indirectly affects the world affairs.
خامنهای، سید محمد (1387) روح و نفس، تهران: بنیاد حکمت اسلامی صدرا.
محبوبی آرانی، حمیدرضا (1397) «نيكبختي و اندرنگری صورت زیبا در محاورة میهمانی (همگسارش) افلاطون»، تاریخ فلسفه، سال نهم، شمارة دوم، پیاپی 34.
Cooksey, T. L. (2010). Plato’s Symposium. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Destrée, P. (2017). How Does Contemplation Make You Happy? An Ethical Reading of Diotima’s Speech. in Plato’s Symposium, A Critical Guide. eds. P. Destrée and Z. Giannopoulou, Cambridge University Press.
Fox, R. L. (1973). Alexander the Great. London.
Guthrie, W. K. C. (1986). A History of Greek Thought. Vol. IV. Cambridge University Press.
Hackforth, R. (1950). Immortality in Plato’s Symposium. Classical Review. No.64. pp.43–45.
Hooper, A. (2013). The memory of virtue: Achieving immortality in Plato's symposium. in Classical Quarterly. Vol.63. No.2.
Hooper, A. (2015). The Memory of Virtue: Immortality and Kleos in Plato’s Symposium. PhD Dissertation. The University of Sydney. Department of Philosophy.
Irwin, T. (1977). Plato’s Moral Theory. Oxford.
Luce, J. V. (1952). Immortality in Plato’s Symposium: A Reply. Classical Review. No.66. pp.131–41.
Kraut, R. (1973). Egoism, Love and Political Office in Plato. Philosophical Review. No.82. pp.346–349.
Nightingale, A. (2017). The Mortal Soul and Immortal Happiness. in Plato’s Symposium, A Critical Guide. eds. P. Destrée and Z. Giannopoulou. Cambridge University Press.
Plato (1997). Complete Works. ed. J. M. Cooper. Hackett Publishing.
Plato (2008). The Symposium. eds. M. C. Howatson and F. C. C. Sheffield. trans. by M. C. Howatson. Cambridge University Press.
Price, A. W. (1989). Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle. Oxford.
Jaeger, W. (1945). Paideia, The Ideals of Greek Culture. trans. by Gilbert Highet. Oxford University Press.
Sheffield, F. C. C. (2006). Plato’s Symposium: The Ethics of Desire. Oxford University Press.